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Sedimentary mechanisms of a modern banded iron formation on MIlos Island, Greece
Department of Geological Sciences, 10691, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK.
Department of Economic Geology and Geochemistry, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zographou, 15784, Athens, Greece.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5192-7039
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4548-1560
Department of Geological Sciences, 10691, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 9, p. 573-598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An early Quaternary shallow submarine hydrothermal iron formation (IF) in the Cape Vani sedimentary basin (CVSB) on Milos Island, Greece, displays banded rhythmicity similar to Precambrian banded iron formation (BIF). Field-wide stratigraphic and biogeochemical reconstructions show two temporal and spatially isolated iron deposits in the CVSB with distinct sedimentological character. Petrographic screening suggests the presence of a photoferrotrophic-like microfossil-rich IF (MFIF), accumulated on a basement consisting of andesites in a ∼ 150m wide basin in the SW margin of the basin. A banded nonfossiliferous IF (NFIF) sits on top of the Mn-rich sandstones at the transition to the renowned Mn-rich formation, capping the NFIF unit. Geochemical data relate the origin of the NFIF to periodic submarine volcanism and water column oxidation of released Fe(II) in conditions predominated by anoxia, similar to the MFIF. Raman spectroscopy pairs hematite-rich grains in the NFIF with relics of a carbonaceous material carrying an average δ13Corg signature of ∼ −25‰. A similar δ13Corg signature in the MFIF could not be directly coupled to hematite by mineralogy. The NFIF, which postdates large-scale Mn deposition in the CVSB, is composed primarily of amorphous Si (opal-SiO2 ⋅ nH2O) while crystalline quartz (SiO2) predominates the MFIF. An intricate interaction between tectonic processes, changing redox, biological activity, and abiotic Si precipitation are proposed to have collectively formed the unmetamorphosed BIF-type deposits in a shallow submarine volcanic center. Despite the differences in Precambrian ocean–atmosphere chemistry and the present geologic time, these formation mechanisms coincide with those believed to have formed Algoma-type BIFs proximal to active seafloor volcanic centers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2018. Vol. 9, p. 573-598
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
The changing Earth
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-2877DOI: 10.5194/se-9-573-2018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-2877DiVA, id: diva2:1256198
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Swedish Research Council, 2017-04129Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttps://doi.org/10.5194/se-9-573-2018

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