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  • 1. Andersson, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Wagner, Thomas
    Jonsson, Erik
    Fusswinkel, Tobias
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Apatite as a tracer of the source, chemistry and evolution of ore-forming fluids: The case of the Olserum-Djupedal REE-phosphate mineralisation, SE Sweden2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 255, p. 163-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the suitability of apatite as a tracer of the source(s), chemistry, and evolution of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids. This is tested by analysing the halogen (F, Cl, Br, and I), stable Cl isotopic, and trace element compositions of fluorapatite from the regional-scale Olserum-Djupedal rare earth element (REE) phosphate mineralisation in SE Sweden, which is dominated by monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), and fluorapatite. The primary hydrothermal fluid flow system is recorded in a sequence from proximal granite-hosted to distal metasediment-hosted fluorapatite. Along this sequence, primary fluorapatite shows a gradual increase of Cl and Br concentrations and in (Gd/Yb)N, a decrease of F and I concentrations, a decrease in δ37Cl values, in (La/Sm)N, and partly in (La/Yb)N and (Y/Ho)N. Local compositional differences of halogen and trace element concentrations have developed along rims and in domains adjacent to fractures of fluorapatite due to late-stage partial reaction with fracture fluids. These differences are insignificant compared to the larger deposit-scale zoning. This suggests that apatite can retain the primary record of the original ore-forming fluid despite later overprinting fluid events. The agreement between Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios of apatite and those of co-existing fluid inclusions at lower temperatures indicates that only a minor fractionation of Br from I occurs during apatite precipitation. The halogen ratios of apatite can thus be used as a first-order estimate for the composition of the ore-forming fluid. Taking the small fractionation factors for Cl isotopes between apatite and co-existing fluid at high temperatures into account, we propose that the Cl isotopic composition of apatite and the halogen ratios derived from the apatite composition can be used jointly to trace the source(s) of ore-forming fluids. By contrast, most trace elements incorporated in apatite are affected by the host rock environment and by fluid-mineral partitioning due to growth competition between co-crystallising minerals. Collectively, apatite is sensitive to changing fluid compositions, yet it is also able to record the character of primary ore-forming fluids. Thus, apatite is suitable for tracing the origin, chemistry, and evolution of fluids in hydrothermal ore-forming settings.

  • 2. Bolhar, R.
    et al.
    Hofmann, A.
    Kemp, A.I.S.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Wind, S.
    Kamber, B.S.
    Juvenile crust formation in the Zimbabwe Craton deduced from the O-Hf isotopic record of 3.8-3.0 Ga detrital zircons2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 215, p. 432-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hafnium and oxygen isotopic compositions measured in-situ on U-Pb dated zircon from Archaean sedimentary successions belonging to the 2.9–2.8 Ga Belingwean/Bulawayan groups and previously undated Sebakwian Group are used to characterize the crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton prior to 3.0 Ga. Microstructural and compositional criteria were used to minimize effects arising from Pb loss due to metamorphic overprinting and interaction with low-temperature fluids. 207Pb/206Pb age spectra (concordance >90%) reveal prominent peaks at 3.8, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.35 Ga, corresponding to documented geological events, both globally and within the Zimbabwe Craton. Zircon δ18O values from +4 to +10‰ point to both derivation from magmas in equilibrium with mantle oxygen and the incorporation of material that had previously interacted with water in near-surface environments. In εHf-time space, 3.8–3.6 Ga grains define an array consistent with reworking of a mafic reservoir (176Lu/177Hf ∼0.015) that separated from chondritic mantle at ∼3.9 Ga. Crustal domains formed after 3.6 Ga depict a more complex evolution, involving contribution from chondritic mantle sources and, to a lesser extent, reworking of pre-existing crust. Protracted remelting was not accompanied by significant mantle depletion prior to 3.35 Ga. This implies that early crust production in the Zimbabwe Craton did not cause complementary enriched and depleted reservoirs that were tapped by later magmas, possibly because the volume of crust extracted and stabilised was too small to influence (asthenospheric) mantle isotopic evolution. Growth of continental crust through pulsed emplacement of juvenile (chondritic mantle-derived) melts, into and onto the existing cratonic nucleus, however, involved formation of complementary depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle since the early Archaean, indicative of strongly coupled evolutionary histories of both reservoirs, with limited evidence for recycling and lateral accretion of arc-related crustal blocks until 3.35 Ga.

  • 3.
    Dekov, Vesselin M.
    et al.
    University of Sofia.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Billström, Kjell
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kamenov, George D.
    University of Florida.
    Munnik, Frans
    Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholms universitet.
    Dyer, Alan
    University of Salford.
    Schmidt, Mark
    Leibniz-Institut für Meeresforschung, IFM-GEOMAR.
    Botz, Reiner
    Universität Kiel.
    Native Sn-Pb droplets in a zeolitic amygdale (Isle of Mull, Inner Hebrides)2009In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 73, p. 2907-2919Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Drake, H.
    et al.
    Tullborg, E.L.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Sandberg, B.
    Blomfeldt, T.
    Åström, M.E.
    Extreme fractionation and micro-scale variation of sulphur isotopes during bacterial sulphate reduction in deep groundwater systems.2015In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 161, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, SE Sweden, determines the extent and mechanisms of sulphur-isotope fractionation in permanently reducing groundwater in fractured crystalline rock. Two boreholes >400 m below the ground surface were investigated. In the 17-year-old boreholes, the Al instrumentation pipes had corroded locally (i.e., Al-[oxy]hydroxides had formed) and minerals (i.e., pyrite, iron monosulphide, and calcite) had precipitated on various parts on the equipment. By chemically and isotopically comparing the precipitates on the withdrawn instrumentation and the borehole waters, we gained new insight into the dynamics of sulphate reduction, sulphide precipitation, and sulphur-isotope fractionation in deep-seated crystalline-rock settings. An astonishing feature of the pyrite is its huge variability in δ34S, which can exceed 100‰ in total (i.e., −47.2 to +53.3‰) and 60‰ over 50 μm of growth in a single crystal. The values at the low end of the range are up to 71‰ lower than measured in the dissolved sulphate in the water (20–30‰), which is larger than the maximum difference reported between sulphate and sulphide in pure-culture experiments (66‰) but within the range reported from natural sedimentary settings. Although single-step reduction seems likely, further studies are needed to rule out the effects of possible S disproportionation. The values at the high end of the range (i.e., high δ34Spy) are much higher than could be produced from the measured sulphate under any biogeochemical conditions. This strongly suggests the development of closed-system conditions near the growing pyrite, i.e., the rate of sulphate reduction exceeds the rate of sulphate diffusion in the local fluid near the pyrite, causing the local aqueous phase (and thus the forming pyrite) to become successively enriched in heavy S (34S). Consequently, the δ34S values of the forming pyrite become exceptionally high and strongly decoupled from the δ34S values of the sulphate in the bulk fluid. The Al-(oxy)hydroxide and calcite precipitates are explained by a combination of deposit and galvanic corrosion initiated by Al corrosion by H2S produced by sulphate-reducing microorganisms.

