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  • 1.
    Denk, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Güner, Tuncay H.
    , Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Kvaček, Zlatko
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bouchal, Johannes M.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. johannes.bouchal@nrm.se.
    The early Miocene flora of Güvem (Central Anatolia, Turkey): a window into early Neogene vegetation and environments in the Eastern Mediterranean2017In: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN 0001-6594, E-ISSN 1427-6402, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 237-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early Burdigalian (MN3) plant assemblage of the Güvem area (northwestern Central Anatolia) is preserved in lacustrine sediments of the Dereköy pyroclastics. Its age is well constrained by radiometric dates of basaltic rocks bracketing the pyroclastics, making the Güvem flora one of the extremely few precisely dated early Miocene floras in the Mediterranean region. The rich assemblage of impression fossils comprises ferns and fern allies (2 species), gymnosperms (12 spp.) and angiosperms (129 spp.). Ilex miodipyrena sp. nov. is described as a new fossil-species. The most diverse families in the assemblage are the Fagaceae with 12 taxa and the Fabaceae with 12 leaf morphotypes and one fruit taxon. Aquatic plants are represented by seven taxa, riparian (including palms) and swamp forest elements by >35 taxa, and lianas by three taxa (Smilax spp., Chaneya). The relatively large number of aquatic and riparian/swamp elements is congruent with the rich fish, amphibian and reptile record of the Güvem area. Another characteristic feature of the plant assemblage is the presence of various lobed leaves which show similarities with modern species of different families (e.g. Alangium, various Malvales). Trees and shrubs growing on well-drained soils and forming closed-canopy and open-canopy forests are the most diversified group (>70 taxa). In terms of number of specimens in the collection and based on field observations, by far the most abundant leaf fossils belong to evergreen oaks of Quercus drymeja and Q. mediterranea and to various types of foliage that cannot be assigned to a particular extant or extinct genus of Fagaceae. These sclerophyllous trees must have covered vast areas surrounding the wetlands that developed during the early Miocene in the Güvem Basin. Based on a recent reassessment of the ecology and taxonomic affinity of these trees, they are considered to reflect humid temperate climatic conditions but with a brief drier season during the winter months. These forests are more similar to the laurel forests of the southeastern United States and those stretching in a narrow belt south of the Himalayas to eastern central China. The large number of Fabaceae may indicate the presence of warm subtropical environments but this is difficult to assess, as they are known for having wide ecological ranges today and in the past. All in all, a larger part of the plant taxa point to forested vegetation. This is in agreement with previous palynological studies which detected only small amounts of herbaceous and grass pollen. Open patches of vegetation may have been restricted to river banks and to rocky areas in a volcanic landscape. The biogeographic patterns detected for the early Miocene of the Güvem assemblage are manifold; most taxa are widespread Northern Hemispheric elements. A substantial part of the species migrated from Asia into Europe during the (late) Paleogene and reached Anatolia during the early Miocene (Fagus, Paliurus, Chaneya, Ailanthus, Quercus kubinyii, Davallia haidingeri, Acer angustilobum, A. palaeosaccharinum). Fewer taxa may have been in Anatolia before they migrated to Europe (e.g. Nerium, Smilax miohavanensis, Quercus sosnowskyi). Finally, very few taxa are Anatolian endemics (e.g. Ilex miodipyrena).

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  • 2.
    Friis, Else Marie
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Crane, Peter Robert
    Oak Spring Gardens.
    Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard
    Aarhus University.
    Geminispermum, an Early Cretaceous (early–middle Albian) cupulate unit from the angiosperm-dominated Puddledock flora of eastern North America2019In: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN 0001-6594, E-ISSN 1427-6402, Vol. 59, p. 229-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new genus and species, Geminispermum virginiense, is described based on a well-preserved coalified cupulate reproductive unit recovered from the Early Cretaceous (early–middle Albian) Puddledock locality, Virginia, U.S.A. The reproductive unit is bisymmetrical and consists of an axis that bifurcates into two cupule-bearing stalks, each in the axil of a bract. Each cupule stalk bears a single non-valvate cupule recurved towards the center of the reproductive unit. The cupule opens distally by a short transverse slit with a distinct upper margin. Each cupule almost completely encloses a single orthotropous seed that is free from the cupule except at the base. The nucellus is also free from the integument except at the basal point of attachment. Geminispermum combines features of the ovulate structures of Caytoniales, Umkomasiales (= Corystospermales, including Doyleales) and Petriellales, but cannot be included in any of these existing orders as they are currently understood. The recurved, closed, non-valvate cupules are particularly similar to those of Caytonia, Petriellaea and Reymanownaea in external morphology, but differ in being one-seeded. The cupules of Geminispermum differ from the one-seeded cupules of Umkomasiales in being non-valvate and in having only a single cupule per bract. Geminispermum is perhaps most similar to the one- or two-seeded non-valvate cupules of Ktalenia from the Early Cretaceous of Argentina, but Ktalenia is poorly preserved, details of cupule architecture are uncertain, and the cupules appear to be associated with a single strongly dissected bract. Geminispermum is currently the only unequivocal seed plant cupule recovered from the Early Cretaceous Potomac Group and is distinct from all previously described cupulate reproductive structures.

