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  • 1. Budd, D.A.
    et al.
    Troll, V.R.
    Deegan, F.M.
    Jolis, E.M.
    Smith, V.C.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Harris, C.
    Freda, C.
    Hilton, D.R.
    Halldorsson, S.A.
    Bindemann, I.N.
    Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 40624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core−rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

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  • 2. Chang, Dan
    et al.
    Knapp, Michael
    Enk, Jacob
    Lippold, Sebastian
    Kircher, Martin
    Lister, Adrian
    MacPhee, Ross D. E.
    Widga, Christopher
    Czechowski, Paul
    Sommer, Robert
    Hodges, Emily
    Stuempel, Nikolaus
    Barnes, Ian
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Derevianko, Anatoly
    Germonpre, Mietje
    Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra
    Constantin, Silviu
    Kuznetsova, Tatyana
    Mol, Dick
    Rathgeber, Thomas
    Rosendahl, Wilfried
    Tikhonov, Alexey N.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Hannon, Greg
    Lalueza-Fox, Carles
    Joger, Ulrich
    Poinar, Hendrik
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Shapiro, Beth
    The evolutionary and phylogeographic history of woolly mammoths: a comprehensive mitogenomic analysis2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44585Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Deegan, F.M.
    et al.
    Troll, V.R.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Jolis, E.M.
    Freda, C.
    Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 30774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to −41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

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  • 4.
    Díez-del-Molino, David
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    von Seth, Johanna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Liljebäck, Niklas
    Svensson, Mikael
    Sjögren-Gulve, Per
    Dalén, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Population genomics reveals lack of greater white-fronted introgression into the Swedish lesser white-fronted goose2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interspecific introgression is considered a potential threat to endangered taxa. One example where this has had a major impact on conservation policy is the lesser white-fronted goose (LWfG). After a dramatic decline in Sweden, captive breeding birds were released between 1981–1999 with the aim to reinforce the population. However, the detection of greater white-fronted goose (GWfG) mitochondrial DNA in the LWfG breeding stock led to the release program being dismantled, even though the presence of GWfG introgression in the actual wild Swedish LWfG population was never documented. To examine this, we sequenced the complete genomes of 21 LWfG birds from the Swedish, Russian and Norwegian populations, and compared these with genomes from other goose species, including the GWfG. We found no evidence of interspecific introgression into the wild Swedish LWfG population in either nuclear genomic or mitochondrial data. Moreover, Swedish LWfG birds are genetically distinct from the Russian and Norwegian populations and display comparatively low genomic diversity and high levels of inbreeding. Our findings highlight the utility of genomic approaches in providing scientific evidence that can help improve conservation management as well as policies for breeding and reinforcement programmes.

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  • 5.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    A genomic perspective of the pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea suggests a long history of low effective population size2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 16853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the possibly extinct pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea unambiguously shows that it belongs to the pochard radiation that also includes the genera Aythya and Netta. It is the sister to all modern-day pochards and belongs to a lineage that branched off from the others more than 2.8 million years ago. Rhodonessa caryophyllacea is believed to never have been common in modern time and we show this has probably been the situation for as long as 100,000 years. Our results suggest that their effective population size varied between 15,000 and 25,000 individuals during the last 150,000 years of the Pleistocene. The reasons behind this are largely unknown as very little is known about the life-history and biology of this species. Presumably it is due to factors related to feeding or to breeding, but we may never know this for sure.

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  • 6. Gardiner, N.J.
    et al.
    Hawkesworth, C.J.
    Robb, L.J.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Roberts, N.M.W.
    Kirkland, C.L.
    Evans, N.J.
    Contrasting Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Record: A Case Study from Myanmar2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granitoid-hosted mineral deposits are major global sources of a number of economically important metals. The fundamental controls on magma metal fertility are tectonic setting, the nature of source rocks, and magma differentiation. A clearer understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been forged through the accessory mineral zircon, which has considerable potential in metallogenic studies. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset from the paired Cu-Au (copper) and Sn-W (tin) magmatic belts in Myanmar. Copper arc zircons have juvenile εHf (+7.6 to +11.5) and mantle-like δ18O (5.2–5.5‰), whereas tin belt zircons have low εHf (−7 to −13) and heavier δ18O (6.2–7.7‰). Variations in zircon Hf and U/Yb reaffirm that tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than copper arc rocks. Links between whole-rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlight that the latter can monitor magma fractionation in these systems. Zircon Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* are sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and here are used to evaluate zircon sensitivity to the metallogenic affinity of their host rock. Critical contents of Sn in granitic magmas, which may be required for the development of economic tin deposits, are marked by zircon Eu/Eu* values of ca. ≤0.08.

