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  • 1.
    Belkin, Igor
    et al.
    Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, China.
    Andersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Forskningsavdelningen centralt. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Langhof, Jörgen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    On the discovery of ferromanganese nodules in the world ocean2021Inngår i: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For a century, the discovery of ferromanganese (Fe–Mn) nodules in the World Ocean was universally and indisputably credited to the Challenger circum-global oceanographic expedition of 1872–1876, during which the first manganese nodules and crusts were dredged up from the sea floor in February–March 1873. A century later, a counterclaim appeared in the literature, crediting Nordenskiöld’s expedition on Sofia in 1868, five years before the Challenger findings, for the discovery of Fe–Mn nodules in the ocean. This counterclaim, widely accepted without scrutiny, was based on the Gustaf Lindström (1884) chemical analysis of a single bottom sediment sample among 14 samples from two Arctic expeditions led by Nordenskiöld:Sofia 1868 and Vega 1878–1880. The Lindström (1884) report published as an eight-page brochure in Swedish remained almost unknown to the research community until now. A close examination of this report and other historical evidence revealed that the counterclaim of discovery by the Sofia 1868 expedition to the Kara Sea is invalid based on three notable facts: (1) Sofia never sailed in the Kara Sea; (2) the single bottom sediment sample with an extremely high content of Mn (24%), was collected in the Kara Sea during the Vega Expedition across the Northeast Passage; (3) the Vega sampling was in 1878, not in 1868. Meanwhile, five and a half years prior to the Vega sampling, the first Fe–Mn nodules and crusts were dredged up from the sea floor on 18 February and March 7, 1873 during the Challenger expedition. These findings have been promptly reported and published in May 1873. Thus, the credit for the discovery of ferromanganese nodules in the World Ocean firmly belongs to the Challenger expedition.

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  • 2.
    Bridgestock, Luke
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Nathan, Joseph
    University of Oxford.
    Hsieh, Yu-Te
    University of Oxford.
    Holdship, Phil
    University of Oxford.
    Porcelli, Don
    University of Oxford.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Forskningsavdelningen centralt. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Henderson, Gideon M.
    University of Oxford.
    Assessing the utility of barium isotopes to trace Eurasian riverine freshwater inputs to the Arctic Ocean2021Inngår i: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 236, s. 104029-104029, artikkel-id 104029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracing riverine freshwater transport pathways within the Arctic Ocean is key to understanding changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater inventories. Dissolved Ba concentrations have been used in this capacity but are compromised by non-conservative processes. To assess the potential for Ba isotopes to provide insights into the impact of such processes on Arctic Ocean dissolved Ba inventories, Ba concentration and isotope data for surface seawater samples from the Siberian Shelf and Bering Sea/Strait are presented. These samples capture the mixing of riverine freshwater discharged by the rivers Yenisey, Lena and Ob, with Atlantic and Pacific derived seawater, which are traced by relationships between salinity, Ba concentration and δ138/134Ba. The δ138/134Ba of net river inputs, following modification by estuarine processes, are constrained to be 0.31 ± 0.04‰, 0.20 ± 0.06‰ and 0.23 ± 0.04‰, for the rivers Yenisey, Lena and Ob respectively. These values are used to estimate an average δ138/134Ba for Eurasian river freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean of 0.23 ± 0.04‰. The Ba concentration and δ138/134Ba of Lena River freshwater transported across the Laptev Sea are modified by non-conservative processes. These non-conservative processes do not result in distinctive modification of dissolved Ba concentration-δ138/134Ba mixing relationships between Eurasian riverine freshwater and Arctic seawater, which unfortunately limits the potential of Ba isotopes to improve tracing riverine freshwater sources in the central Arctic Ocean basins using dissolved Ba inventories. More generally the results of this study help advance understanding of Ba isotope cycling in the environment and their development as an emerging tracer of marine processes.

