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Phylogeny of Chaetonotidae and other Paucitubulatina (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotida) and the colonization of aquatic ecosystems
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
2013 (English)In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 42, no 1, 88-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chaetonotidae is the largest family within Gastrotricha with almost 400 nominal species represented in both freshwater and marine habitats. The group is probably non-monophyletic and suffers from a troubled taxonomy. Current classification is to a great extent based on shape and distribution of cuticular structures, characters that are highly variable. We present the most densely sampled molecular study so far where 17 of the 31 genera belonging to Chaetonotida are represented. Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches based on 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA are used to reconstruct relationships within Chaetonotidae. The use of cuticular structures for supra-specific classification within the group is evaluated and the question of dispersal between marine and freshwater habitats is addressed. Moreover, the subgeneric classification of Chaetonotus is tested in a phylogenetic context. Our results show high support for a clade containing Dasydytidae nested within Chaetonotidae. Within this clade, only three genera are monophyletic following current classification. Genera containing both marine and freshwater species never form monophyletic clades and group with other species according to habitat. Marine members of Aspidiophorus appear to be the sister group of all other Chaetonotidae and Dasydytidae, indicating a marine origin of the clade. Halichaetonotus and marine Heterolepidoderma form a monophyletic group in a sister group relationship to freshwater species, pointing towards a secondary invasion of marine environments of these taxa. Our study highlights the problems of current classification based on cuticular structures, characters that show homoplasy for deeper relationships.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 42, no 1, 88-105 p.
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Diversity of life
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-332DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00558.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-332DiVA: diva2:719997
Funder
The Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (ArtDatabanken, SLU)
Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2014-06-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gastrotricha of Sweden - Biodiversity and Phylogeny
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gastrotricha of Sweden - Biodiversity and Phylogeny
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Gastrotricha are small aquatic invertebrates with approximately 770 known species. The group has a cosmopolitan distribution and is currently classified into two orders, Chaetonotida and Macrodasyida. The gastrotrich fauna of Sweden is poorly known: a couple of years ago only 29 species had been reported. In Paper I, III, and IV, 5 freshwater species new to science are described. In total 56 species have been recorded for the first time in Sweden during the course of this thesis. Common species with a cosmopolitan distribution, e. g. Chaetonotus hystrix and Lepidodermella squamata, as well as rarer species, e. g. Haltidytes crassus, Ichthydium diacanthum and Stylochaeta scirtetica, are reported. In Paper II molecular data is used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the morphologically very diverse marine family Thaumastodermatidae (Macrodasyida). Results give high support for monophyly of Thaumastodermatidae and also the subfamilies Diplodasyinae and Thaumastodermatinae. In Paper III the hypothesis of cryptic speciation is tested in widely distributed freshwater gastrotrichs. Heterolepidoderma ocellatum f. sphagnophilum is raised to species under the name H. acidophilum n. sp. The results indicate that L. squamata may be a complex of at least two species. In Paper III and V the phylogeny of Chaetonotidae (Chaetonotida), the largest family within Gastrotricha, is inferred. The group suffers from a troubled taxonomy and is hypothesized to be nonmonophyletic. Results show that members of Dasydytidae are nested within the group. Since only 3 of 17 sampled genera are monophyletic, it is hypothesized that the cuticular structures used in current classification do not reflect phylogenetic relationships. The phylogenetic hypothesis generated in Paper V indicates a marine origin of the predominantly limnic Chaetonotidae with a subsequent secondary invasion to marine environments of some taxa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: US-AB, 2011. 34 p.
Keyword
taxonomy, systematics, phylogeny, new species, cryptic species, Chaetonotidae, Dasydytidae, Thaumastodermatidae
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Diversity of life
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-351 (URN)978-91-7447-397-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-16, Lilla Hörsalen, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Gastrotricha of Sweden - Biodiversity and Phylogeny
Funder
The Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (ArtDatabanken, SLU)
Available from: 2014-06-11 Created: 2014-06-11 Last updated: 2014-06-11Bibliographically approved

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Kånneby, TobiasJondelius, Ulf

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