  • 5. Emo, Robert
    et al.
    Smit, Matthijs
    Schmitt, Melanie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Scherer, Erik
    Sprung, Peter
    Bleeker, Wouter
    Mezger, Klaus
    Evidence for evolved Hadean crust from Sr isotopes in apatite within Eoarchean zircon from the Acasta Gneiss Complex2018In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 235, p. 450-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current models for the properties of Hadean-Eoarchean crust encompass a full range of possibilities, involving crust that is anywhere from thick and differentiated to thin and mafic. New data are needed to test and refine these models, and, ultimately, to determine how continents were first formed. The Rb-Sr system provides a potentially powerful proxy for crustal evolution and composition. However, this system has thus far been underutilized in studies on early crustal evolution due to its susceptibility to re-equilibration. Overcoming this issue requires new analytical approaches to micro-sample ancient Sr-rich mineral relics that may retain primary Rb-Sr systematics, allowing for the precise and accurate determination of initial 87Sr/86Sr values. In this study, we used a novel application of laser-ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the Sr isotope composition of apatite inclusions in >3.6 Ga zircon grains from Eoarchean granodiorite gneisses of the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Slave Province, Canada. The 87Rb-corrected 87Sr/86Sr values of these inclusions are largely identical and are distinctly different from values obtained from altered matrix apatite. The inclusion data provide the first direct estimate of initial 87Sr/86Sr for these ancient rocks. Combining this result with information on the protolith and source-extraction age yields estimates for the range of Rb/Sr values, and by extension composition, that the source of these rocks may have had. The data indicate that continental crust containing over 60 wt% of SiO2 was present in the ca. 4.2 Ga source of the Acasta Gneiss Complex. Thus vestiges of evolved crust must have existed within the primitive proto-continents that were present on the Hadean Earth.

  • 6.
    Fehr, Manuela
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Andersson, Per S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Iron isotope variations in Holocene sediments of the Gotland deep, Baltic Sea2008In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 72, p. 807-826Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Frings, Patrick J
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    De La Rocha, Christina
    Struyf, Eric
    van Pelt, Dimitri
    Schoelynck, Jonas
    Hudson, Mike Murray
    Gondwe, Mangaliso J.
    Wolski, Piotr
    Mosimane, Keotsheple
    Gray, William
    Schaller, Jörg
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Tracing silicon cycling in the Okavango Delta, a sub-tropical flood-pulse wetland using silicon isotopes2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 142, no 0, p. 132-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical weathering of silicate minerals releases elements into solution whereas the neoformation of secondary minerals works in the opposite direction, potentially confounding estimates of silicate weathering rates. Silicon isotopes (δ30Si) may be a useful tool to investigate these processes. Here, we present 82 δ30Si measurements from surface waters, pore waters, biogenic silica (BSi), clays, sand and vegetation from the Okavango Delta, Botswana, a freshwater sub-tropical, flood-pulse wetland. Hydrologically, the Okavango is dominated by evapotranspiration water losses to the atmosphere. It receives an annual pulse of water that inundates seasonal floodplains, while river baseflow is sufficient to maintain a permanent floodplain. δ30Si in dissolved silica (DSi) in surface waters along a 300 km transect at near-peak flood show a limited range (0.36–1.19‰), implying the Delta is well buffered by a balance of processes adding and removing DSi from the surface water. A key control on DSi concentrations is the uptake, production of BSi and recycling of Si by aquatic vegetation, although the net isotopic effect is necessarily small since all BSi re-dissolves on short timescales. In the sediments, BSi δ30Si (n = 30) ranges from −1.49‰ to +0.31‰ and during dissolution, residual BSi tends towards higher δ30Si. The data permit a field-based estimate of the fractionation associated with BSi dissolution, ε30BSi-DSi = −0.26‰, though it is unclear if this is an artefact of the process of dissolution. Clay δ30Si ranges from −0.97‰ to +0.10‰, (n = 15, mean = −0.31‰) and include the highest values yet published, which we speculate may be due to an equilibrium isotope effect during diagenetic transformation of BSi. Two key trends in surface water DSi δ30Si merit further examination: declining δ30Si in an area roughly corresponding to the permanent floodplains despite net DSi removal, and increasing δ30Si in the area corresponding to the seasonal floodplains. We infer that evaporative enrichment of surface waters creates two contrasting regimes. Chemical weathering of low δ30Si phases releases low δ30Si DSi in the relatively dilute waters of the permanent floodplains, whereas silicon removal via clay formation or vegetation uptake is the dominant process in the more enriched, seasonal floodplains.

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  • 8. Hirst, Catherine
    et al.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Schmitt, Melanie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kutscher, Liselott
    Maximov, Trofim
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Porcelli, Don
    Iron isotopes reveal the sources of Fe-bearing particles and colloids in the Lena River basin2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hirst, Catherine
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Shaw, Samuel
    University of Manchester.
    Burke, Ian
    University of Leeds.
    Kutscher, Liselott
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Murphy, Melissa
    Oxford University.
    Maximov, Trofim
    Institute for Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk.
    Pokrovsky, Oleg
    University of Toulouse.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Porcelli, Don
    Oxford University.
    Characterisation of Fe-bearing particles and colloids in the Lena River basin, NE Russia2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 213, p. 553-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers are significant contributors of Fe to theocean. However, the characteristics of chemically reactive Fe remain poorly constrained, especially in large Arctic rivers, which drain landscapes highly susceptible to climate change and carbon cycle alteration. The aim of this study was a detailed characterisation (size, mineralogy, and speciation) of riverine Fe-bearing particles (> 0.22 µm) and colloids (1 kDa – 0.22 µm) and their association with organic carbon (OC), in the Lena River and tributaries, which drain a catchment almost entirely underlain by permafrost. Samples fromthe main channel and tributaries representing watersheds that span a wide rangein topography and lithology were taken after the spring flood in June 2013 and summer baseflow in July 2012. Fe-bearing particles were identified, usingTransmission Electron Microscopy, as large (200 nm – 1 µm) aggregates of smaller (20 nm - 30 nm) spherical colloids of chemically-reactive ferrihydrite.In contrast, there were also large (500 nm – 1 µm) aggregates of clay (illite) particles and smaller (100 - 200 nm) iron oxide particles (dominantly hematite) that contain poorly reactive Fe. TEM imaging and Scanning Transmission X-raymicroscopy (STXM) indicated that the ferrihydrite is present as discrete particles within networks of amorphous particulate organic carbon (POC) and attached to the surface of primary produced organic matter and clay particles.Together, these larger particles act as the main carriers of nanoscale ferrihydrite in the Lena River basin.  The chemically reactive ferrihydrite accounts for on average 70 ± 15 % of the total suspended Fe in the Lena River and tributaries. These observations place important constraints on Fe and OC cycling in the Lena River catchment area and Fe-bearing particle transport to the Arctic Ocean.