  • 3.
    Bridgestock, Luke
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Nathan, Joseph
    University of Oxford.
    Hsieh, Yu-Te
    University of Oxford.
    Holdship, Phil
    University of Oxford.
    Porcelli, Don
    University of Oxford.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Forskningsavdelningen centralt.
    Henderson, Gideon M.
    University of Oxford.
    Assessing the utility of barium isotopes to trace Eurasian riverine freshwater inputs to the Arctic Ocean2021Inngår i: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 236, s. 104029-104029, artikkel-id 104029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracing riverine freshwater transport pathways within the Arctic Ocean is key to understanding changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater inventories. Dissolved Ba concentrations have been used in this capacity but are compromised by non-conservative processes. To assess the potential for Ba isotopes to provide insights into the impact of such processes on Arctic Ocean dissolved Ba inventories, Ba concentration and isotope data for surface seawater samples from the Siberian Shelf and Bering Sea/Strait are presented. These samples capture the mixing of riverine freshwater discharged by the rivers Yenisey, Lena and Ob, with Atlantic and Pacific derived seawater, which are traced by relationships between salinity, Ba concentration and δ138/134Ba. The δ138/134Ba of net river inputs, following modification by estuarine processes, are constrained to be 0.31 ± 0.04‰, 0.20 ± 0.06‰ and 0.23 ± 0.04‰, for the rivers Yenisey, Lena and Ob respectively. These values are used to estimate an average δ138/134Ba for Eurasian river freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean of 0.23 ± 0.04‰. The Ba concentration and δ138/134Ba of Lena River freshwater transported across the Laptev Sea are modified by non-conservative processes. These non-conservative processes do not result in distinctive modification of dissolved Ba concentration-δ138/134Ba mixing relationships between Eurasian riverine freshwater and Arctic seawater, which unfortunately limits the potential of Ba isotopes to improve tracing riverine freshwater sources in the central Arctic Ocean basins using dissolved Ba inventories. More generally the results of this study help advance understanding of Ba isotope cycling in the environment and their development as an emerging tracer of marine processes.

