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The capsule – a newly discovered organic shell structure in the Late Cretaceous belemnite Gonioteuthis from north-west Germany.
Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
2011 (engelsk)Inngår i: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Palaeontology, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 397-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

An unusual, bilaterally symmetrical black structure that embraces the protoconch and the phragmocone and is overlain by a rostrum has been studied in the Santonian– early Campanian (Late Cretaceous) belemnite genus Gonioteuthis from Braunschweig, north-west Germany. The structure is here named the capsule. Energy dispersed spectrometry analyses of the capsule show a co-occurrence of sulphur with zinc, barium, iron, lead and titanium, suggesting their chemical association. The capsule was originally made of organic material that was diagenetically transformed into sulphur-containing matter. The material of the capsule differs from the chitin of the connecting rings in the same specimens. The capsule has a complex morphology: (1) ventral and dorsal wing-like projections that are repeated in a breviconic shape of the alveolus, (2) an aperture with lateral lobes and ventral and dorsal sinuses copied by growth lines and (3) a ventral ridge that fits with the position of the fissure in the rostrum. The alveolus in the most anterior part of the rostrum is crater-like. It is lined with thin, pyritized, laminated material, which appears to be the outermost portion of the capsule attached to the inner surface of the rostrum. A flare along the periphery of the alveolus marks a region where the rostrum was not yet formed, suggesting that the capsule extended beyond the rostrum. Modification of the skeleton in Gonioteuthis comprises a set of supposedly interrelated changes, such as innovation of the organic capsule, partial elimination of the calcareous rostrum and a diminishing of the pro-ostracum, resulting in the appearance of a new type of pro-ostracum that became narrower and shorter and lost the spatula-like shape and gently curved growth lines of a median field that are typical for the majority of Jurassic and Cretaceous belemnites. The partial replacement of a calcareous rostrum with an organic capsule in belemnitellids may have been an adaptive reaction to an unfavourable environmental condition, perhaps related to difficulties in calcium carbonate secretion during the Late Cretaceous that forced animals to reduce carbonate production and to secret an organic capsule around the protoconch and the phragmocone.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2011. Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 397-415
Emneord [en]
Mollusc, Hard histology, Soft histology, Mesozoic, Evolution
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Ekosystem och arthistoria
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-607DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.01027.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-607DiVA, id: diva2:765260
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2007-4484The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesTilgjengelig fra: 2014-11-21 Laget: 2014-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert

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