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  • 7. Gustafson, Grey T.
    et al.
    Prokin, Alexander A.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    Tip-dated phylogeny of whirligig beetles reveals ancient lineage surviving on Madagascar2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, p. 1-9, article id 8619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal origin of Madagascar’s extraordinary endemic diversity is debated. A preference for Cenozoic dispersal origins has replaced the classical view of Mesozoic vicariance in the wake of molecular dating. However, evidence of ancient origins is mounting from arthropod groups. Using phylogenetic ‘tip-dating’ analysis with fossils, we show that a whirligig beetle species, Heterogyrus milloti, inhabiting forest streams in southeastern Madagascar is the last survivor of a once dominant and widespread Mesozoic group. With a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic origin (226–187 Ma) it is the hitherto oldest dated endemic lineage of animal or plant on Madagascar. Island biotas’ sensitivity to extinction is well known, but islands can also provide refuge from continental extinction. Heterogyrus milloti is an irreplaceable link to the freshwater biota of the Mesozoic and serves as a reminder of what may be lost without critical conservation e orts on Madagascar. 

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  • 8. Harazim, Dario
    et al.
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Denommee, Kathryn C.
    Thiemeyer, Nicolas
    Lahaye, Yann
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Exceptional sulfur and iron isotope enrichment in millimetre-sized, early Palaeozoic animal burrows2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyrite-δ34S and -δ56Fe isotopes represent highly sensitive diagnostic paleoenvironmental proxies that express high variability at the bed (< 10 mm) scale that has so far defied explanation by a single formative process. This study reveals for the first time the paleoenvironmental context of exceptionally enriched pyrite-δ34S and -δ56Fe in bioturbated, storm-reworked mudstones of an early Ordovician storm-dominated delta (Tremadocian Beach Formation, Bell Island Group, Newfoundland). Very few studies provide insight into the low-temperature sulfur and iron cycling from bioturbated muddy settings for time periods prior to the evolution of deep soil horizons on land. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses performed on Beach Formation muddy storm event beds reveal spatially distinct δ34S and δ56Fe values in: (a) tubular biogenic structures and trails (δ34S ~ +40‰; δ56Fe ~ −0.5‰), (b) silt-filled Planolites burrows (δ34S ~ +40‰; δ56Fe ~ +0.5 to + 2.1‰), and (c) non-bioturbated mudstone (δ34S ~ +35‰; δ56Fe ~ +0.5‰). δ34S values of well above + 40.0‰ indicate at least some pyrite precipitation in the presence of a 34S-depleted pore water sulfide reservoir, via closed system (Raleigh-type) fractionation. The preferential enrichment of 56Fe in Planolites burrows is best explained via microbially-driven liberation of Fe(II) from solid iron parent phases and precipitation from a depleted 54Fe dissolved Fe(II) reservoir. Rigorous sedimentological analysis represents a gateway to critically test the paleoenvironmental models describing the formation of a wide range of mudstones and elucidates the origins of variability in the global stable S and Fe isotope record.

  • 9.
    Hazra, Taposhi
    et al.
    Palaeobotany-Palynology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Ranchi Road, Purulia, 723104, India.
    Adroit, Benjamin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. IMBE, Aix Marseille Univ, Avignon Univ, CNRS, IRD, Marseille, France.
    Denk, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Wappler, Torsten
    Department of Natural History, Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Friedensplatz 1, 64283, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Sarkar, Subhankar Kumar
    Entomology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, 741235, India.
    Bera, Subir
    Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Study, University of Calcutta, 35, B.C. Road, Kolkata, 700019, India.
    Khan, Mahasin Ali
    Palaeobotany-Palynology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Ranchi Road, Purulia, 723104, India.
    Marginal leaf galls on Pliocene leaves from India indicate mutualistic behavior between Ipomoea plants and Eriophyidae mites2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 5702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a new type of fossil margin galls arranged in a linear series on dicot leaf impressions from the latest Neogene (Pliocene) sediments of the Chotanagpur Plateau, Jharkhand, eastern India. We collected ca. 1500 impression and compression leaf fossils, of which 1080 samples bear arthropod damage referable to 37 different damage types (DT) in the ‘Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types in Compressed Plant Fossils’. A few leaf samples identified as Ipomoea L. (Convolvulaceae) have specific margin galls that do not match any galling DT previously described. This type of galling is characterized by small, linearly arranged, irregular, sessile, sub-globose, solitary, indehiscent, solid pouch-galls with irregular ostioles. The probable damage inducers of the present galling of the foliar margin might be members of Eriophyidae (Acari). The new type of gall suggests that marginal gall-inducing mites on leaves of Ipomoea did not change their host preference at the genus level since the Pliocene. The development of marginal leaf galling in Ipomoea is linked to extrafloral nectaries that do not offer protection against arthropod galling but indirectly protect the plant against herbivory from large mammals.