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  • 10.
    Horst, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Thornton, Brett F
    Stockholm University.
    Wishkerman, Asher
    Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Germany.
    Keppler, Frank
    Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University.
    Stable bromine isotopic composition of methyl bromide released from plant matter2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 125, p. 186-195Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Skogby, Henrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm universitet.
    Nazzareni, Sabrina
    Università di Perugia.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Resmark, Jeppa
    Lunds universitet.
    Coordination of boron in nominally boron-free rock forming silicates: evidence for incorporation of BO3 groups in clinopyroxene2010In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 74, p. 5672-5679Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Kemp, Anthony I.S.
    et al.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Vervoort, Jeffrey D.
    Deciphering the zircon Hf isotope systematics of Eoarchean gneisses from Greenland: Implications for ancient crust-mantle differentiation and Pb isotope controversies2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 250, p. 76-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a Hf isotope investigation of zircons from four Eoarchaean orthogneisses from the Godthåbsfjord region of southern West Greenland by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, to elucidate crust-mantle differentiation processes in the early Earth. Zircon crystals of all samples record a complex, multi-stage growth and disturbance history, and these discrete growth phases also exhibit disparate Lu-Hf isotope systematics. The oldest (3.84–3.82 Ga) zircon cores have tightly clustered 176Hf/177Hf ratios that are consistent with derivation of their tonalitic precursors from chondritic mantle at this time, with no evidence of input from older crustal or depleted mantle sources. Younger (3.67–3.62 Ga) zircon overgrowths have subchondritic Hf and plausibly grew from small fraction partial melts of the tonalitic host, involving variable dissolution of the older zircon cores. The Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) zircon component in some samples extends to significantly higher 176Hf/177Hf than the >3.65 Ga zircon, a feature that is interpreted to reflect addition of radiogenic Hf from the rock matrix during metamorphic zircon growth and recrystallisation at 2.7 Ga. The strongly positive εHf (3.82 Ga) values obtained by dissolution of GGU110999 zircons are interpreted to be an artifact of calculating εHf values at ages that are too old, and also from the inclusion of radiogenic younger domains in the analysed multi-grain fractions, rather than to a contribution from depleted Eoarchean mantle. Such data – from zircon grains with multiple age and isotopic components – should not be used to define the evolution of crust-mantle reservoirs. A re-interpretation of the existing Pb isotope data, incorporating the new Hf isotope constraints, posits that the protoliths to the Godthåbsfjörd gneisses were influenced by radiogenic Pb introduced as a fluid mobile component during recycling of a high-μ stagnant basaltic lid at ≥3.8 Ga. The destruction of this mafic protocrust, with attendant fluid release into chondritic mantle, may have been instrumental for the generation of stable Eoarchean tonalitic crust from ca. 3.8 Ga.

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  • 13.
    Kenny, Gavin G.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Petrus, Joseph A.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Daly, J. Stephen
    Kamber, Balz S.
    Hf isotope evidence for effective impact melt homogenisation at the Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 215, p. 317-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first zircon hafnium-oxygen isotope and trace element study of a transect through one of the largest terrestrial impact melt sheets. The differentiated melt sheet at the 1.85 Ga, originally ca. 200 km in diameter Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada, yields a tight range of uniform zircon Hf isotope compositions (εHf(1850) of ca. −9 to −12). This is consistent with its well-established crustal origin and indicates differentiation from a single melt that was initially efficiently homogenised. We propose that the heterogeneity in other isotopic systems, such as Pb, in early-emplaced impact melt at Sudbury is associated with volatility-related depletion during the impact cratering process. This depletion leaves the isotopic systems of more volatile elements more susceptible to contamination during post-impact assimilation of country rock, whereas the systems of more refractory elements preserve initial homogeneities. Zircon oxygen isotope compositions in the melt sheet are also restricted in range relative to those in the impacted target rocks. However, they display a marked offset approximately one-third up the melt sheet stratigraphy that is interpreted to be a result of post-impact assimilation of 18O-enirched rocks into the base of the cooling impact melt.

    Given that impact cratering was a more dominant process in the early history of the inner Solar System than it is today, and the possibility that impact melt sheets were sources of ex situ Hadean zircon grains, these findings may have significance for the interpretation of the early zircon Hf record. We speculate that apparent εHf-time arrays observed in the oldest terrestrial and lunar zircon datasets may be related to impact melting homogenising previously more diverse crust.

    We also show that spatially restricted partial melting of rocks buried beneath the superheated impact melt at Sudbury provided a zircon crystallising environment distinct to the impact melt sheet itself.

  • 14.
    Kenny, Gavin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Schmieder, Martin
    Lunar and Planetary Institute – USRA, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston TX 77058, USA.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Morales, Luiz
    Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (ScopeM), HPT D 9, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Buchner, Elmar
    HNU Neu-Ulm University of Applied Sciences, Wileystraße 1, 89231 Neu-Ulm, Germany.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Josh
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    A new U-Pb age for shock-recrystallised zircon from the Lappajärvi impact crater, Finland, and implications for the accurate dating of impact events2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 245, p. 479-494Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 15. Kusebauch, C.
    et al.
    John, T.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Klemme, S.
    Putnis, A.
    Distribution of halogens between fluid and apatite during fluid-mediated replacement processes.2015In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 170, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH, F, Cl)) is one of the main host of halogens in magmatic and metamorphic rocks and plays a unique role during fluid–rock interaction as it incorporates halogens (i.e. F, Cl, Br, I) and OH from hydrothermal fluids to form a ternary solid solution of the endmembers F-apatite, Cl-apatite and OH-apatite. Here, we present an experimental study to investigate the processes during interaction of Cl-apatite with different aqueous solutions (KOH, NaCl, NaF of different concentration also doped with NaBr, NaI) at crustal conditions (400–700 °C and 0.2 GPa) leading to the formation of new apatite. We use the experimental results to calculate partition coefficients of halogens between apatite and fluid. Due to a coupled dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism new apatite is always formed as a pseudomorphic replacement of Cl-apatite. Additionally, some experiments produce new apatite also as an epitaxial overgrowth. The composition of new apatite is mainly governed by complex characteristics of the fluid phase from which it is precipitating and depends on composition of the fluid, temperature and fluid to mineral ratio. Furthermore, replaced apatite shows a compositional zonation, which is attributed to a compositional evolution of the coexisting fluid in local equilibrium with the newly formed apatite. Apatite/fluid partition coefficients for F depend on the concentration of F in the fluid and increase from 75 at high concentrations (460 μg/g F) to 300 at low concentrations (46 μg/g F) indicating a high compatibility of F in apatite. A correlation of Cl-concentration in apatite with Cl concentration of fluid is not observed for experiments with highly saline solutions, composition of new apatite is rather governed by OH concentration of the hydrothermal fluid. Low partition coefficients were measured for the larger halogens Br and I and vary between 0.7 * 10−3–152 * 10−3 for Br and 0.3 * 10−3–17 * 10−3 for I, respectively. Br seems to have D values of about one order of magnitude higher than I. These data allow an estimation of the D values for the other halogens based on a lattice strain model which displays a sequence with DF of ∼120, DOH of ∼100, DCl of ∼2.3 DBr ∼0.045, and DI ∼0.0025. Results from this experimental study help to better understand fluid–rock interaction of an evolving fluid, as it enables the composition of hydrothermally derived apatite to be used as a fluid probe for halogens at crustal conditions. It further shows the importance of mineral replacement as one of the key reactions to generate apatite of different composition.

