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  • 1. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Heim, Christine
    Snoeyenbos-West, Oona
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Fossilized anaerobic and possibly methanogenesis-fueling fungi identified deep within the Siljan impact structure, Sweden2021Inngår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent discoveries of extant and fossilized communities indicate that eukaryotes, including fungi, inhabit energy-poor and anoxic environments deep within the fractured igneous crust. This subterranean biosphere may constitute the largest fungal habitat on our planet, but knowledge of abyssal fungi and their syntrophic interactions with prokaryotes and their concomitant metabolisms is scarce. Here we report findings of fossilized, chitin-bearing fungal hyphae at ~540 m depth in fractured bedrock of the Siljan impact structure, the largest crater in Europe. Strong 13C-enrichment of calcite precipitated with and on the fungi suggests formation following methanogenesis, and that the anaerobic fungi decomposed dispersed organic matter producing for example H2 that may have fueled autotrophic methanogens. An Eocene age determined for the calcite infers the first timing constraint of fossilized fungi in the continental igneous crust. Fungi may be widespread decomposers of organic matter and overlooked providers of H2 to autotrophs in the vast rock-hosted deep biosphere.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 2.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Institutionen för biologi och miljö, Linneuniversitet.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    Geochronology and Tracers Facility, British Geological Survey.
    Reinhardt, Manuel
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnæus University.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Biosignatures of ancient microbial life are present across the igneous crust of the Fennoscandian shield2021Inngår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth’s crust contains a substantial proportion of global biomass, hosting microbial life up to several kilometers depth. Yet, knowledge of the evolution and extent of life in this environment remains elusive and patchy. Here we present isotopic, molecular and morphological signatures for deep ancient life in vein mineral specimens from mines distributed across the Precambrian Fennoscandian shield. Stable carbon isotopic signatures of calcite indicate microbial methanogenesis. In addition, sulfur isotope variability in pyrite, supported by stable carbon isotopic signatures of methyl-branched fatty acids, suggest subsequent bacterial sulfate reduction. Carbonate geochronology constrains the timing of these processes to the Cenozoic. We suggest that signatures of an ancient deep biosphere and long-term microbial activity are present throughout this shield. We suggest that microbes may have been active in the continental igneous crust over geological timescales, and that subsurface investigations may be valuable in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

  • 3. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    Reinhardt, Manuel
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Biosignatures of ancient microbial life are present across the igneous crust of the Fennoscandian shield2021Inngår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    Reinhardt, Manuel
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Biosignatures of ancient microbial life are present across the igneous crust of the Fennoscandian shield2021Inngår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Roberts, Nick M. W.
    Reinhardt, Manuel
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kielman-Schmitt, Melanie
    Biosignatures of ancient microbial life are present across the igneous crust of the Fennoscandian shield2021Inngår i: Communication Earth & Environment, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science Linnæus University Kalmar Sweden.
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science Linnæus University Kalmar Sweden;Department of Earth Sciences University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden.
    Reinhardt, Manuel
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science Linnæus University Kalmar Sweden;Department of Geobiology Geoscience Centre University of Göttingen Göttingen Germany.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap. Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap. Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In Situ Rb/Sr Geochronology and Stable Isotope Geochemistry Evidence for Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic Fracture‐Hosted Fluid Flow and Microbial Activity in Paleoproterozoic Basement, SW Sweden2023Inngår i: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 24, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that biosignatures of ancient microbial life exist in mineral coatings in deep bedrock fractures of Precambrian cratons, but such surveys have been few and far between. Here, we report results from southwestern Sweden in an area of 1.6–1.5 Ga Paleoproterozoic rocks heavily reworked by the 1.14–0.96 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny, a terrane previously scarcely explored for ancient microbial biosignatures. Calcite-pyrite-adularia-illite-coated fractures were analyzed for stable isotopes via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) and in situ Rb/Sr geochronology via Laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Rb/Sr ages for calcite-adularia and calcite-illite show that several fluid flow events can be discerned (797 ± 18–769 ± 7, 391 ± 5–387 ± 6, 356 ± 5–347 ± 4, and 301 ± 7 Ma). The δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr values of different calcite growth zones further confirmed episodic fluid flow. Pyrite δ34S values down to −49.9‰V-CDT, together with systematically increased δ34S from crystal core to rim, suggest formation following microbial sulfate reduction under semi-closed conditions. Assemblages involving MSR-related pyrite generally have Devonian to Permian Rb/Sr ages, indicating an association to extension-related fracturing and fluid mixing during foreland-basin formation linked to Caledonian orogeny in the northwest. An assemblage with an age of 301 ± 7 Ma is potentially related to Oslo Rift extension, whereas the Neo-Proterozoic ages relate to post-Sveconorwegian extensional tectonics. Remnants of short-chained fatty acids in the youngest calcite coatings further indicate a biogenic origin, while the absence of organic molecules in older calcite is in line with thermal degradation, potentially related to heating during Caledonian foreland basin burial.

  • 7.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Neubeck, Anna
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Uppsala University.
    Snoeyenbos-West, Oona
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Introducing palaeolithobiology2021Inngår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 143, nr 2-3, s. 305-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature of deep but also surficial fossilized remains of lithobiological life, often associated with igneous rocks, necessitates the unfolding of a sub-discipline within paleobiology. Here, we introduce the term paleolithobiology as the new auxiliary sub-discipline under which fossilized lithobiology should be handled. We present key criteria that distinguish the paleolithobiological archive from the traditional one and discuss sample strategies as well as scientific perspectives. A majority of paleolithobiological material consists of deep biosphere fossils, and in order to highlight the relevance of these, we present new data on fungal fossils from the Lockne impact crater. Fungal fossils in the Lockne drill cores have been described previously but here we provide new insights into the presence of reproductive structures that indicate the fungi to be indigenous. We also show that these fungi frequently dissolve and penetrate secondary calcite, delineating the role lithobionts plays in geobiological cycles. We hope that the formalization of the sub-discipline paleolithobiology will not only highlight an overlooked area of paleobiology as well as simplify future studies of endo- and epilithic fossil material, but also improve our understanding of the history of the deep biosphere.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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