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  • 10.
    Hempel, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Universität Potsdam, Evolutionary Adaptive Genomics, Germany.
    Bibi, Faysal
    Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany.
    Faith, J. Tyler
    Natural History Museum of Utah, University of Utah, USA.
    Brink, James S.
    National Museum Bloemfontein, Republic of South Africa.
    Kalthoff, Daniela C.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Kamminga, Pepijn
    Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.
    Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, UK.
    Westbury, Michael V.
    Section for Evolutionary Genomics, The GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Universität Potsdam, Evolutionary Adaptive Genomics, Germany.
    Zachos, Frank E.
    Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria.
    Identifying the true number of specimens of the extinct blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus)2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 2100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Native to southern Africa, the blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus) is the only large African mammal species known to have become extinct in historical times. However, it was poorly documented prior to its extinction ~ 1800 AD, and many of the small number of museum specimens attributed to it are taxonomically contentious. This places limitations on our understanding of its morphology, ecology, and the mechanisms responsible for its demise. We retrieved genetic information from ten of the sixteen putative blue antelope museum specimens using both shotgun sequencing and mitochondrial genome target capture in an attempt to resolve the uncertainty surrounding the identification of these specimens. We found that only four of the ten investigated specimens, and not a single skull, represent the blue antelope. This indicates that the true number of historical museum specimens of the blue antelope is even smaller than previously thought, and therefore hardly any reference material is available for morphometric, comparative and genetic studies. Our study highlights how genetics can be used to identify rare species in natural history collections where other methods may fail or when records are scarce. Additionally, we present an improved mitochondrial reference genome for the blue antelope as well as one complete and two partial mitochondrial genomes. A first analysis of these mitochondrial genomes indicates low levels of maternal genetic diversity in the ‘museum population’, possibly confirming previous results that blue antelope population size was already low at the time of the European colonization of South Africa.

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  • 11. Hickman-Lewis, Keyron
    et al.
    Cavalazzi, Barbara
    Sorieul, Stéphanie
    Gautret, Pascale
    Foucher, Frédéric
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Jeon, Heejin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Georgelin, Thomas
    Cockell, Charles S.
    Westall, Frances
    Metallomics in deep time and the influence of ocean chemistry on the metabolic landscapes of Earth’s earliest ecosystems2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern biological dependency on trace elements is proposed to be a consequence of their enrichment in the habitats of early life together with Earth’s evolving physicochemical conditions; the resulting metallic biological complement is termed the metallome. Herein, we detail a protocol for describing metallomes in deep time, with applications to the earliest fossil record. Our approach extends the metallome record by more than 3 Ga and provides a novel, non-destructive method of estimating biogenicity in the absence of cellular preservation. Using microbeam particle-induced X-ray emission (µPIXE), we spatially quantify transition metals and metalloids within organic material from 3.33 billion-year-old cherts of the Barberton greenstone belt, and demonstrate that elements key to anaerobic prokaryotic molecular nanomachines, including Fe, V, Ni, As and Co, are enriched within carbonaceous material. Moreover, Mo and Zn, likely incorporated into enzymes only after the Great Oxygenation Event, are either absent or present at concentrations below the limit of detection of µPIXE, suggesting minor biological utilisation in this environmental setting. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that metal enrichments do not arise from accumulation in nanomineral phases and thus unambiguously reflect the primary composition of the carbonaceous material. This carbonaceous material also has δ13C between −41.3‰ and 0.03‰, dominantly −21.0‰ to −11.5‰, consistent with biological fractionation and mostly within a restricted range inconsistent with abiotic processes. Considering spatially quantified trace metal enrichments and negative δ13C fractionations together, we propose that, although lacking cellular preservation, this organic material has biological origins and, moreover, that its precursor metabolism may be estimated from the fossilised “palaeo-metallome”. Enriched Fe, V, Ni and Co, together with petrographic context, suggests that this kerogen reflects the remnants of a lithotrophic or organotrophic consortium cycling methane or nitrogen. Palaeo-metallome compositions could be used to deduce the metabolic networks of Earth’s earliest ecosystems and, potentially, as a biosignature for evaluating the origin of preserved organic materials found on Mars.