  • 16.
    merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Schärer, Urs
    Girardeau, Jacques
    Cornen, Guy
    Cretaceous seamounts along the continent–ocean transition of the Iberian margin: U–Pb ages and Pb–Sr–Hf isotopes2006In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 70, no 19, p. 4950-4976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To elucidate the age and origin of seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic, 54 titanite and 10 zircon fractions were dated by the U–Pb chronometer, and initial Pb, Sr, and Hf isotope ratios were measured in feldspars and zircon, respectively. Rocks analyzed are essentially trachy-andesites and trachytes dredged during the “Tore Madeira” cruise of the Atalante in 2001. The ages reveal different pulses of alkaline magmatism occurring at 104.4±1.4 (2σ) Ma and 102.8±0.7 Ma on the Sponge Bob seamount, at 96.3±1.0 Ma on Ashton seamount, at 92.3±3.8 Ma on the Gago Coutinho seamount, at 89.3±2.3 Ma and 86.5±3.4 Ma on the Jo Sister volcanic complex, and at 88.3±3.3 Ma, 88.2±3.9, and 80.5±0.9 Ma on the Tore locality. No space–time correlation is observed for alkaline volcanism in the northern section of the Tore-Madeira Rise, which occurred 20–30 m.y. after opening of the eastern North Atlantic. Initial isotope signatures are: 19.139–19.620 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.544–15.828 for 207Pb/204Pb, 38.750–39.936 for 208Pb/204Pb, 0.70231–0.70340 for 87Sr/86Sr, and +6.9 to +12.9 for initial epsilon Hf. These signatures are different from Atlantic MORB, the Madeira Archipelago and the Azores, but they lie in the field of worldwide OIB. The Cretaceous seamounts therefore seem to be generated by melts from a OIB-type source that interact with continental lithospheric mantle lying formerly beneath Iberia and presently within the ocean–continent transition zone. Inheritance in zircon and high 207Pb of initial Pb substantiate the presence of very minor amounts of continental material in the lithospheric mantle. A long-lived thermal anomaly is the most plausible explanation for alkaline magmatism since 104 Ma and it could well be that the same anomaly is still the driving force for tertiary and quaternary alkaline magmatism in the eastern North Atlantic region. This hypothesis is agreement with the plate-tectonic position of the region since Cretaceous time, including an about 30° anti-clockwise rotation of Iberia.

  • 17.
    Murphy, Melissa
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Porcelli, Don
    University of Oxford.
    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip
    University College London.
    Hirst, Catherine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kutscher, Liselott
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Katchinoff, Joachim
    Yale University.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Maximov, Trofim
    Institute for Biological Problems in the Cryolitic Zone, Yakutsk.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Tracingsilicate weathering processes in the permafrost-dominated Lena River watershedusing lithium isotopes2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 245, p. 154-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing global temperatures are causing widespread changes in the Arctic, including permafrost thawing and altered freshwater inputs and trace metal and carbon fluxes into the ocean and atmosphere. Changes in the permafrost active layer thickness can affect subsurface water flow paths and water-rock interaction times, and hence weathering processes. Riverine lithium isotope ratios (reported as δ7Li) are tracers of silicate weathering that are unaffected by biological uptake, redox, carbonate weathering and primary lithology. Here we use Li isotopes to examine silicate weathering processes in one of the largest Russian Arctic rivers: the Lena River in eastern Siberia. The Lena River watershed is a large multi-lithological catchment, underlain by continuous permafrost. An extensive dataset of dissolved Li isotopic compositions of waters from the Lena River main channel, two main tributaries (the Aldan and Viliui Rivers) and a range of smaller sub tributaries are presented from the post-spring flood/early-summer period at the onset of active layer development and enhanced water-rock interactions. The Lena River main channel (average δ7Lidiss ~19‰) has a slightly lower isotopic composition than the mean global average of 23‰ (Huh

    et al., 1998a). The greatest range of [Li] and δ7Lidiss are observed in catchments draining the south facing slopes of the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range. South-facing slopes in high-latitude, permafrost dominated regions are typically characterised by increased summer insolation and higher daytime temperatures relative to other slope aspects. The increased solar radiation on south-facing catchments promotes repeated freeze-thaw cycles, and contributes to more rapid melting of snow cover, warmer soils, and increased active layer thaw depths. The greater variability in δ7Li and [Li] in the south-facing rivers likely reflect the greater infiltration of melt water and enhanced water rock interactions within the active layer. A similar magnitude of isotopic fractionation is observed between the low-lying regions of the Central Siberian Plateau (and catchments draining into the Viliui River), and catchments draining the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range into the Aldan River. This is in contrast to global rivers in non permafrost terrains that drain high elevations or areas of rapid uplift, where high degrees of physical erosion promote dissolution of freshly exposed primary rock typically yielding low δ7Lidiss, and low lying regions exhibit high riverine δ7Li values resulting from greater water-rock interaction and formation of secondary mineral that fractionates Li isotopes. Overall, the range of Li concentrations and δ7Lidiss observed within the Lena River catchment are comparable to global rivers located in temperate and tropical regions. This suggests that cryogenic weathering features specific to permafrost regions (such as the continual exposure of fresh primary minerals due to seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, frost shattering and salt weathering), and climate (temperature and runoff), are not a dominant control on δ7Li variations. Despite vastly different climatic and weathering regimes, the same range of riverine δ7Li values globally suggests that the same processes govern Li geochemistry – that is, the balance between primary silicate mineral dissolution and the formation (or exchange with) secondary minerals. This has implications for the use of δ7Li as a palaeo weathering tracer for interpreting changes in past weathering regimes.