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  • 4.
    Charette, M
    et al.
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Kipp, L
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Jensen, L.T.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
    Dabrowski, J.S.
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Whitmore, L.M.
    University of Southern Mississippi.
    Fitzsimmons, J.N.
    Texas A&M University.
    Williford, T
    Texas A&M University.
    Ulfsbo, A
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Jones, E
    Fram Centre Norway.
    Bundy, R.M.
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Vivanacos, S.M.
    Columbia University New York.
    Pahnke, K
    University of Oldenburg.
    John, S.G.
    University of Southern California.
    Xiang, Y
    University of California Santa Cruz.
    Hatta, M
    University of Hawaii.
    Petrova, M.V.
    Aix Marseille University.
    Heimburger-Boavida, L.-E.
    Aix Marseille University.
    Bauch, D
    GEOMAR Kiel.
    Newton, R
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
    Pasqualini, A
    Columbia University.
    Agather, A.M.
    Wright State University.
    Amon, R.M.W
    Texas A&M University.
    Anderson, R.F.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
    Andersson, P.S.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Benner, R
    University of South Carolina.
    Bowman, K.L.
    University of California Santa Cruz.
    Edwards, R.L.
    University of Minnesota.
    Gdaniec, Sandra
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.
    Utrecht University.
    González, A.G.
    University of Brest.
    Granskog, M
    Norwegian Polar Institute.
    Haley, B
    Oregon State University.
    Hammerschmidt, C.R.
    Wright State University.
    Hansell, D
    University of Miami.
    Henderson, P.B.
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Kadko, D.C.
    Florida International University.
    Kaiser, K
    Texas A&M University.
    Laan, P
    Utrecht University.
    Lam, P
    University of California Santa Cruz.
    Lamborg, C.H.
    University of California Santa Cruz.
    Levier, M
    Université Paris.Saclay.
    Li, X
    University of Minnesota.
    Margolin, A.R.
    University of Miami.
    Measures, C
    University of Hawaii.
    Middag, R
    Utrecht University.
    Millero, F
    Univerity of Miami.
    Moore, W
    University of South Carolina.
    Paffrath, R
    University of Oldenburg.
    Planquette, H
    Univerity of Brest.
    Rabe, B
    Alfred Wegener Institute Bremerhaven.
    Reader, H
    Technical University Denmark.
    Rember, R
    University of Alaska.
    Rijkenberg, M.J.A
    University of Utrecht.
    Roy-Barman, M
    Université Paris-Saclay.
    Rutgers van der Loeff, M
    Alfred Wgener Institute Bremerhaven.
    Saito, M
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Scahuer, U
    Alfred Wegener Institut Bremerhaven.
    Schlosser, P
    Columbia University.
    Sherrell, R.M.
    Rutgers Universty.
    Shiller, A
    University of Southern Mississippi.
    Slagter, H
    University of Minnesota.
    Sonke, J.E.
    Université Paul-Sabatier Tolouse III.
    Stedmon, C
    Technical University Denmark.
    Woosley, R.J.
    University of Miami.
    Valk, O
    Alfred Wegener Institut Bremerhaven.
    van Ooijen, J.
    Utrech University.
    Zhang, R
    University of Southern California.
    The Transpolar Drift as a Source of Riverine and Shelf‐Derived Trace Elements to the Central Arctic Ocean2020Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 125, s. 1-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major surface circulation feature of the Arctic Ocean is the Transpolar Drift (TPD), a current that transports river‐influenced shelf water from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas toward the center of the basin and Fram Strait. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program included a high‐resolution pan‐Arctic survey of carbon, nutrients, and a suite of trace elements and isotopes (TEIs). The cruises bisected the TPD at two locations in the central basin, which were defined by maxima in meteoric water and dissolved organic carbon concentrations that spanned 600 km horizontally and ~25–50 m vertically. Dissolved TEIs such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Hg, Nd, and Th, which are generally particle‐reactive but can be complexed by organic matter, were observed at concentrations much higher than expected for the openocean setting. Other trace element concentrations such as Al, V, Ga, and Pb were lower than expected due to scavenging over the productive East Siberian and Laptev shelf seas. Using a combination of radionuclide tracers and ice drift modeling, the transport rate for the core of the TPD was estimated at 0.9 ± 0.4 Sv(106m3 s−1). This rate was used to derive the mass flux for TEIs that were enriched in the TPD, revealing the importance of lateral transport in supplying materials beneath the ice to the central Arctic Ocean and potentially to the North Atlantic Ocean via Fram Strait. Continued intensification of the Arctic hydrologicc ycle and permafrost degradation will likely lead to an increase in the flux of TEIs into the Arctic Ocean.

