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  • 1.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Joshua, Snape
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Direct Pb Isotopic Analysis of a Nuclear Fallout Debris Particle from the Trinity Nuclear Test2017In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 89, p. 1887-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pb isotope composition of a nuclear fallout debris particle has been directly measured in post-detonation materials produced during the Trinity nuclear test by a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) scanning ion image technique (SII). This technique permits the visual assessment of the spatial distribution of Pb and can be used to obtain full Pb isotope compositions in user-defined regions in a 70 μm × 70 μm analytical window. In conjunction with backscattered electron (BSE) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the same particle, the Pb measured in this fallout particle cannot be from a major phase in the precursor arkosic sand. Similarly, the Pb isotope composition of the particle is resolvable from the surrounding glass at the 2σ uncertainty level (where σ represents the standard deviation). The Pb isotope composition measured in the particle here is in excellent agreement with that inferred from measurements of green and red trinitite, suggesting that these types of particles are responsible for the Pb isotope compositions measured in both trinitite glasses. 

  • 2.
    Björling, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Stockholms universitet.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Leonova, Ekaterina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet.
    SrAlSiH: A polyanionic semiconductor hydride2005In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 44, p. 7269-7273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bosi, Ferdinando
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bond valence at mixed occupancy sites. I. Regularpolyhedra2014In: ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA. SECTION B, STRUCTURAL SCIENCE, CRYSTAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS, ISSN 2052-5206, Vol. 70, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bosi, Ferdinando
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Mean bond length variation in crystal structures: a bond valence approach2014In: ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA. SECTION B, STRUCTURAL SCIENCE, CRYSTAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS, ISSN 2052-5206, Vol. 70, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Chenery, S.
    et al.
    Williams, C. T.
    Elliott, T. A.
    Forey, P. L.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Determination of rare earth elements in biological and mineral apatite by EPMA and LAMP-ICP-MS1996In: Mikrochimica Acta, ISSN 0026-3672, E-ISSN 1436-5073, Vol. 13, no suppl., p. 259-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  • 7.
    Esmaeilzadeh, Saeid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Valldor, Martin
    Technische Universität Braunschweig.
    Crystal growth, magnetic and optical properties of the ternary nitride MnSiN22006In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 18, p. 2713-2718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Winnberg, Ulrika
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk -- a global review.2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and "dioxins" are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

  • 9. Gebbink, Wouter A
    et al.
    Bignert, Anders
    Berger, Urs
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish.

  • 10.
    Lelis, Martynas
    et al.
    Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas.
    Milcius, Darius
    Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas.
    Wirth, Emmanuel
    Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kadir, Karim
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ruan, Juanfang
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sato, Toyoto
    Tokohu University.
    Yokosawa, Tadahiro
    National Institute of Material Sciences, Tsukuba.
    Noréus, Dag
    Stockholms universitet.
    A mechanically switchable metal–insulator transition in Mg2NiH4 discovers a strain sensitive, nanoscale modulated resistivity connected to a stacking fault2010In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 496, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Meng, Xiang-Zhou
    et al.
    Venkatesan, Arjun K
    Ni, Yi-Lin
    Steele, Joshua C
    Wu, Ling-Ling
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Halden, Rolf U
    Organic Contaminants in Chinese Sewage Sludge: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature of the Past 30 Years.2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches.

  • 12. Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Helander, Björn
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs.

  • 13. Norrgran, Jessica
    et al.
    Jones, Bernt
    Bignert, Anders
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Bergman, Åke
    Higher PBDE serum concentrations may be associated with feline hyperthyroidism in Swedish cats.2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum from 82 individual cats was analyzed for decabromobiphenyl (BB-209), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), and 2,4,6-TBP in order to study differences in body burden between healthy and sick cats diagnosed with Feline Hyperthyroidism (FH). Within the study group, 60 of these cats had a euthyroid (n = 23) or hyperthyroid (n = 37) status, all of which were used in the comparison. This study shows that hyperthyroid compared to euthyroid cats have higher serum concentrations for some of the investigated PBDEs (BDE-99, BDE-153, and BDE-183) and CB-153 on a fat weight basis. Further, it is intriguing, and beyond explanation, why the flame retardant BB-209 (discontinued in 2000) is present in all of the cat serum samples in concentrations similar to BDE-209. Median BDE-47/-99 ratios are 0.47 and 0.32 for healthy and euthyroid cats, respectively, which differs significantly from Swedes, where the ratio is 3.5. Another important finding is the occurrence of very low levels or the absence of hydroxylated PBDE metabolites in the cats. In addition, the major OH-PBDE, 6-OH-BDE47, is likely of natural origin, probably ingested via cat food. The statistics indicate an association between elevated PBDE concentrations in the cats and FH.

  • 14. Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Yin, Ge
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Wideqvist, Ulla
    Bignert, Anders
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    Extensive organohalogen contamination in wildlife from a site in the Yangtze River Delta.2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental and human health concerns for organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) extend beyond the 23 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention. The current, intense industrial production and use of chemicals in China and their bioaccumulation makes Chinese wildlife highly suitable for the assessment of legacy, novel and emerging environmental pollutants. In the present study, six species of amphibians, fish and birds were sampled from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were screened for OHCs. Some extensive contamination was found, both regarding number and concentrations of the analytes, among the species assessed. High concentrations of chlorinated paraffins were found in the snake, Short-tailed mamushi (range of 200-340 μg g(-)(1)lw), Peregrine falcon (8-59 μg g(-1)lw) and Asiatic toad (97 μg g(-)(1)lw). Novel contaminants and patterns were observed; octaCBs to decaCB made up 20% of the total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content in the samples and new OHCs, substituted with 5-8 chlorines, were found but are not yet structurally confirmed. In addition, Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) and numerous other OHCs (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexbromocyclododecane (HBCDD), chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan and Mirex) were found in all species analyzed. These data show extensive chemical contamination of wildlife in the YRD with a suite of OHCs with both known and unknown toxicities, calling for further in-depth studies.

  • 15. Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Yin, Ge
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Qiu, Yanling
    Bignert, Anders
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    A novel pollution pattern: Highly chlorinated biphenyls retained in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from the Yangtze River Delta.2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from two drinking water sources, e.g. Tianmu lake and East Tai lake in Yangtze River Delta, China. A novel PCBs contamination pattern was detected, including 11% and 6.9% highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with eight to ten chlorines) in relation to total PCB concentrations in the Black-crowned night heron and Whiskered tern eggs, respectively. The predominating OCPs detected in the present study were 4,4'-DDE, with concentration range 280-650 ng g(-1) lw in Black-crowned night heron and 240-480 ng g(-1) lw in Whiskered tern, followed by β-HCH and Mirex. 6-MeO-BDE-90 and 6-MeO-BDE-99 are the two predominant congeners of MeO-PBDEs whereas 6-OH-BDE-47 contributes mostly to the OH-PBDEs in both species. Contamination level was considered as median or low level compared global data.

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