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  • 1. Augustsson, Carita
    et al.
    Rüsing, Tobias
    Niemeyer, Hans
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Berndt, Jasper
    Bahlburg, Heinrich
    Zimmermann, Udo
    0.3 byr of drainage stability along the Palaeozoic palaeo-Pacific Gondwana margin; a detrital zircon study2015In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 172, p. 186-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The palaeo-Pacific margin of Gondwana in the present-day south–central Andes is marked by tectonic activity related to subduction and terrane accretion. We present detrital zircon U–Pb data encompassing the Palaeozoic era in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. Cathodoluminescence images reveal dominantly magmatic zircon barely affected by abrasion and displaying only one growth phase. The main age clusters for these zircon grains are Ediacaran to Palaeozoic with an additional peak at 1.3–0.9 Ga and they can be correlated with ‘Grenvillian’ age, and the Brasiliano, Pampean, and Famatinian orogenies. The zircon data reveal main transport from the nearby Ordovician Famatinian arc and related rocks. The Silurian sandstone units are more comparable with Cambrian units, with Brasiliano and Transamazonian ages (2.2–1.9 Ga) being more common, because the Silurian deposits were situated within or east of the (extinct) Famatinian arc. Hence, the arc acted as a transport barrier throughout Palaeozoic time. The complete suite of zircon ages does not record the accretions of exotic terranes or the Palaeozoic glacial periods. We conclude that the transport system along the palaeo-Pacific margin of Gondwana remained stable for c. 0.3 byr and that provenance data do not necessarily reflect the interior of a continent. Hence, inherited geomorphological features must be taken into account when detrital mineral ages are interpreted.

  • 2. Harper, David
    et al.
    Hammarlund, Emma
    Topper, Timothy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Nielsen, Arne
    Rasmussen, Jan
    Park, Tae-Yoon
    Smith, Paul
    The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland: a remote window on the Cambrian Explosion2019In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 176, p. 1023-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lower Cambrian Lagerstätte of Sirius Passet, Peary Land, North Greenland, is one of the oldest of the Phanerozoic exceptionally preserved biotas. The Lagerstätte evidences the escalation of numbers of new body plans and life modes that formed the basis for a modern, functionally tiered ecosystem. The fauna is dominated by predators, infaunal, benthic and pelagic, and the presence of abundant nekton, including large sweep-net feeders, suggests an ecosystem rich in nutrients. Recent discoveries have helped reconstruct digestive systems and their contents, muscle fibres, and visual and nervous systems for a number of taxa. New collections have confirmed the complex combination of taphonomic pathways associated with the biota and its potentially substantial biodiversity. These complex animal-based communities within the Buen Formation were associated with microbial matgrounds, now preserved in black mudstones deposited below storm wave base that provide insight into the shift from late Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) to Cambrian substrates and communities. Moreover, the encasing sediment holds important data on the palaeoenvironment and the water-column chemistry, suggesting that these animal-based communities developed in conditions with very low oxygen concentrations.

  • 3. Heinonen, A.
    et al.
    Andersen, T.
    Rämö, O.T.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    The source of Proterozoic anorthosite and rapakivi granite magmatism: evidence from combined in situ Hf–O isotopes of zircon in the Ahvenisto complex, southeastern Finland.2015In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 172, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The isotope compositions of massif-type anorthosites in Proterozoic anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–granite (AMCG) complexes are commonly dominated by crustal values. Olivine-bearing anorthositic rocks in several AMCG suites have, however, been shown to display juvenile character, suggesting that variably depleted mantle reservoirs were involved in their genesis. A coupled in situ zircon Hf–O isotope dataset from the 1.64 Ga Ahvenisto AMCG complex in the 1.54–1.65 Ga Fennoscandian rapakivi granite–massif-type anorthosite province reveals correlated juvenile isotope signals (δ18Ozrn = 5.4–6.6‰; initial ϵHf = −1.1 to +3.4) in the most primitive gabbroic rock type of the suite suggesting a depleted mantle origin for the anorthositic rocks. This signal is not as prominent in the more evolved co-magmatic anorthositic rocks (δ18Ozrn = 6.3–7.8‰; initial ϵHf = −0.8 to +2.0), most probably owing to contamination of the mantle-derived primary magma by crustal material. A rapakivi granite associated with the anorthositic rocks has different isotope composition (δ18Ozrn = 7.4–8.6‰; initial ϵHf = −2.1 to +0.5) that points to a crustal source.