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  • 5. Conley, Daniel
    et al.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Fontorbe, Guillaume
    Clymans, Wim
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Hendry, Katherine
    Marron, Alan
    De La Rocha, Christina
    Biosilicification drives a decline of dissolved Si in the oceans through geologic time2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosilicification has driven variation in the global Si cycle over geologic time. The evolution of different eukaryotic lineages that convert dissolved Si (DSi) into mineralized structures (higher plants, siliceous sponges, radiolarians and diatoms) has driven a secular decrease in DSi in the global ocean leading to the low DSi concentrations seen today. Recent studies, however, have questioned the timing previously proposed for the DSi decreases and the concentration changes through deep time, which would have major implications for the cycling of carbon and other key nutrients in the ocean. Here, we combine relevant genomic data with geological data and present new hypotheses regarding the impact of the evolution of biosilicifying organisms on the DSi inventory of the oceans throughout deep time. Although there is no fossil evidence for true silica biomineralization until the late Precambrian, the timing of the evolution of silica transporter genes suggests that bacterial silicon-related metabolism has been present in the oceans since the Archean with eukaryotic silicon metabolism already occurring in the Neoproterozoic. We hypothesize that biological processes have influenced oceanic DSi concentrations since the beginning of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  • 6. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Ancient Microbial Activity in Deep Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones within the Forsmark Target Area for Geological Nuclear Waste Disposal, Sweden2018Inngår i: Geosciences, Vol. 8, nr 211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies reveal that organisms from all three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and even Eukarya—can thrive under energy-poor, dark, and anoxic conditions at large depths in the fractured crystalline continental crust. There is a need for an increased understanding of the processes and lifeforms in this vast realm, for example, regarding the spatiotemporal extent and variability of the different processes in the crust. Here, we present a study that set out to detect signs of ancient microbial life in the Forsmark area—the target area for deep geological nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. Stable isotope compositions were determined with high spatial resolution analyses within mineral coatings, and mineralized remains of putative microorganisms were studied in several deep water-conducting fracture zones (down to 663 m depth), from which hydrochemical and gas data exist. Large isotopic variabilities of δ13Ccalcite (−36.2 to +20.2‰ V-PDB) and δ34Spyrite (−11.7 to +37.8‰ V-CDT) disclose discrete periods of methanogenesis, and potentially, anaerobic oxidation of methane and related microbial sulfate reduction at several depth intervals. Dominant calcite–water disequilibrium of δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr precludes abundant recent precipitation. Instead, the mineral coatings largely reflect an ancient archive of episodic microbial processes in the fracture system, which, according to our microscale Rb–Sr dating of co-genetic adularia and calcite, date back to the mid-Paleozoic. Potential Quaternary precipitation exists mainly at ~400 m depth in one of the boreholes, where mineral–water compositions corresponded.

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  • 7. Fontorbe, Guillaume
    et al.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    De La Rocha, Christina
    Hendry, Kate
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Conley, Daniel
    Enrichment of dissolved silica in the deep equatorial Pacific during the Eocene-Oligocene2017Inngår i: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 32, s. 848-863Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon isotope ratios (expressed as δ30Si) in marine microfossils can provide insights into silica cycling over geologic time. Here we used δ30Si of sponge spicules and radiolarian tests from the Paleogene Equatorial Transect (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199) spanning the Eocene and Oligocene (~50–23 Ma) to reconstruct dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations in deep waters and to examine upper ocean δ30Si. The δ30Si values range from 3.16 to +0.18‰ and from 0.07 to +1.42‰ for the sponge and radiolarian records, respectively. Both records show a transition toward lower δ30Si values around 37 Ma. The shift in radiolarian δ30Si is interpreted as a consequence of changes in the δ30Si of source DSi to the region. The decrease in sponge δ30Si is interpreted as a transition from low DSi concentrations to higher DSi concentrations, most likely related to the shift toward a solely Southern Ocean source of deep water in the Pacific during the Paleogene that has been suggested by results from paleoceanographic tracers such as neodymium and carbon isotopes. Sponge δ30Si provides relatively direct information about the nutrient content of deep water and is a useful complement to other tracers of deep water circulation in the oceans of the past. 

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  • 8.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Revisiting the dissolution of biogenic Si in marine sediments: a key term in the ocean Si budget2017Inngår i: Acta Geochimica, ISSN 2096-0956, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 429-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the ~240 × 1012 mol year−1 of biogenic silica (bSi) produced by diatoms and other silicifying organisms, only roughly 3%–4% escapes dissolution to be permanently buried. At the global scale, how, where and why bSi is preserved in sediment is not well understood. To help address this, I compile 6245 porewater dissolved Si concentrations from 453 sediment cores, to derive the concentration gradient at the sediment–water interface and thus diffusive fluxes out of the sediment. These range from <0.002 to 3.4 mol m−2 year−1, and are independent of temperature, depth and latitude. When classified by sediment lithology, predominantly siliceous sediments unsurprisingly have higher mean diffusive fluxes than predominantly calcareous or clay-rich sediment. Combined with the areal extent of these lithologies, the ‘best-guess’ global sedimentary bSi recycling flux is 69 × 1012 mol year−1.

