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  • 1. Agustí, J.
    et al.
    Werdelin, LarsSwedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Influence of climate on faunal evolution in the Quaternary of Europe1995Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2. Andersson, Ki
    et al.
    Norman, David
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Sabertoothed carnivores and the killing of large prey2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10, p. e24971-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ~10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs.

  • 3. Andersson, Ki
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Carnivora from the Late Miocene of Lantian, China2005In: Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol. 43, p. 256-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments of the Bahe and Lantian formations, Lantian area, Shaanxi Province, China, have produced a large number of mammalian fossils. This Late Miocene sequence provides evidence for a period of major changes in the physical environment of the region. The carnivoran fossils are described and analyzed herein. The following species are present: lctitherium viverrinum, Hyaenictitherium cf . H. wongii and Adcrocuta eximia ( Hyaenidae) , cf. Metailurus major and cf. Metailurus parvulus ( Felidae) . Although a difference in the composition of the carnivoran fauna is noted towards the boundary between the Bahe Formation (lower) and Lantian Formation (upper), the cause of this is yet to be determined.

  • 4. Angerbjorn, Anders
    et al.
    Eide, Nina E.
    Dalen, Love
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    Hellstrom, Peter
    Ims, Rolf A.
    Killengreen, Siw
    Landa, Arild
    Meijer, Tomas
    Mela, Matti
    Niemimaa, Jukka
    Noren, Karin
    Tannerfeldt, Magnus
    Yoccoz, Nigel G.
    Henttonen, Heikki
    Carnivore conservation in practice: replicated management actions on a large spatial scale2013In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Atherton, Sarah
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Microstomum (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomorpha, Microstomidae) from the Swedish west coast: two new species and a population description2018In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, no 398, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Barani-Beiranvand, Hossein
    et al.
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Biol, Fac Sci, Khorasan E Razavi, Mashhad, Iran..
    Aliabadian, Mansour
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Biol, Fac Sci, Khorasan E Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.;Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Inst Appl Zool, RDZI, Mashhad, Iran..
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Darvish, Jamshid
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Biol, Fac Sci, Khorasan E Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.;Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Inst Appl Zool, Res Dept Rodentol, Mashhad, Iran..
    Szekely, Tamas
    Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Bath, Avon, England..
    van Dijk, Rene E.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Phylogeny of penduline tits inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite genotyping2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 932-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penduline tits (Remiz spp.) are renowned for their diverse mating and parenting strategies, and are a well-studied system by behavioural ecologists. However, the phylogenetic relationships and species delimitations within this genus are poorly understood. Here, we investigate phylogenetic relationships within the genus Remiz by examining the genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene of 64 individuals and in ten autosomal microsatellite markers from 44 individuals. The taxon sampling includes individuals from all currently recognized species (R. pendulinus, R. macronyx, R. coronatus, and R. consobrinus) and most subspecies in the Palearctic region. We showed that R. coronatus and R. consobrinus are genetically well differentiated and constitute independent evolutionary lineages, separated from each other and from R. pendulinus/macronyx. However, we found no evidence for significant differentiation among R. pendulinus/macronyx individuals in mtDNA haplotypes and only marginal differences between R. pendulinus and R. macronyx in microsatellite markers. Hence, based on present data our recommendation is to treat R. pendulinus and R. macronyx as conspecific and R. coronatus and R. consobrinus as separate species.

  • 7.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Collins, Desmond
    Chancelloriids of the Cambrian Burgess Shale2015In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cactus-like chancelloriids from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale are revised on the basis of Walcott’s (1920) original collections and new material containing several hundred specimens collected by Royal Ontario Museum field expeditions from 1975 to 2000. Walcott’s interpretation of chancelloriids as sponges was based on a misinterpretation of the dermal coelosclerites as embedded sponge-type spicules, an interpretation that further led to the lumping of three distinct taxa into one species, Chancelloria eros Walcott, 1920. The other two taxa are herein separated from C. eros and described as Allonnia tintinopsis n.sp. and Archiasterella coriacea n.sp., all belonging to the Family Chancelloriidae Walcott, 1920. Chancelloriids were sedentary animals, anchored to shells or lumps of debris in the muddy bottom, or to sponges, or to other chancelloriids. They had a radially symmetrical body and an apical orifice surrounded by a palisade of modified sclerites. Well-preserved integuments in Al. tintinopsis and Ar. coriacea do not show any ostium-like openings. Neither is there any evidence for internal organs, such as a gut. Partly narrowed specimens suggest that the body periodically contracted from the attached end to expel waste material from the body cavity. Chancelloriids were close in organization to cnidarians but shared the character of coelosclerites with the bilaterian halkieriids and siphogonuchitids. The taxon Coeloscleritophora is most likely paraphyletic.

