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Sexuality: Size and sex differences. Chapt. 3-3.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany. (Reproductive Biology of Bryophytes)
2014 (English)In: Bryophyte Ecology, Vol. 1. Physiological Ecology, Houghton, MI 49931: Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Males and females can differ in non-sexual ways, including size, biomass, branching, maturation rate, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate. Large female and small male plants (dwarf males) are known among bryophytes, but not the converse, except in non-sporophytic Diphyscium. Most dwarf males develop on the leaves or tomentum of females of the species. Dwarf males are often missed in surveys and this omission can cause misleading results in sex ratio determination. Spores of some species develop dwarf males on females of the species but normal males on other substrates. Dwarfism can increase the success of fertilization while decreasing the competition for resources with the females.

Bryophytes are isosporous, but some species exhibit anisospory; some exhibit false anisospory due to abortion of spores. The anisosporous condition seems to present a potential advantage for fertilization when it is correlated with the presence of dwarf males. On the other hand, this strategy reduces the dispersal of the larger female spores compared to that of the smaller male spores. This is less of a problem if nearly all females get fertilized. Many anisosporous and false anisosporous conditions occur in species with no dwarf males (Mogensen 1981). This causes us to seek other explanations for their presence, including abortion related to water, space, and nutrient limitations within the capsule. The abortions can provide room for remaining developing spores while maintaining protection and resources for them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Houghton, MI 49931: Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists , 2014.
Series
Bryophyte Ecology e-book
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Diversity of life
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-347OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-347DiVA: diva2:721852
Available from: 2014-06-05 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2015-01-15Bibliographically approved

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