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  • 18.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Jeon, Heejin
    University of Western Australia.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Timms, Nick
    Curtin University.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kilburn, Matthew
    University of Western Australia.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Pb-Pb ages of feldspathic clasts in two Apollo 14 breccia samples2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 217, p. 441-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pb-Pb isochron ages of ca. 3.92 Ga for three K-feldspar-rich clasts from Apollo 14 breccias 14303 and 14083 were determinedusing Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). These ages are interpreted to represent the resetting of the U-Pb systemin the clasts as a result of brecciation during the Imbrium impact. One of the clasts contains zircon grains that record asignificantly older crystallization age (ca. 4.33–4.35 Ga) for the rock represented by that clast. Initial Pb compositions determinedfor the clasts, combined with the previously measured Pb isotopic compositions of K-feldspar grains from severalApollo 14 breccia samples, constrain a range of initial Pb compositions in the ca. 3.9 Ga Fra Mauro formation at the Apollo14 landing site. This range in initial Pb compositions indicates that the rocks represented by these clasts, or the sources ofthose rocks, evolved with a high 238U/204Pb (µ-value) for substantial periods of time, although the precise crystallization agesof the rocks represented by at least two of the clasts investigated here are unknown.

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  • 19. Niu, D.J.
    et al.
    Renock, D.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Leone, J.
    Rowe, H.
    Landis, J.D.
    Hamren, K.
    Symcox, C.W.
    Sharma, M.
    A relict sulfate-methane transition zone in the mid-Devonian Marcellus Shale.2016In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 182, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A barium-enriched interval of Marcellus Shale (Middle Devonian Oatka Creek Formation) from a core in Chenango County, NY contains ∼100 μm diameter ellipsoidal grains with variable mineralogical compositions between pure barite and pure pyrite endmembers. Petrographic characterization and in-situ sulfur isotope analysis by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) was performed to better understand the diagenetic conditions under which these grains form and are preserved in the shale. Textural relationships suggest partial to complete pseudomorphic replacement of ellipsoidal barite by pyrite. Spatially, the ellipsoidal grains are concentrated in discrete layers parallel to original bedding and intervals within these layers often contain grains with similar degrees of replacement. The fraction of barite replaced by pyrite between these intervals can vary significantly, which is remarkable considering these intervals are separated by stratigraphic distances on the order of mm to cm in the shale (depths equivalent to deposition over 10’s–1000’s of years).

    The mean δ34S of barite and pyrite in ellipsoidal grains is 63.3 ± 3.6‰ and 2.2 ± 3.0‰, respectively, indicating that the grains are authigenic. Mass balance calculations based on density and stoichiometric differences between barite and pyrite indicate that reduction of sulfate from barite alone cannot be the sole source of sulfur in the replaced grains: only ∼23% of sulfur in pyrite comes from the dissolution of barite while the remainder derives from an additional source with δ34S = −17.6 ± 1.3‰. We suggest that pseudomorphic replacement of barite led first to the formation of greigite (Fe3S4), where one mole of sulfur was provided by barite and the other three moles of sulfur were contributed by FeS(aq); the latter formed by reaction of Fe2 + with sulfide from microbial sulfate reduction. Transformation of greigite to pyrite occurred via the sulfur addition and/or iron loss pathways. These observations suggest the following mechanism for the replacement of barite by pyrite in the ellipsoidal barite grains: (1) burial of authigenic barite below the sulfate–methane transition zone (SMTZ), and (2) partial to complete dissolution of the grain and concomitant precipitation of greigite (and its subsequent transformation to pyrite) in the presence of pore water depleted in sulfate and enriched in FeS(aq) and polysulfides. We suggest that closely-spaced intervals containing different barite to pyrite ratios may reflect fine-scale temporal shifts or fluctuations in the position of the SMTZ due to variable rates of methanogenesis and/or sedimentation during diagenesis.

  • 20. Pidgeon, R.T.
    et al.
    Nemchin, A.A.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia.2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 197, p. 142-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the result of a SIMS U–Th–Pb and O–OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U–Th–Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U–Th–Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U–Th–Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U–Th–Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the “mantle” range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U–Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U–Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar to those reported in a previous study of zircons from an Archean granite from south-western Australia.

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  • 21. Pogge von Strandmann, Philip AE
    et al.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Murphy, Melissa J
    Lithium isotope behaviour during weathering in the Ganges Alluvial Plain2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 198, p. 17-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ganges river system is responsible for the transportation of a large flux of dissolved materials derived from Himalayan weathering to the oceans. Silicate weathering-driven cooling resulting from uplift of the Himalayas has been proposed to be a key player in Cenozoic climate variation. This study has analysed Li isotope (d7Li) ratios from over 50 Ganges river waters and sediments, in order to trace silicate weathering processes. Sediments have d7Li of $0‰, identical to bulk continental crust, however suspended sediment depth profiles do not display variations associated with grain size that have been observed in other large river systems. Dissolved d7Li are low ($11‰) in the Ganges headwaters, but reach a constant value of 21 ± 1.6‰ within a relatively short distance downstream, which is then maintained for almost 2000 km to the Ganges mouth. Given that Li isotopes are controlled by the ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation, this suggests that the Ganges floodplain is at steady-state in terms of these processes for most of its length. Low d7Li in the mountainous regions suggest silicate weathering is therefore at its most congruent where uplift and fresh silicate exposure rates are high. However, there is no correlation between d7Li and the silicate weathering rate in these rivers, suggesting that Li isotopes can- not be used as a weathering-rate tracer, although they do inform on weathering congruency and intensity. The close-to- constant d7Li values for the final 2000 km of Ganges flow also suggest that once the size of the alluvial plain reached more than $500 km (the flow distance after which riverine d7Li stops varying), the Ganges exerted little influence on the changing Cenozoic seawater d7Li, because riverine d7Li attained a near steady-state composition. 