  • 8.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Cunningham, John A.
    Yin, Chongyu
    Donoghue, Philip C.J.
    University of Bristol.
    A merciful death for the “earliest bilaterian,” Vernanimalcula.2012In: Evolution and Development, ISSN 1520-541x, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 421-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossils described as Vernanimalcula guizhouena, from the nearly 600 million-year-old Doushantuo Formation in South China, have been interpreted as the remains of bilaterian animals. As such they would represent the oldest putative record of bilaterian animals in Earth history, and they have been invoked in debate over this formative episode of early animal evolution. However, this interpretation is fallacious. We review the evidential basis of the biological interpretation of Vernanimalcula, concluding that the structures key to animal identity are effects of mineralization that do not represent biological tissues, and, furthermore, that it is not possible to derive its anatomical reconstruction on the basis of the available evidence. There is no evidential basis for interpreting Vernanimalcula as an animal, let alone a bilaterian. The conclusions of evolutionary studies that have relied upon the bilaterian interpretation of Vernanimalcula must be called into question.

  • 9.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Lindberg, Gunvi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Vårdal, hege
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Apelqvist, Niklas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Brodin, Yngve
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Arbetet med donationer av insektsamlingar vid Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet2014In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 134, p. 153-162Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the work with donated insect collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural

    History (NRM) in Stockholm, Sweden. The museum receives donations yearly from

    amateur entomologists, and they are an important contribution to the enrichment of the

    collections. For the collector it is satisfying that a public institution takes on the long term

    responsibility of safeguarding the scientific value in a collection, curating and making it

    available for study. Significant donations in the last years include that of Lars Huggert

    (Hymenoptera, Coleoptera), Hans Bartsch (Diptera) and Anders N. Nilsson (aquatic Coleoptera)

    to name a few. The curatorial and digitizing workload at the Entomology collection

    are unfortunately not matched by staff funding, and as at other European museums

    volunteer work constitute vital and invaluable help. We acknowledge especially some of

    the volunteer work in the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera collections. Recently we have engaged

    with amateur entomologists by organizing taxon-specific workshops at the museum

    which has stimulated exchange and collaboration. The Hymenoptera-day was visited by 30

    participants, and the Diptera-meeting by 49. As an example of what happens with a donation

    once it reaches the museum, we describe the work with a recent Coleoptera collection

    donation by Jan Olsson, Vallentuna. A few highlights from the unidentified material,

    including the Archostematan beetle Priacma serrata (Cupedidae) and the false jewelbeetle

    Schizopus laetus (Schizopodidae), are presented as they were new to the NRM collections.

    We also bring attention to two new websites: www.naturarv.se is the webportal presenting

    digitized material in Swedish natural history collections. Both metadata on specimens and

    photos are made searchable here. We also launch a new webpage at www.nrm.se/insektsdonationer

    where we write about new donations to the Entomology collections, with Jan

    Olsson’s Coleoptera collection first out.