  • 4. Riley, T.R.
    et al.
    Flowerdew, M.J.
    Pankhust, R.J.
    Curtis, M.L.
    Fanning, C.M.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Early Jurassic magmatism on the Antarctic Peninsula and potential correlation with the Subcordilleran plutonic belt of Patagonia.2017In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 174, p. 365-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early Jurassic silicic volcanic rocks of the Chon Aike Province (V1: 187 – 182 Ma) are 30 recognised from many localities in the southern Antarctic Peninsula and northeast Patagonia and are 31 essentially coeval with the extensive Karoo (182 Ma) and Ferrar (183 Ma) large igneous provinces of 32 pre-breakup Gondwana. Until recently, plutonic rocks of this age were considered either rare or 33 absent from the Antarctic Peninsula batholith, which was thought to have been mainly constructed 34 during the Middle Jurassic and the mid-Cretaceous. New U-Pb zircon geochronology from the 35 Antarctic Peninsula and recently published U-Pb ages from elsewhere on the Peninsula and 36 Patagonia are used to demonstrate the more widespread nature of Early Jurassic plutonism. Eight 37 samples are dated here from the central and southern Antarctic Peninsula. They are all moderately 38 to strongly foliated granitoids (tonalite, granite, granodiorite) and locally represent the crystalline 39 basement. They yield ages in the range 188 – 181 Ma, and overlap with published ages of 185 – 180 40 Ma from granitoids from elsewhere on the Antarctic Peninsula and from the Subcordilleran plutonic 41 belt of Patagonia (185 – 181 Ma). Whilst Early Jurassic plutons of the Subcordilleran plutonic belt of 42 Patagonia are directly related to subduction processes along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana, 43 coeval volcanic rocks of the Chon Aike Province are interpreted to be directly associated with 44 extension and plume activity during the initial stages of Gondwana break-up. This indicates that 45 subduction was ongoing when Chon Aike Province volcanism started. The Early Jurassic plutonism on 46 the Antarctic Peninsula is transitional between subduction-related and break-up related 47 magamatism.

  • 5. Woodard, J.
    et al.
    Tuisku, P.
    Kärki, A.
    Lahaye, Y.
    Majka, J.
    Huhma, H.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Zircon and monazite geochronology of deformation in the Pielavesi Shear Zone, Finland: multistage evolution of the Archaean–Proterozoic boundary in the Fenoscandian Shield.2017In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 174, p. 255-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Raahe–Ladoga Shear Complex is a major crustal structure representing the Archaean–Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Fennoscandian Shield. The complex developed during the Svecofennian Orogeny (c. 1.9 – 1.8 Ga) beginning with regional thrust tectonic phases D1 and D2, followed by large-scale shearing events D3 and D4. The Pielavesi Shear Zone is a vertical north–south-trending shear zone within the Raahe–Ladoga Shear Complex formed during regional D3 shearing and later reactivated during the regional D4 phase. Three north–south-trending elongate granitoid intrusions were selected as representative of silicic melts that intruded the transtensional Pielavesi Shear Zone during the regional D3 phase. The oriented magmatic fabric of the granitoids indicates that they intruded coeval to the deformation event. The zircon U–(Th)–Pb secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) ages of these intrusions (1888 ± 4, 1884 ± 6 and 1883 ± 5 Ma) overlap within error and provide a direct age for the regional D3 deformation. εHf(T)(−1.1 to +3.4) and εNd(T) (−1.2 to +0.4) values from these granitoids are both consistent with a predominantly juvenile source affected by a minor Archaean component. U–(Th)–Pb SIMS analyses of metamorphic monazite formed within a crosscutting blastomylonite provide an age for the regional D4phase and associated fluid activity of 1793 ± 3 Ma.

  • 6. Yashanew, F.G.
    et al.
    Pease, V.
    Abdelsalam, M.G.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Zircon U–Pb ages, δ18O and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions of the Dire Dawa Precambrian basement, eastern Ethiopia: implications for the assembly of Gondwana2016In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 172, p. 142-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon dating from the Dire Dawa Precambrian basement yields crystallization ages at c. 790 Ma and 600 – 560 Ma. Two of the youngest samples are pervasively deformed, indicating that orogenesis continued until c. 560 Ma. SIMS δ18Ozrn shows bimodality, with the oldest sample (c. 790 Ma) and inherited zircons of that age in the younger samples having values of 7.8 – 9.6‰, whereas the Ediacaran samples have δ18Ozrn values of 4.9 – 7.2‰. These δ18Ozrn ratios are higher than mantle values and indicate a supracrustal input to the source of the Dire Dawa granitoids. All samples have unradiogenic εNd(t) values of −10.3 to −5.8 and Nd model ages of 1.72 – 1.42 Ga. These attributes suggest that the Dire Dawa granitoids were mostly derived from reworking of long-lived crustal sources. The occurrence of c. 580 – 550 Ma orogenesis in both the Dire Dawa basement and the juvenile Western Ethiopian Shield and the confinement of c. 630 Ma metamorphism to only the latter indicate that these two lithospheric blocks of contrasting isotopic compositions amalgamated at c. 580 – 550 Ma. This suggests that the Mozambique Ocean, which separated these two lithospheric blocks, was completely consumed during the late Ediacaran to early Cambrian.

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