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  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry Stockholm University.
    Gelting, Johan
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Roos, Per
    Department of Nuclear Technologies, Technical University of Denmark.
    An assessment of upper ocean carbon and nitrogen export fluxes on the boreal continental shelf: A 3-year study in the open Baltic Sea comparing sediment traps, 234Th proxy, nutrient, and oxygen budgets2013Inngår i: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, E-ISSN 1541-5856, ISSN 1541-5856, Vol. 11, nr 9, s. 495-510, artikkel-id DOI: 10.4319/lom.2013.11.495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 10.
    Rosén, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Per
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Alling, Vanja
    Norwegian Environment Agency.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geological Sciences Stockholm University.
    Björk, Göran
    Department of Oceanography Göteborg University.
    Semiletov, Igor
    International Arctic Research Center University of Alaska.
    Porcelli, Don
    Department of Earth Sciences Oxford University.
    Ice export from the Laptev and East Siberian Sea derived from δ18O values2015Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, ISSN 2169-9275, Vol. 120, nr 9, s. 5997-6007, artikkel-id 10.1002/2015JC010866Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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  • 11. Sahlström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Palinkaš, Sabina Strmić
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Zheng, Xin-Yuan
    Iron isotopes constrain sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes at the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) active sulfide mound2022Inngår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikkel-id 193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-seafloor hydrothermal processes along volcanically active plate boundaries are integral to the formation of seafloor massive sulfide deposits and to oceanic iron cycling, yet the nature of their relationship is poorly understood. Here we apply iron isotope analysis to sulfide minerals from the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) mound and underlying stockwork, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge, to trace hydrothermal processes inside an actively-forming sulfide deposit in a sediment-free mid-ocean ridge setting. We show that data for recently formed chalcopyrite imply hydrothermal fluid–mound interactions cause small negative shifts (<−0.1‰) to the δ56Fe signature of dissolved iron released from TAG into the North Atlantic Ocean. Texturally distinct types of pyrite, in turn, preserve a δ56Fe range from −1.27 to +0.56‰ that reflects contrasting precipitation mechanisms (hydrothermal fluid–seawater mixing vs. conductive cooling) and variable degrees of progressive hydrothermal maturation during the >20 kyr evolution of the TAG complex. The identified processes may explain iron isotope variations found in fossil onshore sulfide deposits.

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  • 12. Sutton, Jill
    et al.
    André, Luc
    Cardinal, Damien
    Conley, Daniel
    de Souza, Gregory
    Dean, Jonathan
    Dodd, Justin
    Ehlert, Claudia
    Ellwood, Michael
    Frings, Patrick J
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Grasse, Patricia
    Hendry, Katharine
    Leng, Melanie
    Michalopoulos, Panagiotis
    Panizzo, Virginia
    Swann, George
    A Review of the Stable Isotope Bio-geochemistry of the Global Silicon Cycle and Its Associated Trace Elements2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Earth Science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 5, nr 112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is an important nutrient in the ocean. The global Si cycle plays a critical role in regulating primary productivity and carbon cycling on the continents and in the oceans. Development of the analytical tools used to study the sources, sinks, and fluxes of the global Si cycle (e.g., elemental and stable isotope ratio data for Ge, Si, Zn, etc.) have recently led to major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that constrain the cycling of Si in the modern environment and in the past. Here, we provide background on the geochemical tools that are available for studying the Si cycle and highlight our current understanding of the marine, freshwater and terrestrial systems. We place emphasis on the geochemistry (e.g., Al/Si, Ge/Si, Zn/Si, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, δ30Si) of dissolved and biogenic Si, present case studies, such as the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis, and discuss challenges associated with the development of these environmental proxies for the global Si cycle. We also discuss how each system within the global Si cycle might change over time (i.e., sources, sinks, and processes) and the potential technical and conceptual limitations that need to be considered for future studies.

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