  • 10. Bernor, R. L.
    et al.
    Fahlbusch, V.
    Andrews, P.
    De Bruijn, H.
    Fortelius, M.
    Rögl, F.
    Steininger, F. F.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The evolution of western Eurasian Neogene faunas: a chronologic, systematic, biogeographic, and paleoenvironmental synthesis1996In: The Evolution of Western Eurasian Miocene Mammal Faunas / [ed] Bernor, R.L., Fahlbusch, V. & Mittmann, H.-W., New York: Columbia University Press, 1996, p. 449-469Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11. Bernor, R. L.
    et al.
    Kordos, L.
    Rook, L.
    Agustí, J. C.
    Andrews, P.
    Armour-Chelu, M.
    Begun, D. R.
    Cameron, D. W.
    Daxner-Höck, G.
    Bonis, L. de
    Ekart, D.
    Fessaha, N.
    Fortelius, M.
    Franzen, J.-L.
    Mihály Gasparik, M.
    Gentry, A. G.
    Heissig, K.
    Hernyak, G.
    Kaiser, T.
    Koufos, G. D.
    Krolopp, E.
    Jánossy, D.
    Llenas, M.
    Meszáros, L.
    Müller, P.
    Renne, P.
    Rocék, Z.
    Sen, S.
    Scott, R.
    Szyndlar, Z.
    Theobald, G.
    Topál, G.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Ungar, P. S.
    Ziegler, R.
    Recent Advances on Multidisciplinary Research at Rudabánya, Late Miocene (MN9), Hungary: a compendium2004In: Palaeontographia Italica, Vol. 89, p. 3-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Blank, Stephan M
    et al.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Case 3538: CORYNINAE Benson, 1938 (Insecta, Hymenoptera, CIMBICIDAE): proposed emendation of spelling to CORYNIDINAE to remove homonymy with CORYNIDAE Johnston, 1836 (Cnidaria, Anthoathecata)2011In: Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 113-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Bohlin, Johan
    et al.
    Helander, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Lapplandsfödd havsörnshona häckar i Värmland2017In: Värmlandsornitologen, Vol. 44, p. 17-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Bohlin, Johan
    et al.
    Länsstyrelsen i Värmland.
    Helander, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of.
    Örnföda. Mest braxen och gädda2014In: Värmlandsornitologen, Vol. 41, p. 10-13-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Boström, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Description  of  a  new  species  of  Paracrobeles  Heyns,  1968  (Nematoda,   Rhabditida, Cephalobidae)  from  Kelso  Dunes,  Mojave  National   Preserve,  California,  USA2015In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-­9773, Vol. 117, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species of Paracrobeles, P. kelsodunensis sp. nov. is described from the Kelso Dunes area, Mojave National Preserve, southern California. Paracrobeles kelsodunensis sp. nov. is particularly characterised by a body length of 469–626 μm in females and 463–569 μm in males; lateral field with four incisures, extending almost to tail terminus; three pairs of asymmetrical lips, separated by U-shaped primary axils with two long guarding processes, each lip usually with four tines along its margin; three long labial probolae, deeply bifurcated, with slender prongs without tines; metastegostom with a strong anteriorly directed dorsal tooth; pharyngeal corpus anteriorly spindle-shaped, posteriorly elongate bulbous with dilated lumen; spermatheca 24–87 μm long; postvulval uterine sac 60–133 μm long; vulva in a sunken area; spicules 33–38 μm long; and male tail with a 5–8 μm long mucro. The generic diagnosis is emended on the basis of recently described species and a key to the species of Paracrobeles is provided.

  • 16.
    Boström, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Description of Drilocephalobus moldavicus Lisetskaya,1968 (Rhabditida: Osstellidae) from Kelso Dunes, Mojave National Reserve, California,USA2018In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4514, no 3, p. 438-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Boström, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Descriptions of species of Stegelleta Thorne, 1938 (Nematoda, Rhabditida, Cephalobidae) from California, New Zealand and Senegal, and a revision of the genus2014In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 87, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of Stegelleta are described from California, New Zealand and Senegal. An amphimictic population from California is identified as belonging to S. incisa and compared with type specimens from Utah and an amphimictic population from Italy. One population from New Zealand is close to S. incisa but considered to represent a new species, Stegelleta laterocornuta sp. nov. It is particularly characterised by a 379–512 μm long body in females and 365–476 μm in males; cuticle divided into 16 rows of blocks at midbody (excluding lateral field); lateral field with four incisures; three pairs of asymmetrical lips, U-shaped primary axils without guarding processes, each lip asymmetrically rectangular with a smooth margin, only lateral lips have slender acute tines; three labial probolae, bifurcated at half of their length; vulva without flap; spermatheca 17–31 μm long; postuterine sac 7–24 μm long; spicules 21.5–23.5 μm long. Other specimens from New Zealand are identified as belonging to S. tuarua. A parthenogenetic population from Senegal is identified as belonging to S. ophioglossa and compared with type specimens from Mongolia and records of several other populations of S. ophioglossa. The generic diagnosis is emended and a key to the species of Stegelleta is provided.

  • 18.
    Boström, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The Swedish marine nematologist Carl Allgén (1886–1960): a bio-bibliography and his collection2017In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4232, no 4, p. 451-490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Brace, Selina
    et al.
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    Dalen, Love
    Lister, Adrian M.
    Miller, Rebecca
    Otte, Marcel
    Germonpre, Mietje
    Blockley, Simon P. E.
    Stewart, John R.
    Barnes, Ian
    Serial population extinctions in a small mammal indicate Late Pleistocene ecosystem instability2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 50, p. 20532-20536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Brantberg, Krister
    et al.
    Babak, F.
    Kalthoff, Daniela
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Do extant elephants have superior canal dehiscence syndrome?2015In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Buffington, Matthew L
    et al.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Redescription of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering, 1905), new combiantion, (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) a natural enemy of the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)2016In: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, ISSN 0013-8797, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new combination of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering, 1905) is proposed, and the species is redescribed from historical specimens taken in the Neotropical Region as well as more recent specimens reared from Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, 1931 in South Korea. Drosophila suzukii, otherwise known as the spotted-wing Drosophila, is a major pest of soft fruits the world over, and the search for effective natural enemies of this fly are ongoing. Though not parasitoids of D. suzukii, we also propose the following new combinations: Dieucoila brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1909), new combination, and Dieucoila brasiliana (Weld, 1952), new combination. After summarizing all known species of Eucoilinae with the specific epithet ‘brasiliensis’, we encourage future researchers to avoid this name in order prevent nomenclatural confusion.

