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  • 1.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    The phylogenetic position of Neogosseidae (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotida) and the origin of planktonic Gastrotricha2015In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 459-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planktonic forms of Gastrotricha have been known since the 1850s, despite the fact that they are rather uncommon and difficult to collect. They are characterized by a round sack-shaped body, an absence of furcal adhesive tubes, and a different distribution of the locomotory ciliation compared to epibenthic and periphytic gastrotrichs. Today, planktonic gastrotrichs are classified into the three taxa—Dasydytidae, Neogosseidae, and Undula—but their origin and whether they share a recent common ancestor remain largely unknown. A long-held view is that planktonic taxa are derived from benthic ancestors related to Chaetonotus (Zonochaeta), but the hypothesis has never been properly tested. Here, in order to elucidate the phylogeny and origin of planktonic Gastrotricha, we provide the first molecular data on the very rare genera Kijanebalola and Neogossea, both members of the family Neogosseidae. We use Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetics to analyze sequences of 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and COI mtDNA spanning 71 taxa in total. We find high support for a common origin of planktonic gastrotrichs, with monophyly of both Dasydytidae and Neogosseidae. Planktonic forms have evolved from epibenthic or periphytic ancestors, and the closest extant clade comprises members of Chaetonotus (Zonochaeta) + Chaetonotus heteracanthus Remane, 1927. These results further imply that the motile spines and underlying muscle patterns that control them in species of Dasydytidae are adaptations to the planktonic environment that evolved independently of those in other species of Gastrotricha.

  • 2. Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    et al.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Interrelationships of Nemertodermatida2015In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogeny of Nemertodermatida, a group of microscopic marine worms, was analysed using nucleotide sequences from the ribosomal LSU and SSU genes and the protein coding Histone 3 gene. All currently known species except Ascoparia neglecta and A. secunda were included in the study in addition to several yet undescribed species. Ascopariidae and Nemertodermatidae, are retrieved as separate clades, although not in all analyses as sister groups. Non-monophyly of Nemertodermatida was rejected by the Approximately Unbiased test. Nucleotide sequences deposited in Genbank before 2013 as nemertodermatid were validated against our dataset; some of them are shown to be chimeric implying falsification of prior hypotheses about nemertodermatid phylogeny: other sequences should be assigned new names. We also show that the genus Nemertoderma needs revision. 

  • 3. Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    et al.
    Raikova, Olga
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The plastic nervous system of Nemertodermatida2015In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nemertodermatida are microscopic marine worms likely to be the sister-group to acoels, forming with them the earliest extant branch of bilaterian animals, although their phylogenetic position is debated. The nervous system of Flagellophora cf. apelti, Sterreria spp. and Nemertoderma cf. westbladi has been investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy using anti-tubulin, anti-5-HT and anti-FMRFamide antibodies. The nervous system of Flagellophora cf. apelti is composed of a large neuropile and a loose brain at the level of the statocysts with several nerve fibres surrounding them and innervating the broom organ. Sterreria spp. shows a commissural-like brain and several neurite bundles going frontad and caudad from this. At the level of the statocysts there is also a thicker aggregation of immunoreactive fibres. The nervous system of N. cf. westbladi consists of a nerve ring lying outside the body wall musculature at the level of the statocyst and a pair of ventro-lateral neurite bundles, from which extend thinner fibres innervating the ventral side of the animal. Numerous bottle-shaped glands were observed, innervated by fibres starting both from the brain and the neurite bundles. The nervous system of the nemertodermatids studied to-date displays no common pattern, instead there is considerable plasticity in the general morphology of the nervous system. 

    In addition, the musculature of Sterreria spp. has been studied by phalloidin staining. It shows diagonal muscles in the anterior quarter of the body and a simple orthogonal grid in the posterior three quarters, being simpler than that of the other nemertodermatids. High-resolution differential interference contrast microscopy permitted to better visualise some morphological characters of the species studied, such as statocysts, sperm and glands and, in combination with anti-tubulin staining, describe in detail the broom organ in Flagellophora cf. apelti. Finally, we note an apparent absence of innervation of the gut in Nemertodermatida similar to the condition in Xenoturbella.

  • 4.
    Stålstedt, Jeanette
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Wohltmann, Andreas
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Makol, Joanna
    Towards resolving the double classification in Erythraeus (Actinotrichida: Erythraeidae): matching larvae with adults using 28S sequence data and experimental rearing2016In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 761-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The taxonomy of free-living adults and heteromorphic parasitic larvae of Parasitengona mites has in the past been treated independently resulting in a double classification. Correct linkage of names still remains unknown for many species. A holistic understanding of species is imperative for understanding their role in ecosystems. This is particularly true for groups like parasitengone mites with a radically altered lifestyle during development—parasitic to predatory. Here, we infer linkages of three nominal species of Erythraeus, using matching with 28S DNA sequence data from field-collected specimens and through laboratory rearing. The general mixed Yule coalescent method (GMYC) was used to explicitly test if field-collected specimens representing heteromorphic life instars were conspecific. The field-collected larvae were allocated to adults of Erythraeus cinereus and Erythraeus regalis, respectively. Laboratory rearing of the same two species confirmed the matching done by DNA. Rearing was also successful for Erythraeus phalangoides after eggs were treated to an imitated winter diapause. This integrative taxonomic approach of molecular, morphological, and rearing data resulted in the following synonyms: E. phalangoides (De Geer, 1778) [= Erythraeus adrastus(Southcott, 1961), syn. nov.], E. cinereus (Dugès, 1834) [= Erythraeus jowitae Haitlinger, 1987, syn. nov.], and E. regalis (C.L. Koch, 1837) [= Erythraeus kuyperi (Oudemans, 1910), syn. nov., = Erythraeus gertrudae Haitlinger, 1987, syn. nov.]. The molecular evidence confirmed the separate identity of three further members of the genus. We provide redescriptions of E. phalangoidesE. cinereus, and E. regalis after modern standards, and neotypes are designated.

  • 5. Zhao, X
    et al.
    Fernández-Brime, Samantha
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Wedin, Mats
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Locke, M
    Leavitt, S.D.
    Lumbsch, H. Thorsten
    Using multi-locus sequence data for addressing species boundaries in commonly accepted lichen-forming fungal species.2017In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077, Vol. 17, p. 351-363Article in journal (Refereed)
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