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  • 1. Bergkvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Klawonn, Isabell
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Lavik, Gaute
    Brüchert, Volker
    Ploug, Helle
    Turbulence simultaneously stimulates small- and large-scale CO2 sequestration by chain-forming diatoms in the sea2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chain-forming diatoms are key CO2-fixing organisms in the ocean. Under turbulent conditions they form fast-sinking aggregates that are exported from the upper sunlit ocean to the ocean interior. A decade-old paradigm states that primary production in chain-forming diatoms is stimulated by turbulence. Yet, direct measurements of cell-specific primary production in individual field populations of chain-forming diatoms are poorly documented. Here we measured cell-specific carbon, nitrate and ammonium assimilation in two field populations of chain-forming diatoms (Skeletonema and Chaetoceros) at low-nutrient concentrations under still conditions and turbulent shear using secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with stable isotopic tracers and compared our data with those predicted by mass transfer theory. Turbulent shear significantly increases cell-specific C assimilation compared to still conditions in the cells/chains that also form fast-sinking, aggregates rich in carbon and ammonium. Thus, turbulence simultaneously stimulates small-scale biological CO2 assimilation and large-scale biogeochemical C and N cycles in the ocean.

  • 2. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Heim, Christine
    Siljeström, Sandra
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Broman, Curt
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Anaerobic consortia of fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria in deep granite fractures2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, no 55, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on Earth. Although most microbiological studies in this system have focused on prokaryotes and neglected microeukaryotes, recent discoveries have revealed existence of fossil and active fungi in marine sediments and sub-seafloor basalts, with proposed importance for the subsurface energy cycle. However, studies of fungi in deep continental crystalline rocks are surprisingly few. Consequently, the characteristics and processes of fungi and fungus-prokaryote interactions in this vast environment remain enigmatic. Here we report the first findings of partly organically preserved and partly mineralized fungi at great depth in fractured crystalline rock (-740 m). Based on environmental parameters and mineralogy the fungi are interpreted as anaerobic. Synchrotron-based techniques and stable isotope microanalysis confirm a coupling between the fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria. The cryptoendolithic fungi have significantly weathered neighboring zeolite crystals and thus have implications for storage of toxic wastes using zeolite barriers.

  • 3. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    Heim, Christine
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Broman, Curt
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Åström, Mats E.
    Timing and origin of natural gas accumulation in the Siljan impact structure, Sweden2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fractured rocks of impact craters may be suitable hosts for deep microbial communities on Earth and potentially other terrestrial planets, yet direct evidence remains elusive. Here, we present a study of the largest crater of Europe, the Devonian Siljan structure, showing that impact structures can be important unexplored hosts for long-term deep microbial activity. Secondary carbonate minerals dated to 80 ± 5 to 22 ± 3 million years, and thus postdating the impact by more than 300 million years, have isotopic signatures revealing both microbial methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane in the bedrock. Hydrocarbons mobilized from matured shale source rocks were utilized by subsurface microorganisms, leading to accumulation of microbial methane mixed with a thermogenic and possibly a minor abiotic gas fraction beneath a sedimentary cap rock at the crater rim. These new insights into crater hosted gas accumulation and microbial activity have implications for understanding the astrobiological consequences of impacts.

  • 4. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Åström, M.E.
    Heim, Christine
    Broman, Curt
    Åström, J
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Siljeström, Sandra
    Sjövall, Peter
    Extreme 13C-depletion of carbonates formed during oxidation of biogenic methane in fractured granite2015In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fielding, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Nebraska.
    Frank, Tracy
    University of Nebraska.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Mays, Chris
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Tevyaw, Allen
    University of Nebraska.
    Winguth, Arne
    University of Texas at Arlington.
    Winguth, Cornelia
    University of Texas at Arlington.
    Nicoll, Robert
    Geoscience Australia.
    Bocking, Malcolm
    Bocking Associates.
    Crowley, James
    Boise State University.
    Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 385, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past studies of the end-Permian extinction (EPE), the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic, have not resolved the timing of events in southern high-latitudes. Here we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3 Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape that otherwise experienced insubstantial change in fluvial style, insignificant reorganization of the depositional surface, and no abrupt aridification. Palaeoclimate modelling suggests a moderate shift to warmer summer temperatures and amplified seasonality in temperature across the EPE, and warmer and wetter conditions for all seasons into the Early Triassic. The terrestrial EPE and a succeeding peak in Ni concentration in the Sydney Basin correlate, respectively, to the onset of the primary extrusive and intrusive phases of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province.