  • 22. Buffington, Matthew L
    et al.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The description of Garudella Buffington and Forshage, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)2014In: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, ISSN 0013-8797, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 225-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Garudella, a remarkable new genus of eucoiline wasp is described from Thailand, Laos, and the Republic of Congo. Four new species of Garudella are described as well: G. acothonaspis, G. afrotropica, G. algo, and G. alicae. Several autapomorphies distinguish this genus from other eucoiline genera: a distinctly protracted and broadened pronotal plate; a massive, posteriorly protruding prop- odeum; reduced posterior rim of metapleuron; reduced scutellar foveae and lack of lateral bar “windows”; and a generally reduced scutellar plate. In addition, the posterior of the head has a distinctly curved occipital impression, resulting in the cuticle surrounding the foramen magnum to be extruded into a neck-like process. The biology of Garudella is unknown, but based on phylogenetic inference from morphology, the presumed host could be a cyclorrhaphous Diptera in a saprophagous environment.

  • 23. Buffington, Matthew L
    et al.
    Gallardo, Fabiana E
    Reche, Vanina
    Forshage, Mattias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    A Revision of Zaeucoila Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Figitidae), Parasitoids of Agromyzidae (Diptera): New Species, Identity, Distribution, and Hosts2017In: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, ISSN 0013-8797, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 317-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eucoiline genus Zaeucoila Ashmead is revised. Following a re- evaluation combining previously published phylogenetic data and new specimens, Agrostocynips D ́ıaz is synonymized with Zaeucoila. All species included in Zaeucoila are systematically treated, and now amounts to twelve, seven of which are described as new here: Zaeucoila bitiburculata new species, Z. fidalgoii new species, Z. infuscata new species, Z. johnsonii new species, Z. lignys new species, Z. normae new species, Z. patera new species. The following new combinations are proposed and species redescribed: Zaeucoila grenadensis (Ashmead), new combination; Z. robusta (Ashmead), new combination; Z. flavipes (Ashmead), new combination. Agrostocynips diastrophi (Ashmead), Agrostocynips clavatus D ́ıaz, and Agrostocynips enneatoma (D ́ıaz) are new synonyms of Zaeucoila robusta. Zaeucoila incompleta (Kieffer), Z. triangu- lifera Kieffer, and Z. unicarinata Ashmead are redescribed. Zaeucoila is an unusual genus of Zaeucoilini in its wide distribution area: it can be found from southern Argentina well into the eastern United States and southern Canada; no other zaeucoiline genus shows such a pattern. Host records and geographic data for Zaeucoila are brought up to date, as well as a key to species. Zeucoila are primary parasitoids of Agromyzidae, including Liriomyza trifolii and other species that are notable economic pests of agriculture. Tropideucoila fulvonotata (Kieffer) is transferred to Marthiella (new combination).

