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Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2268-5824
Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Universita` degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.
Divisio´n Paleontologı´a de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.
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2015 (English)In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 20150431, 1-5 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms’ (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society, 2015. Vol. 11, no 20150431, 1-5 p.
Keyword [en]
Annelida, Clitellata, fossilization, spermatozoa, taphonomy, Antarctica
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Diversity of life; The changing Earth
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-1350DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2015.0431OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-1350DiVA: diva2:862082
Projects
Exceptional permineralized biotas - windows into the evolution and functional diversity of terrestrial ecosystems through time
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2014-5234Swedish Research Council, 2014-5232Swedish Research Council, 2009-4447
Note

Electronic supplementary material is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0431 or via http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org.

Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-12-01Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0431

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