  • 22. Roszjar, J.
    et al.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Terada, K.
    Fukuda, K.
    John, T.
    Bischoff, A.
    Morishita, Y.
    Hiyagon, H.
    Chemical, microstructural and chronological record of phosphates in the Ksar Ghilane 002 enriched shergottite2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 245, p. 385-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enriched basaltic (martian) shergottite Ksar Ghilane (KG) 002, discovered in 2010, is exceptionally rich in coexisting but discrete apatite and merrillite crystals. It has been selected to better constrain the formation conditions and post-crystallization processes, and thus the evolution of martian rocks based on Ca-phosphates. A petrological, chemical, chronological and microstructural approach using a series of high-spatial resolution techniques including Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy (SEM, EPMA, CL-imaging) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis has been applied to a representative number of Ca-phosphate grains. Analytical results for apatite and merrillite reveal: (i) zoning in F, Cl, Br and I concentrations, (ii) elevated Cl concentrations in the range of ∼11,900–35,300 µg/g and halogen ratios, i.e., Cl/Br and Cl/I, as well as stable chlorine isotope composition, reported as δ37Cl values rel. to Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC, defined as 0‰) with a value of +0.67 ± 0.14‰ (1σ), distinguishing KG 002 phosphates from that of other enriched and depleted shergottites. The halogen and heavier δ37Cl record indicate a slightly higher degree of ∼3.5% assimilation of Cl-rich and isotopically heavier crustal reservoir on Mars when compared to other enriched shergottites. (iii) Structural investigations together with the chemical and petrological context of the grains confirm the occurrence of hydroxyl-poor merrillite, indicate weak if any alteration effects induced by metamictization, only minor structural modifications due to shock metamorphism, and absence of replacement reactions. Therefore, igneous crystallization of Ca-phosphates from a fractionated, hydrous and ferrous mantle source, rich in volatiles including the halogens and Na and lithophile rare earth-elements, and absence of interaction with crustal fluids/brines of the sample is deduced. (iv) The Pb isotopic composition of six apatite and three merrillite grains is highly unradiogenic and the 238U-206Pb record yields a phosphate crystallization time at 395 ± 240 Ma (2σ), which is similar to those of other enriched shergottites.

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  • 23. Snape, Joshua F.
    et al.
    Nemchin, Alexander A.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hopkinson, Thomas
    Anand, Mahesh
    The timing of basaltic volcanism at the Apollo landing sites2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 266, p. 29-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise crystallisation ages have been determined for a range of Apollo basalts from Pb-Pb isochrons generated using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of multiple accessory phases including K-feldspar, K-rich glass and phosphates. The samples analysed in this study include five Apollo 11 high-Ti basalts, one Apollo 14 high-Al basalt, seven Apollo 15 low-Ti basalts, and five Apollo 17 high-Ti basalts. Together with the samples analysed in two previous similar studies, Pb-Pb isochron ages have been determined for all of the major basaltic suites sampled during the Apollo missions. The accuracy of these ages has been assessed as part of a thorough review of existing age determinations for Apollo basalts, which reveals a good agreement with previous studies of the same samples, as well as with average ages that have been calculated for the emplacement of the different basaltic suites at the Apollo landing sites. Furthermore, the precision of the new age determinations helps to resolve distinctions between the ages of different basaltic suites in more detail than was previously possible. The proposed ages for the basaltic surface flows at the Apollo landing sites have been reviewed in light of these new sample ages. Finally, the data presented here have also been used to constrain the initial Pb isotopic compositions of the mare basalts, which indicate a significant degree of heterogeneity in the lunar mantle source regions, even among the basalts collected at individual landing sites.

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  • 24. Snape, Joshua F.
    et al.
    Nemchin, Alexander A.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    merle, renaud
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Hopkinson, Thomas
    Anand, Mahesh
    The timing of basaltic volcanism at the Apollo landing sites2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 266, p. 29-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise crystallisation ages have been determined for a range of Apollo basalts from Pb-Pb isochrons generated using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of multiple accessory phases including K-feldspar, K-rich glass and phosphates. The samples analysed in this study include five Apollo 11 high-Ti basalts, one Apollo 14 high-Al basalt, seven Apollo 15 low-Ti basalts, and five Apollo 17 high-Ti basalts. Together with the samples analysed in two previous similar studies, Pb-Pb isochron ages have been determined for all of the major basaltic suites sampled during the Apollo missions. The accuracy of these ages has been assessed as part of a thorough review of existing age determinations for Apollo basalts, which reveals a good agreement with previous studies of the same samples, as well as with average ages that have been calculated for the emplacement of the different basaltic suites at the Apollo landing sites. Furthermore, the precision of the new age determinations helps to resolve distinctions between the ages of different basaltic suites in more detail than was previously possible. The proposed ages for the basaltic surface flows at the Apollo landing sites have been reviewed in light of these new sample ages. Finally, the data presented here have also been used to constrain the initial Pb isotopic compositions of the mare basalts, which indicate a significant degree of heterogeneity in the lunar mantle source regions, even among the basalts collected at individual landing sites.

  • 25.
    Snape, Joshua
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Curtin University.
    Grange, Marion
    Curtin University.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Thiessen, Fiona
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Phosphate ages in Apollo 14 breccias: Resolving multiple impact events with high precision U-Pb SIMS analyses2016In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 174, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The U-Pb systems of apatite and merrillite grains within four separate Apollo 14 impact melt breccia samples were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. No systematic difference was identified between the 207Pb/206Pb ages of the apatites and merrillites. A combined 207Pb/206Pb age of 3927±2 Ma (95% conf.) is determined for three of these samples (14305,103: 3926±4 Ma; 14306,150: 3926±6 Ma; 14314,13: 3929±4 Ma). By combining these data with the ages previously obtained for zircons in Apollo 12 impact melt breccia fragments and the lunar meteorite SaU 169, a weighted average age of 3926±2 Ma (95% conf.) is obtained, which is attributed to the formation of the Imbrium basin. An age of 3943±5 Ma is determined for the fourth breccia (14321,134), which is similar to ages of 3946±15 Ma and 3958±19 Ma, obtained from several older phosphates in 14305,103 and 14314,13. The weighted average of these three older ages is 3944±4 Ma (95% conf.). This is indistinguishable to the age (3938±4 Ma; 2σ) obtained for a different Apollo 14 impact melt breccia in a previous study. After investigating likely sources for this older ~3940 Ma age, we conclude that the Humorum or Serenitatis basin forming events are likely candidates. The potential identification of two large impact events within ~15 Myrs has important implications for the rate of lunar bombardment around 3.95-3.92 Ga. This study demonstrates the importance of high-precision age determinations for interpreting the impact record of the Moon, as documented in lunar samples.