  • 12. Holm-Alwmark, Sanna
    et al.
    Alwmark, Carl
    Ferrière, Ludovic
    Meier, Matthias M. M.
    Lindström, Sofie
    Kenny, G. G.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Sheldon, Emma
    Schweigert, Günter
    Spötl, Christoph
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hofmann, Beda A.
    Shocked quartz in distal ejecta from the Ries impact event (Germany) found at ~ 180 km distance, near Bernhardzell, eastern Switzerland2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 7438Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Broman, Curt
    Sturkell, Erik
    Ormö, Jens
    Siljeström, Sandra
    van Zuilen, Mark
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system.2013In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, no 3487, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Ivarsson et al. 2013
  • 14.
    Kalthoff, Daniela
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, article id 41417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its nativerange. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of asdepauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. Thisknowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced thespecies' once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity.Here we examined the range-wide genetic structure of historic and modern populations using thelargest and most geographically representative sample of black rhinoceroses ever assembled. Usingboth mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, we described a staggering loss of 69% of the species'mitochondrial genetic variation, including the most ancestral lineages that are now absent frommodern populations. Genetically unique populations in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad,Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Mozambique, Malawi and Angola no longer exist. We found that the historicrange of the West African subspecies (D. b. longipes), declared extinct in 2011, extends into southernKenya, where a handful of individuals survive in the Masai Mara. We also identify conservation unitsthat will help maintain evolutionary potential. Our results suggest a complete re-evaluation of currentconservation management paradigms for the black rhinoceros.

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  • 15.
    Kenny, Gavin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Pasek, Matthew
    School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.
    The response of zircon to the extreme pressures and temperatures of a lightning strike2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, article id 1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypervelocity impacts can produce features in zircon that are not normally produced by endogenic processes. However, lightning can also induce extreme pressure–temperature excursions, and itsefect on zircon has not been studied. With the aim to recognise features that form in response to extreme pressure–temperature excursions but are not unique to hypervelocity impacts, we imaged and undertook microstructural characterization of zircon in a fulgurite (a tubular body of glass andfused clasts that formed in response to a lightning strike). We document zircon with granular ZrO2 and rims of vermicular ZrO2, features which vary in abundance with increasing distance from the fulgurite’s central void. This indicates that these features formed in response to the lightning strike. Zircon dissociation to ZrO2 and SiO2 is a high-temperature, relatively low-pressure phenomenon, consistent with previous suggestions that lightning strikes involve extreme temperatures as well as pressures greater than those usually generated in Earth’s crust but rarely > 10 GPa. The rims of monoclinic ZrO2 record crystallographic evidence for precursor cubic ZrO2, demonstrating that cubic ZrO2 is not unique to hypervelocity impacts. Given the likelihood that this fulgurite experienced pressures of, at most, a few GPa, evidence for cubic ZrO2 indicates peak temperatures > 2000 °C.