  • 24. Chaline, J.
    et al.
    Werdelin, LarsSwedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Modes and Tempos of Evolution of Quaternary Mammals1993Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 25. Chang, Dan
    et al.
    Knapp, Michael
    Enk, Jacob
    Lippold, Sebastian
    Kircher, Martin
    Lister, Adrian
    MacPhee, Ross D. E.
    Widga, Christopher
    Czechowski, Paul
    Sommer, Robert
    Hodges, Emily
    Stuempel, Nikolaus
    Barnes, Ian
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Derevianko, Anatoly
    Germonpre, Mietje
    Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra
    Constantin, Silviu
    Kuznetsova, Tatyana
    Mol, Dick
    Rathgeber, Thomas
    Rosendahl, Wilfried
    Tikhonov, Alexey N.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Hannon, Greg
    Lalueza-Fox, Carles
    Joger, Ulrich
    Poinar, Hendrik
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Shapiro, Beth
    The evolutionary and phylogeographic history of woolly mammoths: a comprehensive mitogenomic analysis2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44585Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Chiarle, Alberto
    et al.
    Kronestedt, Torbjörn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Isaia, Marco
    Courtship behavior in European species of the genus Pardosa (Araneae, Lycosidae)2013In: Journal of Arachnology, ISSN 0161-8202, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 108-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Conand, Chantal
    et al.
    Mulochau, Thierry
    Stöhr, Sabine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Eléaume, Marc
    Chabanet, Pascale
    Inventory of echinoderms in the Iles Eparses (Europa, Glorieuses, Juan de Nova), Mozambique Channel, France2016In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 72, p. 53-61-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Costa Baião, Guilherme
    Revision of the West Palaearctic species of Rhoptromeris Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)2018In: Journal of Natural History, ISSN 0022-2933, E-ISSN 1464-5262, Vol. 52, p. 1201-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The West Palearctic species of Rhoptromeris are revised. A total of 11 species are recognised as valid in this region, including four newly described species: Rhoptromeris dichromata sp. nov., Rhoptromeris koponeni sp. nov., Rhoptromeris leptocornis sp. nov. and Rhoptromeris macaronesiensis sp. nov. Eucoila luteicornis Ionescu, 1959 is synonymised with Rhoptromeris heptoma (Hartig, 1840) syn. nov. A checklist of the Holarctic Rhoptromeris is presented and an identification key to the West Palearctic species is provided.

  • 29. Cote, Susanne M.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Seiffert, E. R.
    Barry, J. C.
    The enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida2007In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, p. 5510-5515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kelba quadeemae, a fossil mammal from the Early Miocene of East Africa, was originally named on the basis of three isolated upper molars. Kelba has previously been interpreted as a creodont, a pantolestid, an insectivoran, and a hemigaline viverrid. The true affinities of this taxon have remained unclear because of the limited material and its unique morphology relative to other Miocene African mammals. New material of Kelba from several East African Miocene localities, most notably a skull from the Early Miocene locality of Songhor in Western Kenya, permits analysis of the affinities of Kelba and documents the lower dentition of this taxon. Morphological comparison of this new material clearly demonstrates that Kelba is a member of the order Ptolemaiida, a poorly understood group whose fossil record was previously restricted to the Oligocene Fayum deposits of northern Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of the Ptolemaiida, including Kelba, and recovers two monophyletic clades within the order. We provide new family names for these groups and an emended diagnosis for the order. The discovery of ptolemaiidans from the Miocene of East Africa is significant because it extends the known temporal range of the order by >10 million years and the geographic range by >3,200 km. Although the higher-level affinities of the Ptolemaiida remain obscure, their unique morphology and distribution through a larger area of Africa (and exclusively Africa) lend support to the idea that Ptolemaiida may have an ancient African origin.