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    Snape et al. 2016 - Apollo 14 phosphates
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  • 26. Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Porcelli, Don
    Kutscher, Liselott
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hirst, Catherine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Murphy, Melissa J.
    Maximov, Trofim
    Petrov, Roman E.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Schmitt, Melanie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Stable silicon isotopic compositions of the Lena River and its tributaries: Implications for silicon delivery to the Arctic Ocean2018In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 241, p. 120-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon isotope values (d30SiDSi) of dissolved silicon (DSi) have been analyzed in the Lena River and its tributaries, one ofthe largest Arctic watersheds in the world. The geographical and temporal variations of d30SiDSi range from +0.39 to +1.86‰with DSi concentrations from 34 to 121 lM. No obvious patterns of DSi concentrations and d30SiDSi values were observedalong over 200 km of the two major tributaries, the Viliui and Aldan Rivers. In summer, the variations of DSi concentrationsand d30SiDSi values in the water are either caused by biological uptake by higher plants and phytoplankton or by mixing ofwater masses carrying different DSi concentrations and d30SiDSi values. DSi in tributaries from the Verkhoyansk MountainRange seems to be associated with secondary clay formation that increased the d30SiDSi values, while terrestrial biological productionis likely more prevalent in controlling d30SiDSi values in Central Siberian Plateau and Lena Amganski Inter-RiverArea. In winter, when soils were frozen, the d30SiDSi values in the river appeared to be controlled by weathering and clay formationin deep intrapermafrost groundwater. During the spring flood, dissolved silicate materials and phytoliths were flushedfrom the upper thawed soils into rivers, which reset d30SiDSi values to the values observed prior to the biological bloom insummer. The results indicate that the Si isotope values reflect the changing processes controlling Si outputs to the Lena Riverand to the Arctic Ocean between seasons. The annual average d30SiDSi value of the Lena Si flux is calculated to be +0.86± 0.3‰ using measured d30SiDSi values from each season. Combined with the estimate of +1.6 ± 0.25‰ for the Yenisey River,an updated d30SiDSi value of the major river Si inputs to the Arctic Ocean is estimated to be +1.3 ± 0.3‰. This value isexpected to shift towards higher values in the future because of the impacts from a variety of biological and geochemicalprocesses and sources under global warming.

  • 27.
    Sun, Xiaole
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University Kalmar, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Fry, Brian
    Griffith University Australia.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linneaus University Kalmar, Sweden.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Effects of growth and dissolution on the fractionationof silicon isotopes by estuarine diatoms2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 130, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 28.
    Thiessen, Fiona
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Apollo 12 breccia 12013: Impact-induced partial Pb loss inzircon and its implications for lunar geochronology2018In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 230, p. 94-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apollo 12 breccia 12013 is composed of two portions, one grey in colour, the other black. The grey portion of the brecciaconsists mainly of felsite thought to have formed during a single crystallisation event, while the black part is characterized bypresence of lithic fragments of noritic rocks and individual plagioclase crystals. In this study, U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphateand zircon grains were conducted in both portions of the breccia. The zircon grains within the grey portion yielded a largerange of ages (4154 ± 7 to 4308 ± 6 Ma, 2r) and show decreasing U and Th concentrations within the younger grains. Moreover,some grains exhibit recrystallisation features and potentially formation of neoblasts. The latter process requires hightemperatures above 1600–1700 C leading to the decomposition of the primary zircon grain and subsequent formation ofnew zircon occurring as neoblasts. As a result of the high temperatures, the U-Pb system of the remaining original zircongrains was most likely open for Pb diffusion causing partial resetting and the observed range of 207Pb/206Pb ages. The eventthat led to the Pb loss in zircon could potentially be dated by the U-Pb system in Ca-phosphates, which have a weighted average207Pb/206Pb age across both lithologies of 3924 ± 3 Ma (95% conf.). This age is identical within error to the combinedaverage 207Pb/206Pb age of 3926 ± 2 Ma that was previously obtained from Ca-phosphates within Apollo 14 breccias, zircongrains in Apollo 12 impact melt breccias, and the lunar meteorite SaU 169. This age was interpreted to date the Imbriumimpact. The zircon grains located within the black portion of the breccia yielded a similar range of ages (4123 ± 13 to4328 ± 14 Ma, 2r) to those in the grey portion. Given the brecciated nature of this part of the sample, the interpretationof these ages as representing igneous crystallisation or resetting by impact events remains ambiguous since there is no directlink to their source rocks via textural relationships or crystal chemistry. Similarly, the currently available zircon data set for alllunar samples may be distorted by partial Pb loss, resulting in meaningless and misleading age distribution patterns. Therefore,it is crucial to fully understand and recognize the processes and conditions that may lead to partial resetting of the U-Pbsystem in zircon in order to better constrain the magmatic and impact history of the Moon.

  • 29.
    Trezzi, Giada
    et al.
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Garcia-Orellana, Jordi
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodellas, Valentí
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Masque, Pere
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Garcia-Solsona, Ester
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Assessing the role of submarine groundwater discharge as a source of Sr to the Mediterranean Sea2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 200, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been identified as an

    important source of Sr to the ocean and the SGD-driven Sr flux to the

    global ocean has been recently re-evaluated (Beck et al. 2013). However,

    the uncertainty of this value is still high because of the uncertainties

    related to the determination of SGD flow rates and the paucity of

    87Sr/86Sr data in SGD end-members. As carbonates have high Sr

    concentrations and are subjected to intense heightened weathering, they

    might significantly influence the SGD input of Sr to the ocean. Here we

    present data on Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in three carbonate

    dominated sites of the western area of the Mediterranean Sea, a semienclosed

    basin characterized by abundant coastal carbonates. The

    87Sr/86Sr ratios in groundwater were lower compared to modern seawater (~

    0.70916), as expected for areas dominated by carbonate lithologies.

    Concentrations of Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in groundwater showed

    conservative mixing in the studied subterranean estuaries. By using SGD

    flow rates reported in the literature for the study areas, a meteoric

    SGD-driven Sr flux of (0.12 - 2.1)·103 mol d-1 km-1 was calculated for

    the region, with a fresh SGD end-member characterized by a Sr

    concentration of 27 - 30 μM and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.708020 - 0.707834.

    Integrating these Sr data with literature data (i.e. values of Sr

    concentration and 87Sr/86Sr ratio from other lithologies as well as SGD

    flow rates), we also calculated the fresh SGD-driven Sr flux to the

    entire Mediterranean Sea, obtaining a value of (0.34 - 0.83)·109 mol y-1,

    with a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7086 - 0.7081. Thus, for the entire Mediterranean

    basin, SGD is globally a source of Sr less radiogenic compared to

    seawater. The SGD Sr flux to the Mediterranean Sea represents 5-6% of the

    SGD Sr flux to the global ocean and the Mediterranean SGD end-member has

    higher Sr concentration (5.0 - 12 μM) than the global SGD end-member (2.9

    μM). This confirms the significant role of carbonate lithologies on SGDdriven

    Sr fluxes to seawater.

    The fresh SGD-driven Sr flux to the Mediterranean Sea is about 20 - 50%

    of the riverine Sr input and significantly higher than the input through

    atmospheric dust deposition. Therefore SGD should be considered as an

    important continental source of Sr to the basin.