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  • 16. Kotková, J.
    et al.
    Fedortchouk, Y.
    Wirth, R.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Metamorphic microdiamond formation is controlled by water activity, phase transitions and temperature2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 7694Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Lyon, Ian C.
    et al.
    Kusiak, Monika A.
    Wirth, Richard
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Dunkley, Daniel J.
    Wilde, Simon A.
    Schaumlöffel, Dirk
    Malherbe, Julien
    Moore, Katie L.
    Pb nanospheres in ancient zircon yield model ages for zircon formation and Pb mobilization2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanospheres of lead (Pb) have recently been identified in zircon (ZrSiO4) with the potential to compromise the veracity of U-Pb age determinations. The key assumption that the determined age is robust against the effects of Pb mobility, as long as Pb is not lost from the zircon during subsequent geological events, is now in question. To determine the effect of nanosphere formation on age determination, and whether analysis of nanospheres can yield additional information about the timing of both zircon growth and nanosphere formation, zircons from the Napier Complex in Enderby Land, East Antarctica, were investigated by high-spatial resolution NanoSIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) mapping. Conventional SIMS analyses with >µm resolution potentially mixes Pb from multiple nanospheres with the zircon host, yielding variable average values and therefore unreliable ages. NanoSIMS analyses were obtained of 207Pb/206Pb in nanospheres a few nanometres in diameter that were resolved from 207Pb/206Pb measurements in the zircon host. We demonstrate that analysis for 207Pb/206Pb in multiple individual Pb nanospheres, along with separate analysis of 207Pb/206Pb in the zircon host, can not only accurately yield the age of zircon crystallization, but also the time of nanosphere formation resulting from Pb mobilization during metamorphism. Model ages for both events can be derived that are correlated due to the limited range of possible solutions that can be satisfied by the measured 207Pb/206Pb ratios of nanospheres and zircon host. For the Napier Complex zircons, this yields a model age of ca 3110 Ma for zircon formation and a late Archean model age of 2610 Ma for the metamorphism that produced the nanospheres. The Nanosphere Model Age (NMA) method constrains both the crystallization age and age of the metamorphism to ~±135 Ma, a significant improvement on errors derived from counting statistics.

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  • 18. Morinière, Jérôme
    et al.
    Van Dam, Matthew H
    Hawlitschek, Oliver
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Michat, Mariano C
    Hendrich, Lars
    Ribera, Ignacio
    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A
    Balke, Michael
    Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods.2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

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  • 19.
    Mörs, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    REGUERO, MARCELO A.
    Division Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 81900 FWA La Plata, Argentina.
    VASILYAN, Davit
    JURASSICA Museum, Route de Fontenais 21, 2900, Porrentruy, Switzerland.
    First fossil frog from Antarctica: implications for Eocene high latitude climate conditions and Gondwanan cosmopolitanism of Australobatrachia2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 5051, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cenozoic ectothermic continental tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have not been documented previously from Antarctica, in contrast to all other continents. Here we report a fossil ilium and an ornamented skull bone that can be attributed to the Recent, South American, anuran family Calyptocephalellidae or helmeted frogs, representing the first modern amphibian found in Antarctica.

    The two bone fragments were recovered in Eocene, approximately 40 million years old, sediments on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The record of hyperossified calyptocephalellid frogs outside South America supports Gondwanan cosmopolitanism of the anuran clade Australobatrachia. Our results demonstrate that Eocene freshwater ecosystems in Antarctica provided habitats favourable for ectothermic vertebrates (with mean annual precipitation ≥900 mm, coldest month mean temperature ≥3.75 °C, and warmest month mean temperature ≥13.79 °C), at a time when there were at least ephemeral ice sheets existing on the highlands within the interior of the continent.

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  • 20. Olofsson, Malin
    et al.
    Robertson, Elizabeth K.
    Edler, Lars
    Arneborg, Lars
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Ploug, Helle
    Nitrate and ammonium fluxes to diatoms and dinoflagellates at a single cell level in mixed field communities in the sea2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of large phytoplankton is considered to be diffusion limited at low nutrient concentrations, yet their constraints and contributions to carbon (C) and nitrogen fluxes in field plankton communities are poorly quantified under this condition. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), we quantified cell-specific assimilation rates of C, nitrate, and ammonium in summer communities of large phytoplankton when dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations are low in temperate coastal regions. Chain-forming diatoms composed 6% of total particulate organic carbon, but contributed 20% of C assimilation, 54% of nitrate assimilation and 32% of ammonium assimilation within the plankton community. In contrast, large dinoflagellates composed 11% of total POC, and contributed 14% of the C assimilation, 4% of ammonium and 9% of nitrate assimilation within the plankton community. Measured cell-specific C and nitrate assimilation rate match the Redfield ratio and the maximal nitrate assimilation in Chaetoceros spp. predicted by mass transfer theory. However, average ammonium assimilation rates were 30 and 340% higher than predicted by mass transfer theory in Tripos/Ceratium and Chaetoceros, respectively, suggesting that microbial interactions in the phycosphere may facilitate substantial luxury ammonium uptake by Chaetoceros in environments with fluctuating nitrate concentrations.

