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Middle Miocene climate of southwestern Anatolia from multiple botanical proxies
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. (Paleobiologi)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4241-9075
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Botany, Istanbul University Cerrahpa¸sa, 34473 Bahçeköy, Istanbul, Turkey.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9742-1319
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9535-1206
2018 (English)In: Climate of the Past Discussions, ISSN 1814-9340, E-ISSN 1814-9359, Vol. 14, p. 1427-1440Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The middle Miocene climate transition (MMCT) was a phase of global cooling possibly linked to decreasing levels of atmospheric CO2. The MMCT coincided with the European  Mammal Faunal Zone MN6. From this time, important biogeographic links between Anatolia  and eastern Africa include the hominid Kenyapithecus. Vertebrate fossils suggested mixed  open and forested landscapes under (sub)tropical seasonal climates for Anatolia. Here, we  infer the palaeoclimate during the MMCT and the succeeding cooling phase for a middle Miocene (14.8–13.2 Ma) of an intramontane basin in southwestern Anatolia using three2palaeobotanical proxies: (i) Köppen signatures based on the nearest-living-relative principle. (ii) Leaf physiognomy analysed with the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP). (iii) Genus-level biogeographic affinities of fossil floras with modern regions. The three proxies reject tropical climates for the MMCT of southwestern Anatolia and instead infer warm temperate C climates. Köppen signatures reject summer-dry Cs climates but cannot discriminate between fully humid Cf and winter-dry Cw; CLAMP reconstructs Cf climate based on the low X3.wet/X3.dry ratio. Additionally, we assess whether the palaeobotanical record does resolve transitions from the warm Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO, 16.8–14.7 Ma) into the MMCT (14.7–13.9 Ma), and a more pronounced cooling at 13.9–13.8 Ma, as reconstructed from benthic stable isotope data. For southwestern Anatolia, we find that arboreal taxa predominate in MCO floras (MN5), whereas in MMCT floras (MN6) abundances of arboreal and non-arboreal elements strongly fluctuate indicating higher structural complexity of the vegetation. Our data show a distinct pollen zone between MN6 and MN7+8 dominated by herbaceous taxa. The boundary MN6 and MN7+8, roughly corresponding to a first abrupt cooling at 13.9–13.8 Ma, possibly might be associated with this herb-rich pollen zone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vienna: European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2018. Vol. 14, p. 1427-1440
Keywords [en]
Miocene, Climate proxies
National Category
Natural Sciences Climate Research Botany Geology Physical Geography
Research subject
The changing Earth
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-2837DOI: 10.5194/cp-14-1427-2018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-2837DiVA, id: diva2:1257614
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-03986Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-22 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttps://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2018-76

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Bouchal, Johannes M.Güner, Tuncay H.Denk, Thomas
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