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Behaviour of geochronometers and timing of metamorphic reactions during deformation at lower crustal conditions: phase equilibrium modelling and U–Pb dating of zircon, monazite, rutile and titanite from the Kalak Nappe Complex, northern Norway.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, ISSN 0263-4929, E-ISSN 1525-1314, Vol. 33, 513-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the behaviour of the geochronometers zircon, monazite, rutile and titanite in polyphase lower crustal rocks of the Kalak Nappe Complex, northern Norway. A pressure–temperature–time–deformation path is constructed by combining microstructural observations with P–T conditions derived from phase equilibrium modelling and U–Pb dating. The following tectonometamorphic evolution is deduced: A subvertical S1 fabric formed at ~730–775 °C and ~6.3–9.8 kbar, above the wet solidus in the sillimanite and kyanite stability fields. The event is dated at 702 ± 5 Ma by high-U zircon in a leucosome. Monazite grains that grew in the S1 fabric show surprisingly little variation in chemical composition compared to a large spread in (concordant) U–Pb dates from c. 800 to 600 Ma. This age spread could either represent protracted growth of monazite during high-grade metamorphism, or represent partially reset ages due to high-T diffusion. Both cases imply that elevated temperatures of >600 °C persisted for over c. 200 Ma, indicating relatively static conditions at lower crustal levels for most of the Neoproterozoic. The S1 fabric was overprinted by a subhorizontal S2 fabric, which formed at ~600–660 °C and ~10–12 kbar. Rutile that originally grew during the S1-forming event lost its Zr-in-rutile and U–Pb signatures during the S2-forming event. It records Zr-in-rutile temperatures of 550–660 °C and Caledonian ages of 440–420 Ma. Titanite grew at the expense of rutile at slightly lower temperatures of ~550 °C during ongoing S2 deformation; U–Pb ages of c. 440–430 Ma date its crystallization, giving a minimum estimate for the age of Caledonian metamorphism and the duration of Caledonian shearing. This study shows that (i) monazite can have a large spread in U–Pb dates despite a homogeneous composition; (ii) rutile may lose its Zr-in-rutile and U–Pb signature during an amphibolite facies overprint; and (iii) titanite may record crystallization ages during retrograde shearing. Therefore, in order to correctly interpret U–Pb ages from different geochronometers in a polyphase deformation and reaction history, they are ideally combined with microstructural observations and phase equilibrium modelling to derive a complete P–T–t–d path.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 33, 513-534 p.
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
The changing Earth
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-1505DOI: 10.1111/jmg.12131OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-1505DiVA: diva2:877155
Available from: 2015-12-05 Created: 2015-12-05 Last updated: 2015-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Whitehouse, Martin J.
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