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Miocene palynofloras of the Tınaz lignite mine, Muğla, southwest Anatolia: taxonomy, palaeoecology and local vegetation change
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. (Paleobiologi)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4241-9075
Natural History Museum, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey.
University of Vienna, Department of Palaeontology, Vienna, Austria.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0220-6921
University of Vienna, Department of Palaeontology, Vienna, Austria.
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2017 (English)In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 243, p. 1-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Middle Miocene deposits exposed at the Tınaz lignite mine, Yatağan Basin, Muğla, southwestern Turkey, were palynologically investigated. The Tınaz lignite mine section belongs to the Eskihisar Formation. The lignite seam at the base of the section represents the uppermost part of the Turgut Member. Above, c. 65 m of clayey siltstone, limestone, and marls represent the Sekköy Member. Nine spores, zygospores and cysts of fungi and algae, seven moss and fern spores, 12 gymnosperm pollen types, and more than 80 angiosperm pollen taxa were recovered from the Tınaz lignite mine section. Three pollen zones were recognized, of which pollen zone 1 corresponds to the formation of the main lignite seam and reflects the change from a fluviatile to a lacustrine depositional setting. Pollen zones 2 and 3 and a transitional zone 2-3 reflect different stages of lake development and a shift in local vegetation from forested (pollen zones 1 and 2) to more open (transitional zone 2-3, zone 3). Interpreting changes in regional vegetation from pollen zones 1 to 3 is not straightforward as changes in the pollen spectra may be affected by changing contributions of airborne and water transported pollen and spores to the observed palynoassemblages. Age inference for the Tınaz lignite mine section has been complicated by the absence of datable ash layers, associated mammal faunas, or marine sediments. However, pollen zone 3 shares key features with the pollen spectrum recovered from the nearby mammal site Yenieskihisar (upper part of Sekköy Member) for which an age of 12.5-11.2 Ma has been suggested, and to the youngest pollen zone recovered from the mammal locality Çatakbağyaka, 10 km south of Tınaz, that probably represents mammal zone MN7/8 instead of MN5 or MN6 as previously suggested. In contrast, pollen zones 1 and 2 are fairly similar to the basal parts of the Çatakbağyaka pollen flora (uppermost parts of Turgut Member, basalmost parts of Sekköy Member). Furthermore, new mammal data from the Yatağan basin suggest that the layers below pollen zone 1 are MN4/5, and that carnivores cooccuring with pollen zone 1 in the main lignite seam of Eskihisar probably belong to MN6. Hence, a Langhian to Serravallian age can be inferred for pollen zones 1 and 2 of the Tınaz lignite mine section, and a late Serravallian age for pollen zone 3. Palaeobiogeographic relationships of the palynofloras are generally northern hemispheric, with many north temperate tree taxa showing modern disjunctions East Asia- NorthAmerica (Tsuga, Carya), East Asia- western Eurasia (Zelkova), East Asia- North America- western Eurasia (Liquidambar), or restricted to East Asia (Cathaya, Eucommia) or North America (Decodon). A few taxa belong to extinct lineages that have complex biogeographic patterns (Engelhardioideae, Cedrelospermum). The presence of Picrasma (Simaroubaceae) in the lower lignite layers of pollen zone 1 is remarkable, as the botanical affinities with the enigmatic flower Chaneya present in early to middle Miocene deposits of Turkey and Central Europe have recently been shown to be with Picrasma

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 243, p. 1-36
Keywords [en]
Palynology, Palaeoenvironment, Vegetation development, Basin correlation, Plant fossils, Mammal fossils
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
The changing Earth
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-2311DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.02.010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-2311DiVA, id: diva2:1257633
Projects
2012-4378
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-4378
Note

FG received funding from the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF; project number P24427-B25). A Riksmusei Vänner travel grant is acknowledged.

Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-22 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.02.010

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