  • 30. Coulson, S.J.
    et al.
    Convey, P.
    Aakra, K.
    Aarvik, L.
    Ávila-Jiménez, M.L.
    Babenko, A.
    Biersma, E.M.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Brittain, J.E.
    Carlsson, A.M.
    Christoffersen, K.
    De Smet, W.H.
    Ekrem, T.
    Fjellberg, A.
    Füreder, L.
    Gustafsson, D.
    Gwiazdowicz, D.J.
    Hansen, L.O.
    Holmstrup, M.
    Hullé, M.
    Kaczmarek, L.
    Kolicka, M.
    Kuklin, V.
    Lakka, H.-K.
    Lebedeva, N.
    Makarova, O.
    Maraldo, K.
    Melekhina, E.
    Ödegaard, F.
    Pilskog, H.E.
    Simon, J.C.
    Sohlenius, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Solhöy, T.
    Söli, G.
    Stur, E.
    Tanasevitch, A.
    Taskareva, A.
    Velle, G.
    Zawierucha, K.
    Zmudczynska-Skarbek, K.
    The terrestrial and freshwater invertebrate biodiversity of the archipelagoes of the Barents Sea; Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya2014In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 68, p. 440-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Dalen, L
    et al.
    Elmhagen, B
    Angerbjorn, A
    DNA analysis on fox faeces and competition induced niche shifts2004In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 2389-2392Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Dalen, L
    et al.
    Fuglei, E
    Hersteinsson, P
    Kapel, C M O
    Roth, J D
    Samelius, G
    Tannerfeldt, M
    Angerbjorn, A
    Population history and genetic structure of a circumpolar species: the arctic fox2005In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 79-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Dalen, L
    et al.
    Gotherstrom, A
    Angerbjorn, A
    Identifying species from pieces of faeces2004In: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 109-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Dalen, L
    et al.
    Gotherstrom, A
    Tannerfeldt, M
    Angerbjorn, A
    Is the endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) population genetically isolated?2002In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 105, no 2, p. 171-178, article id PII S0006-3207(01)00180-XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Dalen, L.
    et al.
    Kvaloy, K.
    Linnell, J. D. C.
    Elmhagen, B.
    Strand, O.
    Tannerfeldt, M.
    Henttonen, H.
    Fuglei, E.
    Landa, A.
    Angerbjorn, A.
    Population structure in a critically endangered arctic fox population: does genetics matter?2006In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 2809-2819Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Dalen, Love
    et al.
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Meijer, Tomas
    Shapiro, Beth
    Recovery of DNA from Footprints in the Snow2007In: Canadian field-naturalist, ISSN 0008-3550, Vol. 121, no 3, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Dalen, Love
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Nylander, Johan A. A.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Barton, Nick
    Bochenski, Zbigniew M.
    Tomek, Teresa
    Rudling, David
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Stewart, John R.
    Identifying Bird Remains Using Ancient DNA Barcoding2017In: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 169Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Dalen, Love
    et al.
    Nystrom, Veronica
    Valdiosera, Cristina
    Germonpre, Mietje
    Sablin, Mikhail
    Turner, Elaine
    Angerbjorn, Anders
    Arsuaga, Juan Luis
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Ancient DNA reveals lack of postglacial habitat tracking in the arctic fox2007In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, no 16, p. 6726-6729Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Dalen, Love
    et al.
    Orlando, Ludovic
    Shapiro, Beth
    Brandstrom-Durling, Mikael
    Quam, Rolf
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Diez Fernandez-Lomana, J. Carlos
    Willerslev, Eske
    Luis Arsuaga, Juan
    Goetherstrom, Anders
    Partial Genetic Turnover in Neandertals: Continuity in the East and Population Replacement in the West2012In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1893-1897Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Dalerum, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Frojd, Christina
    Lecomte, Nicolas
    Lindgren, Asa
    Meijer, Tomas
    Pecnerova, Patricia
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Angerbjorn, Anders
    Spatial variation in Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) populations around the Hall Basin2017In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2113-2118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Delling, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Palm, Stefan
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    Prestegaard, Tore
    Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumnspawners confined to early postglacial arrival2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 22, p. 4346-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  • 42.
    Deprá, Gabriel C.
    et al.
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá.
    Kullander, Sven O.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Pavanelli, Carla S,
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá.
    da Graça, Wefterson J.
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá.
    A new colorful species of Geophagus (Teleostei: Cichlidae), endemic to the rio Aripuanã in the Amazon basin of Brazil2014In: Neotropical Ichthyology, ISSN 1679-6225, E-ISSN 1982-0224, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 737-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geophagus mirabilis, new species, is endemic to the rio Aripuanã drainage upstream from Dardanelos/Andorinhas falls.The new species is distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of one to five large black spots arrangedlongitudinally along the middle of the flank, in addition to the black midlateral spot that is characteristic of species in thegenus and by a pattern of iridescent spots and lines on the head in living specimens. It is further distinguished from allcongeneric species, except G. camopiensis and G. crocatus, by the presence of seven (vs. eight or more) scale rows in thecircumpeduncular series below the lateral line (7 in G. crocatus; 7-9 in G. camopiensis). Including the new species, five cichlids and 11 fish species in total are known only from the upper rio Aripuanã, and 15 fish species in total are known only from the rio Aripuanã drainage

  • 43. Doguzhaeva, Larisa
    et al.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The capsule – a newly discovered organic shell structure in the Late Cretaceous belemnite Gonioteuthis from north-west Germany.2011In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Palaeontology, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 397-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unusual, bilaterally symmetrical black structure that embraces the protoconch and the phragmocone and is overlain by a rostrum has been studied in the Santonian– early Campanian (Late Cretaceous) belemnite genus Gonioteuthis from Braunschweig, north-west Germany. The structure is here named the capsule. Energy dispersed spectrometry analyses of the capsule show a co-occurrence of sulphur with zinc, barium, iron, lead and titanium, suggesting their chemical association. The capsule was originally made of organic material that was diagenetically transformed into sulphur-containing matter. The material of the capsule differs from the chitin of the connecting rings in the same specimens. The capsule has a complex morphology: (1) ventral and dorsal wing-like projections that are repeated in a breviconic shape of the alveolus, (2) an aperture with lateral lobes and ventral and dorsal sinuses copied by growth lines and (3) a ventral ridge that fits with the position of the fissure in the rostrum. The alveolus in the most anterior part of the rostrum is crater-like. It is lined with thin, pyritized, laminated material, which appears to be the outermost portion of the capsule attached to the inner surface of the rostrum. A flare along the periphery of the alveolus marks a region where the rostrum was not yet formed, suggesting that the capsule extended beyond the rostrum. Modification of the skeleton in Gonioteuthis comprises a set of supposedly interrelated changes, such as innovation of the organic capsule, partial elimination of the calcareous rostrum and a diminishing of the pro-ostracum, resulting in the appearance of a new type of pro-ostracum that became narrower and shorter and lost the spatula-like shape and gently curved growth lines of a median field that are typical for the majority of Jurassic and Cretaceous belemnites. The partial replacement of a calcareous rostrum with an organic capsule in belemnitellids may have been an adaptive reaction to an unfavourable environmental condition, perhaps related to difficulties in calcium carbonate secretion during the Late Cretaceous that forced animals to reduce carbonate production and to secret an organic capsule around the protoconch and the phragmocone.