  • 6. Liu, Yang
    et al.
    Johnson, Matthew G.
    Cox, Cymon J.
    Medina, Rafael
    Devos, Nicolas
    Vanderpoorten, Alain
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Bell, Neil E.
    Shevock, James R.
    Aguero, Blanka
    Quandt, Dietmar
    Wickett, Norman J.
    Shaw, A. Jonathan
    Goffinet, Bernard
    Resolution of the ordinal phylogeny of mosses using targeted exons from organellar and nuclear genomes2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, p. 1485 (1-11)-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Saremi, Nedda F.
    et al.
    Supple, Megan A.
    Byrne, Ashley
    Cahill, James A.
    Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Figueiro, Henrique V.
    Johnson, Warren E.
    Milne, Heather J.
    O'Brien, Stephen J.
    O'Connell, Brendan
    Onorato, David P.
    Riley, Seth P. D.
    Sikich, Jeff A.
    Stahler, Daniel R.
    Villela, Priscilla Marqui Schmidt
    Vollmers, Christopher
    Wayne, Robert K.
    Eizirik, Eduardo
    Corbett-Detig, Russell B.
    Green, Richard E.
    Wilmers, Christopher C.
    Shapiro, Beth
    Puma genomes from North and South America provide insights into the genomic consequences of inbreeding (vol 10, 4769, 2019)2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Topper, Timothy, P.
    et al.
    Guo, Junfeng
    Clausen, Sébastien
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    A stem group echinoderm from the basal Cambrian of China and the origins of Ambulacraria2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deuterostomes are a morphologically disparate clade, encompassing the chordates (including vertebrates), the hemichordates (the vermiform enteropneusts and the colonial tube-dwelling pterobranchs) and the echinoderms (including starfish). Although deuterostomes are considered monophyletic, the inter-relationships between the three clades remain highly contentious. Here we report, Yanjiahella biscarpa, a bilaterally symmetrical, solitary metazoan from the early Cambrian (Fortunian) of China with a characteristic echinoderm-like plated theca, a muscular stalk reminiscent of the hemichordates and a pair of feeding appendages. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Y. biscarpa is a stem-echinoderm and not only is this species the oldest and most basal echinoderm, but it also predates all known hemichordates, and is among the earliest deuterostomes. This taxon confirms that echinoderms acquired plating before pentaradial symmetry and that their history is rooted in bilateral forms. Yanjiahella biscarpa shares morphological similarities with both enteropneusts and echinoderms, indicating that the enteropneust body plan is ancestral within hemichordates.

  • 9. Troll, Valentin R.
    et al.
    Weis, Franz A.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Andersson, Ulf B.
    Majidi, Seyed Afshin
    Högdahl, Karin
    Harris, Chris
    Millet, Marc-Alban
    Chinnasamy, Sakthi Saravanan
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nilsson, Katarina P.
    Global Fe–O isotope correlation reveals magmatic origin of Kiruna-type apatite-iron-oxide ores2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kiruna-type apatite-iron-oxide ores are key iron sources for modern industry, yet their origin remains controversial. Diverse ore-forming processes have been discussed, comprising low-temperature hydrothermal processes versus a high-temperature origin from magma or magmatic fluids. We present an extensive set of new and combined iron and oxygen isotope data from magnetite of Kiruna-type ores from Sweden, Chile and Iran, and compare them with new global reference data from layered intrusions, active volcanic provinces, and established low-temperature and hydrothermal iron ores. We show that approximately 80% of the magnetite from the investigated Kiruna-type ores exhibit δ56Fe and δ18O ratios that overlap with the volcanic and plutonic reference materials (> 800 °C), whereas ~20%, mainly vein-hosted and disseminated magnetite, match the low-temperature reference samples (≤400 °C). Thus, Kiruna-type ores are dominantly magmatic in origin, but may contain late-stage hydrothermal magnetite populations that can locally overprint primary high-temperature magmatic signatures.

  • 10.
    van de Kamp, Thomas
    et al.
    Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Schwermann, Achim H.
    LWL-Museum of Natural History, Sentruper Str. 285, 48141 Münster, Germany.
    dos Santos Rolo, Tomy
    Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-vonHelmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, German.
    Lösel, Philipp D.
    Engineering Mathematics and Computing Lab (EMCL), Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 205, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Engler, Thomas
    Steinmann Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology, University of Bonn, Nußallee 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Etter, Walter
    Department of Geosciences, Natural History Museum Basel, Augustinergasse 2, 4051 Basel, Switzerland..
    Faragó, Tomáš
    Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-vonHelmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, German.
    Göttlicher, Jörg
    Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-vonHelmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, German.
    Heuveline, Vincent
    Engineering Mathematics and Computing Lab (EMCL), Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 205, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kopmann, Andreas
    Institute for Data Processing and Electronics (IPE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermannvon-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Mähler, Bastian
    Steinmann Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology, University of Bonn, Nußallee 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Odar, Janes
    Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-vonHelmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, German.
    Rust, Jes
    Steinmann Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology, University of Bonn, Nußallee 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Tan Jerome, Nicholas
    Institute for Data Processing and Electronics (IPE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermannvon-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Vogelgesang, Matthias
    Institute for Data Processing and Electronics (IPE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermannvon-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Baumbach, Tilo
    Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Krogmann, Lars
    Department of Entomology, State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Parasitoid biology preserved in mineralized fossils2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 50% of all animal species are considered parasites. The linkage of species diversity to a parasitic lifestyle is especially evident in the insect order Hymenoptera. However, fossil evidence for host–parasitoid interactions is extremely rare, rendering hypotheses on the evolution of parasitism assumptive. Here, using high-throughput synchrotron X-ray microtomography, we examine 1510 phosphatized fly pupae from the Paleogene of France and identify 55 parasitation events by four wasp species, providing morphological and ecological data. All species developed as solitary endoparasitoids inside their hosts and exhibit different morphological adaptations for exploiting the same hosts in one habitat. Our results allow systematic and ecological placement of four distinct endoparasitoids in the Paleogene and highlight the need to investigate ecological data preserved in the fossil record.

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