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  • 21. Pečnerová, Patrícia
    et al.
    Díez-Del-Molino, David
    Vartanyan, Sergey
    Dalén, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth.2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

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  • 22.
    Qu, Yanhua
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
    Tian, Shilin
    Han, Nanjian
    Zhao, Hongwei
    Gao, Bin
    Fu, Jun
    Cheng, Yalin
    Song, Gang
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Zhang, Yong E.
    Wang, Dawei
    Quan, Qing
    Jiang, Zhi
    Li, Ruiquang
    Lei, Fumin
    Genetic responses to seasonalvariation in altitudinal stress: whole-genome resequencing ofgreat tit in eastern Himalayas2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 14256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species that undertake altitudinal migrations are exposed to a considerable seasonal variationin oxygen levels and temperature. How they cope with this was studied in a population of greattit (Parus major) that breeds at high elevations and winters at lower elevations in the easternHimalayas. Comparison of population genomics of high altitudinal great tits and those living inlowlands revealed an accelerated genetic selection for carbohydrate energy metabolism (aminosugar, nucleotide sugar metabolism and insulin signaling pathways) and hypoxia response (PI3K-akt,mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways) in the high altitudinal population. The PI3K-akt, mTOR andMAPK pathways modulate the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression thusindirectly regulate hypoxia induced angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and vasodilatation. The strategiesobserved in high altitudinal great tits differ from those described in a closely related species onthe Tibetan Plateau, the sedentary ground tit (Parus humilis). This species has enhanced selectionin lipid-specific metabolic pathways and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway (HIF-1). Comparativepopulation genomics also revealed selection for larger body size in high altitudinal great tits.

  • 23.
    Stanton, David W. G.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Alberti, Federica
    Plotnikov, Valery
    Androsov, Semyon
    Grigoriev, Semyon
    Fedorov, Sergey
    Kosintsev, Pavel
    Nagel, Doris
    Vartanyan, Sergey
    Barnes, Ian
    Barnett, Ross
    Ersmark, Erik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Doeppes, Doris
    Germonpre, Mietje
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Rosendahl, Wilfried
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Early Pleistocene origin and extensive intra-species diversity of the extinct cave lion2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cave lion is an extinct felid that was widespread across the Holarctic throughout the Late Pleistocene. Its closest extant relative is the lion (Panthera leo), but the timing of the divergence between these two taxa, as well as their taxonomic ranking are contentious. In this study we analyse 31 mitochondrial genome sequences from cave lion individuals that, through a combination of C-14 and genetic tip dating, are estimated to be from dates extending well into the mid-Pleistocene. We identified two deeply diverged and well-supported reciprocally monophyletic mitogenome clades in the cave lion, and an additional third distinct lineage represented by a single individual. One of these clades was restricted to Beringia while the other was prevalent across western Eurasia. These observed clade distributions are in line with previous observations that Beringian and European cave lions were morphologically distinct. The divergence dates for these lineages are estimated to be far older than those between extant lions subspecies. By combining our radiocarbon tip-dates with a split time prior that takes into account the most up-to-date fossil stem calibrations, we estimated the mitochondrial DNA divergence between cave lions and lions to be 1.85 Million ya (95% 0.52- 2.91 Mya). Taken together, these results support previous hypotheses that cave lions existed as at least two subspecies during the Pleistocene, and that lions and cave lions were distinct species.

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  • 24.
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Langendam, Andrew
    Monash University.
    Mays, Chris
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Sutherland, Lachlan
    Monash University.
    Arillo, Antonio
    Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense.
    Bickel, Daniel
    Australian Museum.
    De Silva, William
    Monash University.
    Pentland, Adele
    5 Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology.
    Roghi, Guido
    Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR, Padova.
    Price, Gregory
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering), Plymouth University.
    Cantrill, David
    Melbourne Botanic Gardens.
    Quinney, Annie
    Department of Geoscience at the University of Calgary in Calgary.
    Peñalver, Enrique
    Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (Museo Geominero).
    Amber from the Triassic to Paleogene of Australia and New Zealand as exceptional preservation of poorly known terrestrial ecosystems2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, p. 1-11, article id 5703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Northern Hemisphere dominates our knowledge of Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossilized tree resin (amber) with few fndings from the high southern paleolatitudes of Southern Pangea and Southern Gondwana. Here we report new Pangean and Gondwana amber occurrences dating from ~230 to 40 Ma from Australia (Late Triassic and Paleogene of Tasmania; Late Cretaceous Gippsland Basin in Victoria; Paleocene and late middle Eocene of Victoria) and New Zealand (Late Cretaceous Chatham Islands). The Paleogene, richly fossiliferous deposits contain signifcant and diverse inclusions of arthropods, plants and fungi. These austral discoveries open six new windows to diferent but crucial intervals of the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, providing the earliest occurrence(s) of some taxa in the modern fauna and flora giving new insights into the ecology and evolution of polar and subpolar terrestrial ecosystems.