  • 44. Dong, Xi-ping
    et al.
    Cunningham, John A.
    University of Bristol.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Thomas, Ceri-Wyn
    Liu, Jianbo
    Stampanoni, Marco
    Donoghue, Philip C.J.
    University of Bristol.
    Embryos, polyps and medusae of the early Cambrian scyphozoan Olivooides.2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, ISSN 0962-8452, Vol. 280, no 2130071, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Cambrian organism Olivooides is known from both embryonic and post-embryonic stages and, consequently, it has the potential to yield vital insights into developmental evolution at the time that animal body plans were established. However, this potential can only be realized if the phylogenetic relationships of Olivooides can be constrained. The affinities of Olivooides have proved controversial because of the lack of knowledge of the internal anatomy and the limited range of developmental stages known. Here, we describe rare embryonic specimens in which internal anatomical features are preserved. We also present a fuller sequence of fossilized developmental stages of Olivooides, including associated specimens that we interpret as budding ephyrae ( juvenile medusae), all of which display a clear pentaradial symmetry. Within the framework of a cnidarian interpretation, the new data serve to pinpoint the phylogenetic position of Olivooides to the scyphozoan stem group. Hypotheses about scalidophoran or echinoderm affinities of Olivooides can be rejected.

  • 45.
    Dussex, Nicolas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Reduced representation sequencing detects only subtle regional structure in a heavily exploited and rapidly recolonizing marine mammal species2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next- generation reduced representation sequencing (RRS) approaches show great potential for resolving the structure of wild populations. However, the populationstructure of species that have shown rapid demographic recovery following severe population bottlenecks may still prove difficult to resolve due to high gene flow between subpopulations. Here, we tested the effectiveness of the RRS methodGenotyping-By- Sequencing (GBS) for describing the population structure of the New Zealand fur seal (NZFS, Arctocephalus forsteri), a species that was heavily ex -ploited by the 19th century commercial sealing industry and has since rapidly recolonized most of its former range from a few isolated colonies. Using 26,026 neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we assessed genetic variationwithin and between NZFS colonies. We identified low levels of population differen-tiation across the species range (<1% of variation explained by regional differences)suggesting a state of near panmixia. Nonetheless, we observed subtle populationsubstructure between West Coast and Southern East Coast colonies and a weak, but significant (p = 0.01), isolation- by- distance pattern among the eight coloniesstudied. Furthermore, our demographic reconstructions supported severe bottle -necks with potential 10-fold and 250- fold declines in response to Polynesian and European hunting, respectively. Finally, we were able to assign individuals treatedas unknowns to their regions of origin with high confidence (96%) using our SNP data. Our results indicate that while it may be difficult to detect population structure in species that have experienced rapid recovery, next-generation markers and methods are powerful tools for resolving fine-scale structure and informing conservation and management efforts. 

  • 46.
    Dussex, Nicolas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    When genetic and phenotypic data do not agree: the conservation implications of ignoring inconvenient taxonomic evidence2018In: New Zealand journal of ecology, ISSN 0110-6465, E-ISSN 1177-7788, Vol. 42, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taxonomy plays a central role in conservation programs of threatened New Zealand taxa. The role of taxonomy is especially relevant for highly vulnerable taxa, where the identification of distinct lineages is essential to define units of conservation and to appropriately allocate conservation resources. Taxonomy traditionally relied on phenotype, but in the past 30 years, the use of genetic data has become prominent in the field. While both phenotypic and genetic approaches to taxonomy have their own merit, they do not always agree. In such cases, favouring one type of data over the other when they are in conflict can have important implications for conservation management. We highlight this issue using several examples from the taxonomy of threatened New Zealand birds. We caution against biases in interpretation of each data type and advocate for a more integrative approach to taxonomy where the limitations of all approaches are carefully considered.

