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An updated infrageneric classification of the oaks: review of previous taxonomic schemes and synthesis of evolutionary patterns
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2017 (English)In: Oaks Physiological Ecology. Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus / [ed] Gil-Peregrin, E., Peguero-Pina, J.J., Sancho-Knapik, D., Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, 1, 13-38 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, we review major classification schemes proposed for oaksby John Claudius Loudon, Anders Sandøe Ørsted, William Trelease, Otto Karl AntonSchwarz, Aimée Antoinette Camus, Yuri Leonárdovich Menitsky, and Kevin C.Nixon. Classifications of oaks (Fig. 2.1) have thus far been based entirely on morphologicalcharacters. They differed profoundly from each other because each taxonomistgave a different weight to distinguishing characters; often characters that arehomoplastic in oaks. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics our view hasconsiderably changed. One of the most profound changes has been the realisation thatthe traditional split between the East Asian subtropical to tropical subgenusCyclobalanopsis and the subgenus Quercus that includes all other oaks is artificial.The traditional concept has been replaced by that of two major clades, each comprisingthree infrageneric groups: a Palearctic-Indomalayan clade including GroupIlex (Ilex oaks), Group Cerris (Cerris oaks) and Group Cyclobalanopsis (cycle-cupoaks), and a predominantly Nearctic clade including Group Protobalanus (intermediateor golden cup oaks), Group Lobatae (red oaks) and Group Quercus (white oaks, with most species in America and some 30 species in Eurasia). In addition, recentphylogenetic studies identified two distinct clades within a wider group of white oaks: the Virentes oaks of North America and a clade with two disjunct endemic species inwestern Eurasia and western North America, Quercus pontica and Q. sadleriana. Themain morphological feature characterising these phylogenetic lineages is pollenmorphology, a character overlooked in traditional classifications. This realisation,along with the now available (molecular-)phylogenetic framework, opens new avenuesfor biogeographic, ecological and evolutionary studies and a re-appraisal of thefossil record. We provide an overview about recent advances in these fields andoutline how the results of these studies contribute to the establishment of a unifyingsystematic scheme of oaks. Ultimately, we propose an updated classification ofQuercus recognising two subgenera with eight sections. This classification considersmorphological traits, molecular-phylogenetic relationships, and the evolutionaryhistory of one of the most important temperate woody plant genera.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, 1. 13-38 p.
Series
Tree Physiology, 7
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Diversity of life
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-2734OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-2734DiVA: diva2:1172949
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-03968
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-11

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