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  • 25. Tan, David J.X.
    et al.
    Chattopadhyay, Balaji
    Garg, Kritika
    Cros, Emilie
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Rheindt, Frank E.
    Novel genome and genome-wide SNPs reveal early fragmentation effects in an edge-tolerant songbird population across an urbanized tropical metropolis2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, article id 12804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although edge-tolerant species are known to benefit from habitat fragmentation, less is known about the population genetic impacts fragmentation may exert on edge-tolerant species. We examined the landscape genomic structure of an edge-tolerant forest-dependent bird species, the Striped Tit-Babbler Mixornis gularis, in the heavily urbanized island of Singapore to determine if two centuries of fragmentation have led to signs of isolation and loss of population-genetic diversity in different parts of the island. We obtained a high-quality complete reference genome with 78x coverage. Using almost 4000 SNPs from double-digest RAD-Sequencing across 46 individuals, we found that the population has likely experienced a recent contraction in effective population size and presently exhibits low population genetic diversity. Using empirical and simulation-based landscape genomic analyses, we also found that the subtle population genetic structure observed in the Striped Tit-Babbler population in Singapore is likely driven by isolation by distance resulting from limited dispersal. Our results demonstrate that population genetic impoverishment and subdivision can accumulate at relatively rapid rates in edge-tolerant bird species such as the Striped Tit-Babbler as a result of fragmentation, and that subtle spatial genetic structure can be detected over fine spatial and temporal scales using relatively few multilocus genomic SNPs.

  • 26. Thuy, Ben
    et al.
    Stöhr, Sabine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Unravelling the origin of the basket stars and their allies (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida).2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 8493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Euryalids, which include the spectacular basket stars, form a morphologically aberrant group of brittle stars. Surprisingly, the most recent molecular work found them to be sister to ophiurid brittle stars, thus challenging the traditional dichotomy between euryalids and non-euryalids, and leaving an enormous ghost lineage of more than 100 million years between the oldest unambiguous euryalid fossils and their predicted divergence from ophiurids during the Triassic. Here we examine both previously known and newly collected fossils to explore the evolutionary history of euryalids. A morphology-based phylogenetic estimate confirms the Triassic Aspiduriella as a basal member of the euryalid clade that superficially resembles members of the living ophiurid sister clades. Furthermore, we use lateral arm plates and vertebrae to identify two new Jurassic ophiuroids, Melusinaster alissawhitegluzae and Melusinaster arcusinimicus, as early euryalids that are morphologically intermediate between Aspiduriella and extant euryalids. Our phylogenetic analysis is the first to combine data from completely preserved skeletons and from microfossils in order to bridge morphological and stratigraphical gaps between the sampled taxa. It fills a major gap in the fossil record of euryalids and sets a robust phylogenetic framework to understand the morphological transition from ophiurid-like ancestors to the typical modern euryalids better.

  • 27. Tillberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Drake, Henrik
    Zack, Thomas
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Åström, Mats E.
    In situ Rb-Sr dating of slickenfibres in deep crystalline basement faults2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing temporal constraints of faulting is of importance for tectonic and seismicity reconstructions and predictions. Conventional fault dating techniques commonly use bulk samples of syn-kinematic illite and other K-bearing minerals in fault gouges, which results in mixed ages of repeatedly reactivated faults as well as grain-size dependent age variations. Here we present a new approach to resolve fault reactivation histories by applying high-spatial resolution Rb-Sr dating to fine-grained mineral slickenfibres in faults occurring in Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks. Slickenfibre illite and/or K-feldspar together with co-genetic calcite and/or albite were targeted with 50 µm laser ablation triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses (LA-ICP-MS/MS). The ages obtained disclose slickenfibre growth at several occasions spanning over 1 billion years, from at least 1527 Ma to 349 ± 9 Ma. The timing of these growth phases and the associated structural orientation information of the kinematic indicators on the fracture surfaces are linked to far-field tectonic events, including the Caledonian orogeny. Our approach links faulting to individual regional deformation events by minimizing age mixing through micro-scale analysis of individual grains and narrow crystal zones in common fault mineral assemblages.