  • 47.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    A genomic perspective of the pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea suggests a long history of low effective population size2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 16853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the possibly extinct pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea unambiguously shows that it belongs to the pochard radiation that also includes the genera Aythya and Netta. It is the sister to all modern-day pochards and belongs to a lineage that branched off from the others more than 2.8 million years ago. Rhodonessa caryophyllacea is believed to never have been common in modern time and we show this has probably been the situation for as long as 100,000 years. Our results suggest that their effective population size varied between 15,000 and 25,000 individuals during the last 150,000 years of the Pleistocene. The reasons behind this are largely unknown as very little is known about the life-history and biology of this species. Presumably it is due to factors related to feeding or to breeding, but we may never know this for sure.

  • 48.
    Ersmark, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Orlando, Ludovic
    Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Barnes, Ian
    Barnett, Ross
    Stuart, Anthony
    Lister, Adrian
    Dalén, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Population Demography and Genetic Diversity in the Pleistocene Cave Lion2015In: Open Quaternary, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Fernholm, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Kumar, Biju
    Norén, Michael
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    First record of hagfish (Cyclostomata: Myxinidae) in Indian waters2017In: Journal of Threatened Taxa, ISSN 0974-7893, E-ISSN 0974-7907, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 10365-10368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One specimen of hag fish Eptatretus sp. was collected from the Arabian Sea, off Kerala coast of India at 500-600 m depth. The phylogenetic analysis using the sequence of mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase C (CO1) suggested the Eptatretus sp. collected from India is distinct from all other species where sequence data is available and P ID (Liberal) for Eptatretus sp. collected from India is 0.96, indicating a high probability that an unknown member of the putative species would be correctly identified as a member once more specimens are collected.

  • 50.
    Fernholm, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Norén, Michael
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Kullander, Sven O.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Quattrini, Andrea M.
    Zintzen, Vincent
    Roberts, Clive D.
    Mok, Hin-Kiu
    Kuo, Chien-Hsien
    Hagfish phylogeny and taxonomy, with description of the new genus Rubicundus (Craniata, Myxinidae)2013In: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, ISSN 0947-5745, E-ISSN 1439-0469, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 296-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent phylogenetic analysis of the Myxinidae based on the 16S rRNA gene resulted in synonymization of Paramyxine with Eptatretus. This created homonymy of Paramyxine fernholmi with Eptatretus fernholmi and Paramyxine wisneri with Eptatretus wisneri. In order to resolve this nomenclatural dilemma, we made a more extensive phylogenetic assessment of the Myxinidae and examined the nomenclature of the family. We used 75 sequences (37 of which new for this study) of a 561 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, representing 33 species, and 72 sequences (37 of which new for this study) of a 687 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, representing 23 species, to reconstruct the phylogeny of Myxinidae. The monophyly of the subfamily Myxininae, traditionally characterized by having a single pair of external gill openings, was rejected (0.50 Bayesian posterior probability) by the 16S analysis, but supported by the COI and combined COI+16S analyses (0.99 and 0.81 Bpp, respectively). The monophyly of the subfamily Eptatretinae, characterized by having several pairs of external gill openings, was not supported by the 16S analysis and rejected by the COI and combined COI+16S analysis due to the placement of Eptatretus lopheliae as the earliest branch of Myxinidae (0.71 and 0.57 Bpp, respectively). Eptatretus lopheliae and Eptatretus rubicundus formed a monophyletic group and were allocated to a new genus, Rubicundus, characterized by the presence of an elongated tubular nostril and reddish coloration. A new monotypic subfamily, Rubicundinae, was proposed for Rubicundus. The synonymy of the genera Paramyxine and Quadratus with Eptatretus was confirmed. E. fernholmi is renamed Eptatretus luzonicus. Eptatretus wisneri was renamed Eptatretus bobwisneri. Petromyzon cirrhatus Forster, 1801, Homea banksii Fleming, 1822, and Bdellostoma forsteri Müller, 1836 are synonyms, but no type specimens are known to exist. Petromyzon cirrhatus was designated as type species of Eptatretus, conserving present usage. Gastrobranchus dombeyi Shaw, 1804 has priority over other names for Chilean myxinids. Bdellostoma stoutii was designated as type species of Polistotrema Gill. The validity of the Western Atlantic Myxine limosa as distinct from the Eastern Atlantic Myxine glutinosa was confirmed.

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