  • 3. Grímsson, Fridgeir
    et al.
    Grimm, Guido W.
    Zetter, Reinhard
    Denk, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Cretaceous and Paleogene Fagaceae from North America and Greenland: evidence for a Late Cretaceous split between Fagus and the remaining Fagaceae.2016In: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN 0001-6594, E-ISSN 1427-6402, Vol. 56, p. 247-305, article id DOI: 10.1515/acpa-2016-0016.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Manchester, Steven R.
    et al.
    Goloneva, Lina B.
    Sokoloff, Dmitry D.
    Friis, Else Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Early eudicot reproductive structure: Fruit andflower morphology of Ranunculaecarpus Samyl.from the Early Cretaceous of eastern Siberia2018In: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN 0001-6594, E-ISSN 1427-6402, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floral and fruit morphology of the early eudicot Ranunculaecarpus quinquecarpellatus Samyl. is described based on details from sectioning and microscopy of the permineralized type material from the Albian Buor-Kemyus Formation of the Zyryanka coal basin. Serial sections confirmed most of the originally described characters but revealed additional information, including hypogynous perianth and several stamens with in situ pollen. Each fruit consists of five free follicles inserted on a short receptacle. Follicles are elongate, with a dorsal keel, ventral suture and an attenuate apex, and are thin-walled, with two rows of small seeds in marginal placentation. The seeds are anatropous, ovoid, 1.3–1.7 in length, with an exotesta of cells that are rounded-hexagonal in surface view. The hypogynous perianth is composed of several free tepals. The stamens are short, with tetrasporangiate, dithecal anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Pollen in situ is 18–20 mm long, 13–15 mm in equatorial diameter, with uncertain aperture configuration and a loose reticulum supported by narrow, widely spaced columellae. The combination of macromorphological characters support possible affinity to extant Ranunculaceae. However, Ranunculaecarpus is distinguished from modern members of the family by the persistence of the perianth in fruit, a smaller number of stamens (ca 10) than is typical, and pollen that is unlike that of any extant genera. Given that there are also similarities with Saxifragales, the systematic affinities of Ranunculaecarpus remain uncertain.

  • 5.
    Mendes, Mário Miguel
    et al.
    Centre for Interdisciplinary Development and Research on Environment, Applied Management and Space, Lusófona University of Humanities and Technologies, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Friis, Else Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The Nossa Senhora da Luz flora from the Early Cretaceous (early Aptian-late Albian) of Juncal in the western Portuguese Basin2018In: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN 0001-6594, E-ISSN 1427-6402, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new fossil flora is described from the Early Cretaceous of the western Portuguese Basin, based on a combined palynological-mesofossil study. The fossil specimens were extracted from samples collected in the Nossa Senhora da Luz opencast clay pit complex near the village of Juncal in the Estremadura region. The plant-bearing sediments belong to the Famalicão Member of the Figueira da Foz Formation, considered late Aptianearly Albian in age. The palynological assemblage is diverse, including 588 spores and pollen grains assigned to 30 genera and 48 species. The palynoflora is dominated by fern spores and conifer pollen. Angiosperm pollen is also present, but subordinate. The mesofossil flora is less diverse, including 175 specimens ascribed to 17 species, and is dominated by angiosperm fruits and seeds. The mesofossil flora also contains conifer seeds and twigs as well as fossils with selaginellaceous affinity. The fossil assemblage indicates a warm and seasonally dry climate for the Nossa Senhora da Luz flora.

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