  • 28.
    van Beest, Floris M
    et al.
    Aarhus University.
    Mews, Sina
    Schuhmann, Patrick
    Tsolak, Dorian
    Bielefeld University.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    SLU.
    Bastardie, Francois
    Technical University of Denmar.
    Dietz, Rune
    Aarhus University.
    von Dorrien, Christian
    Thünen Institute.
    Galatius, Anders
    Aarhus University.
    Karlsson, Olle
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    McConnell, Bernie
    University of St Andrews.
    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob
    Aarhus University.
    Tange Olsen, Morten
    Natural History Museum of Denmark.
    Teilmann, Jonas
    Aarhus Univerity.
    Langrock, Roland
    Classifying grey seal behaviour in relation to environmental variability and commercial fishing activity -a multivariate hidden Markov model2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. van der Valk, Tom
    et al.
    Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson
    Caillaud, Damien
    Ngobobo, Urbain
    Binyinyi, Escobar
    Nishuli, Radar
    Stoinski, Tara
    Gilissen, Emmanuel
    Sonet, Gontran
    Semal, Patrick
    Kalthoff, Daniela C.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Dalén, Love
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Significant loss of mitochondrial diversity within the last century due to extinction of peripheral populations in eastern gorillas2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 6551Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 30. Wotte, Thomas
    et al.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Martin J., Whitehouse
    Kouchinsky, Artem
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Isotopic evidence for temperate oceans during the Cambrian Explosion2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 6330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cambrian Explosion was a key event in the evolution of life on Earth. This event took place at a time when sea surface temperatures have been proposed to reach about 60 °C. Such high temperatures are clearly above the upper thermal limit of 38 °C for modern marine invertebrates and preclude a major biological revolution. To address this dichotomy, we performed in situ δ18O analyses of Cambrian phosphatic brachiopods via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The δ18Ophosphate data, which are considered to represent the most primary δ18Oseawater signature, were identified by evaluating the diagenetic alteration of the analyzed shells. Assuming ice-free conditions for the Cambrian ocean and no change in δ18Oseawater (-1.4‰ to -1‰; V-SMOW) through time, our temperatures vary between 35 °C ± 12 °C and 41 °C ± 12 °C. They are thus clearly above (1) recent subequatorial sea surface temperatures of 27 °C–35 °C and (2) the upper lethal limit of 38 °C of marine organisms. Our new data can therefore be used to infer a minimal depletion in early Cambrian δ18Oseawater relative to today of about -3‰. With this presumption, our most pristine δ18Ophosphate values translate into sea surface temperatures of about 30 °C indicating habitable temperatures for subequatorial oceans during the Cambrian Explosion.

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  • 31.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    et al.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Brock, Glenn A.
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Budd, Graham E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Fu, Dongjing
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Zhang, Xingliang
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Shu, Degan
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Han, Jian
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Liu, Jianni
    Early Life Institute, State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Northwest University, Xi'an.
    Wang, Haizhou
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Butler, Aodhan
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Li, Guoxiang
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Nanjing, China.
    A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications2013In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, p. 1-7, article id 1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lophotrochozoa includes disparate tentacle-bearing sessile protostome animals, which apparently appeared in the Cambrian explosion, but lack an uncontested fossil record. Here we describe abundant well preserved material of Cotyledion tylodes Luo et Hu, 1999, from the Cambrian (Series 2) Chengjiang deposits, reinterpreted here as a stem-group entoproct. The entoproct affinity is supported by the sessile body plan and interior soft anatomy. The body consists of an upper calyx and a lower elongate stalk with a distal holdfast. The soft anatomy includes a U-shaped gut with a mouth and aboral anus ringed by retractable marginal tentacles. Cotyledion differs from extant entoprocts in being larger, and having the calyx and the stalk covered by numerous loosely-spaced external sclerites. The description of entoprocts from the Chengjiang biota traces the ancestry of yet another lophotrochozoan phylum back to the Cambrian radiation, and has important implications for the earliest evolution of lophotrochozoans.

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  • 32.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    et al.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Li, Guoxiang
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Nanjing, China.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Brock, Glenn A.
    Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    University of Glasgow.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Fu, D.J.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Zhang, X.L.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Wang, Haizhou
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Butler, Aodhan
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Zhang, Z.L.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Cao, C.Q.
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Nanjing, China.
    Han, J.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Liu, J.N.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    Shu, D.G.
    Northwest University, Xian, China.
    An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters2014In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, no 4682, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagersta¨tte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

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