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  • 30. van der Meer, Quinten H.A.
    et al.
    Scott, James M.
    Serre, Simon H.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kristoffersen, Magnus
    Le Roux, Petrus J.
    Pope, Emily C.
    Low-δ18O zircon xenocrysts in alkaline basalts; a window into the complex carbonatite-metasomatic history of the Zealandia lithospheric mantle2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 254, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Megacrystic zircon grains from alkaline basaltic fields are rare but can provide fundamental insights into mantle metasomatic processes. Here, we report in-situ U-Pb ages, trace element concentrations and hafnium and oxygen isotopes for fourteen zircon megacrysts from two intraplate alkaline basalt locations in New Zealand. U-Pb ages indicate the zircons crystallised between 12.1 and 19.8 Ma. Zircon oxygen isotopic compositions range from low to mantle-like compositions (grain average δ18O = 3.8–5.1‰). Hafnium isotopes (εHf(t) = +3.3 to +10.4) mostly overlap with intraplate mafic rocks and clinopyroxene in metasomatized peridotitic mantle xenoliths but show no correlation with most trace element parameters or oxygen isotopes. The zircons are interpreted to have formed by the reaction between low-degree melts derived from pre-existing mantle metasomes and the depleted mantle lithosphere prior to eruption and transport to the surface. The low Hf concentration, an absence of Eu anomalies, and elevated U/Yb compared to Nb/Yb in the megacrystic zircons are interpreted to show that the source metasomes comprised subduction- and carbonatite-metasomatised lithospheric mantle. As these trace element characteristics are common for megacrystic zircon in intra-plate basaltic fields globally, they suggest the prevalence of subduction- and carbonatite-metsasomatised mantle under these intraplate volcanic regions. The unusually low δ18O was likely present prior to metasomatic enrichment and may have resulted from high-temperature hydrothermal alteration during initial mantle lithosphere formation at a mid ocean ridge or, possibly, during subduction-related processes associated with continent formation. The combination of proportionally varied contributions from carbonatite- and subduction-metasomatised lithospheric melts with asthenospheric melts may explain the variety of primitive intraplate basalt compositions, including low δ18O reported for some local intraplate lavas.

  • 31. van Zuilen, M. A.
    et al.
    Philippot, P.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Lepland, A.
    Sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation in impact depositsof the 3.2 billion-year-old Mapepe Formation,Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 142, p. 429-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that atmospheric SO2 isotopologue self-shielding effects in the 190–220 nmregion of the solar spectrum are the likely cause for mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF). The main productsof this photochemical reaction – SO3 and S0 – typically define a compositional array of ca. D33S/d34S = 0.06–0.14. This is atodds with the generally observed trend in Archean sulfides, which broadly defines an array of ca. D33S/d34S = 0.9. Various explanationshave been proposed, including a diminution of d34S caused by chemical and biogenic mass-dependent fractionation ofsulfur isotopes (S-MDF), mixing with photolytic products produced during felsic volcanic events, or partial blocking of the lowwavelengthpart of the spectrum due to the presence of reduced atmospheric gases or an organic haze. Early in Earth history largemeteorite impacts would have ejected dust and gas clouds into the atmosphere that shielded solar radiation and affected globalclimate. It is thus likely that at certain time intervals of high meteorite flux the atmosphere was significantly perturbed, having aneffect on atmospheric photochemistry and possibly leaving anomalous sulfur isotopic signatures in the rock record. Here wedescribe the sulfur isotopic signatures in sulfides of spherule beds S2, S3 and S4 of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa.In particular, in spherule bed S3 – and to a lesser extent S4 – a trend of ca. D33S/d34S = 0.23 is observed that closely follows theexpected trend for SO2-photolysis in the 190–220 nm spectral range. This suggests that an impact dust cloud (deposited as spherulebeds), which sampled the higher region of the atmosphere, specifically incorporated products of SO2 photolysis in the 190–220 nm range, and blocked photochemical reactions at higher wavelengths (250–330 nm band). By implication, the generallyobserved Archean trend appears to be the result of mixing of different MIF-S sources arising from a variety of photochemicalreactions that took place in the lower part of the atmosphere.

  • 32. Visser, Robbin
    et al.
    John, Timm
    Patzek, Markus
    Bischoff, Addi
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Sulfur isotope study of sulfides in CI, CM, C2ung chondrites and volatile-rich clasts – Evidence for different generations and reservoirs of sulfide formation2019In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 261, p. 210-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciphering aspects of the solar system’s formation process and the origin of planetary bodies can be achieved by examining primitive solar system materials, as these materials reflect the early solar system composition and may represent the building blocks of planetary bodies. Along these lines, knowing the original composition of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites is a valuable asset for determining the conditions in the parent bodies where they formed. Therefore, to determine the key characteristics of the parent bodies from which the carbonaceous chondrites and primitive materials are derived, we examined chemical and sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides in CM, CI and C2ung carbonaceous chondrites as well as from CM- and CI-like volatile-rich clasts; such an investigation allows us to explore the origin of these sulfides and to determine the primordial S composition of their parent body source region. In this study, sulfides from 7 CM, CI, and C2ung carbonaceous chondrites and 16 chondritic and achondritic breccias containing volatile-rich clasts were analyzed by electron microprobe and SIMS. Different sulfides were found, which shows evidence of different formation origins. Based on compositions and exsolution textures, we suggest that one fraction of the sulfides in both clasts and chondrites formed at high temperatures prior to incorporation into the parent body. The other sulfides most likely have a secondary origin and precipitated during fluid–rock interaction. Furthermore, differences in the S isotopic signature of the sulfides in chondrites correlate with the degree of aqueous alteration of the carbonaceous host rocks (CM or CI). Studying the sulfides of the volatile-rich clasts in brecciated chondrites and achondrites, a similar fractionation cannot be seen. Even though the mineralogy of CI chondrites and CI-like clasts is similar, the sulfides in CI chondrites appear to be enriched in heavy isotopes compared to those in the clasts (δ34S + 1‰ (CI) vs −2‰ (CI-like clast). This could have been caused by different alteration conditions, or it represents a different sampling reservoir. In this study a large S isotopic fractionation between pentlandite and pyrrhotite was found in large primarily formed sulfides showing exsolution textures, indicating that pentlandite prefers to incorporate light S isotopes. Considering the S isotope composition of the exsolved phase which can be found in CM- and CI-like clasts, the pristine δ34S value of the original monosulfide solid solution (mss) is estimated to be ∼−2‰. This value possibly resembles the sampling reservoir from which the sulfides formed, indicating that both CM- and CI-like clasts derived from a similar reservoir, and this reservoir is different from the formation reservoir of the CI chondrites.

  • 33.
    Weis, Franz
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Henrik, Skogby ()
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Stalder, Roland
    University of Innsbruck.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Water content in the Martian mantle: A Nakhla perspective2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 212, p. 84-98Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 33 of 33
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