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  • 1.
    Liang, Yue
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Holmer, Lars, E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Duan, Xiao-Lin
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Shell structure, ornamentation and affinity of the problematic early Cambrian brachiopod Heliomedusa orienta2020Ingår i: Lethaia: an international journal of palaeontology and stratigraphy, ISSN 0024-1164, E-ISSN 1502-3931, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 574-587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of the Brachiopoda has long been a hotly debated topic, and various models have been proposed following the latest finds of exceptionally preserved material. The lower Cambrian (Stage 3) Heliomedusa orienta from the Chengjiang Konservat‐Lagerstätte, eastern Yunnan of South China, is an important example of exceptional preservation. A wide variety of affinities have been proposed for Heliomedusa, but recently it has been suggested to reside within the mickwitziids, which may form a stem group to the Brachiopoda. Detailed studies of exceptionally preserved Heliomedusa have increased our knowledge of the soft‐part anatomy of this important early brachiopod, but unfortunately, almost nothing is known about its shell structure. Here, we describe new exceptionally preserved specimens from the Chengjiang biota to better reveal both shell structure and ornamentation. Its reticulate–pustulose ornament and tubular structure are reminiscent of traits seen in other mickwitziid brachiopods. In addition, two types of setae can be observed. Apart from the pyritized marginal mantle setae, some tubules are filled with iron oxides, potentially representing thinner and shorter penetrative setae. Both valves of H. orienta appear to have been less mineralized as compared to Mickwitzia monilifera, and the two species differ in diameter and density of tubules and pustules, and in terms of slightly less projected profile of ventral valve with lower umbo posteromedially placed. Although Heliomedusa clearly is closely related to Mickwitzia, their different preservational modes (compacted poorly mineralized/noncompacted mineralized) make detailed comparison difficult; they are provisionally kept as separate genera pending further studies of better‐preserved Chinese material.

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  • 2.
    Zhang, Zhifei
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Strotz, Luke C.
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Topper, Timothy, P.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Chen, Feiyang
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Chen, Yanlong
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Liang, Yue
    Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Zhang, Zhiliang
    Macquarie university.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Brock, Glenn, A.
    Macquarie University.
    An encrusting kleptoparasite-host interaction from the early Cambrian2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, artikel-id 2625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasite–host systems are pervasive in nature but are extremely difficult to convincingly identify in the fossil record. Here we report quantitative evidence of parasitism in the form of a unique, enduring life association between tube-dwelling organisms encrusted to densely clustered shells of a monospecific organophosphatic brachiopod assemblage from the lower Cambrian (Stage 4) of South China. Brachiopods with encrusting tubes have decreased biomass (indicating reduced fitness) compared to individuals without tubes. The encrusting tubes orient tightly in vectors matching the laminar feeding currents of the host, suggesting kleptoparasitism. With no convincing parasite–host interactions known from the Ediacaran, this widespread sessile association reveals intimate parasite–host animal systems arose in early Cambrian benthic communities and their emergence may have played a key role in driving the evolutionary and ecological innovations associated with the Cambrian radiation.

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