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Fish tissue conversion factors for mercury, cadmium, lead and nine per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances for use within contaminant monitoring
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8490-8600
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8468-0696
Environment and Health Administration, City of Stockholm, Sweden.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7053-9667
2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, p. 159740-159740, article id 159740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fish tissue levels have to comply with environmental quality standards (EQSs) within the European Water Framework Directive. However, within monitoring, contaminants are sometimes measured in a different tissue than the tissue for which the environmental (whole fish) or human (fillet (equivalent to muscle tissue)) quality standard is set. Tissue conversion factors (k), describing the relationship between concentrations in different tissues, can be used to obtain a quality standard for the appropriate tissue. Several different approaches have been suggested for the calculation of k. For monitoring purposes, we propose the use of a simple, easy reproducible approach that assumes proportionality between two tissue, or tissue and whole fish, concentrations. This allows for an easy comparison of studies and adoption of ks into independent monitoring programs. Here, we determined ks for three metals (mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd)) and nine per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) across six marine and freshwater fish species from Northern European lakes and the Baltic Sea. We found significant species differences for Hg for kmuscle/whole fish, for Cd and Pb for kliver/whole fish and for Cd for kliver/muscle. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA), we found a chain length dependence with lowest kliver/muscle at low and high chain lengths (C8, C13) and highest for median chain lengths (C9-C12). Further, there were differences between fish species with kliver/muscle for PFOS almost doubling from eelpout (10.3) to herring (19.2) and increasing up to a factor 4 between eelpout and herring for other PFASs. FOSA had two distinctive groups, herring with a kliver/muscle of 48.7 and a second group with ks of 2.3 to 5.9 for all other fish species. Our results suggest that differences in the tissue somatic index, and contaminant uptake, tissue transfer and metabolism result in the need for species-specific ks within monitoring

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. Vol. 858, p. 159740-159740, article id 159740
Keywords [en]
tissue, conversion factors, fish, mercury, PFAS, PFOS, cadmium, lead
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Man and the environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-4830DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159740OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-4830DiVA, id: diva2:1710819
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection AgencyAvailable from: 2022-11-14 Created: 2022-11-14 Last updated: 2022-11-14Bibliographically approved

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