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  • 1. Callegaro, Sara
    et al.
    Marzoli, Andrea
    Bertrand, Hervé
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Reisberg, Laurie
    Meyzen, Christine
    Bellieni, Giuliano
    Weems, Robert E.
    merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Upper and lower crust recycling in the source of CAMP basaltic dykes from southeastern North America2013Inngår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 376, s. 186-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The densest dykes swarm of the Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) occur in southeastern North America (SENA) and were intruded between 202 and 195 Ma during Pangea break-up. New combined geochemical data (major and trace elements, Sr–Nd–Pb–Os isotopes) constrain the mantle source of these magmatic bodies and their evolution path. While Sr–Nd isotopic compositions for SENA rocks (87Sr/86Sr200Ma 0.70438–0.70880 and 143Nd/144Nd200Ma 0.51251–0.51204) fall within the low-Ti CAMP field, Pb–Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb200Ma 17.46–18.85, 207Pb/204Pb200Ma 15.54–15.65, 208Pb/204Pb200Ma 37.47–38.76) are peculiar to this area of the CAMP and cover a considerable span of compositions, especially in 206Pb/204Pb200Ma. Given the generally unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions (187Os/188Os200Ma 0.127–0.144) observed and the lack of correlation between these and other geochemical markers, crustal contamination during the evolution of SENA dykes must have been limited (less than 10%). Thus the isotopic variation is interpreted to reside primarily within the mantle source. These observations, coupled with typical continental signatures in trace elements (positive anomaly in Pb and negative anomalies in Ti and Nb), require another means of conveying a continental flavor to these magmas, which is here hypothesized to be the shallow recycling within the upper mantle of subducted lower and upper crustal materials. Pseudo-ternary mixing models show that a maximum of 10% recycled crust is enough to explain their trace element patterns as well as their isotopic heterogeneity. Looking at the larger picture of the origin of the CAMP, the thermal contribution of a mantle plume cannot be ruled out due to the relatively high mantle potential temperatures (1430–1480 °C) calculated for high-Fo SENA olivines. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the chemical involvement of a mantle plume is negligible (less than 5%) if either a C- or an EM-flavored plume is considered. Rather, the possibility of a PREMA-flavored mantle plume, enriched by 5–20% recycled crustal material, remains a possible, though less plausible, source for these tholeiites.

  • 2. Cawood, P. A.
    et al.
    Leitch, E. C.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Nemchin, A. A.
    Orogenesis without collision: Stabilizing the Terra Australis accretionary orogen, eastern Australia2011Inngår i: Geological Society of America Bulletin, ISSN 0016-7606, E-ISSN 1943-2674, Vol. 123, nr 11-12, s. 2240-2255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neoproterozoic to end-Paleozoic Terra Australis orogen extended along the Gondwana margin of the paleo–Pacific Ocean, and it now provides a detailed record of orogenic activity and continental stabilization within an ongoing convergent, accretionary plate margin. New geochronological data from end-Paleozoic plutonic and volcanic rocks associated with the Gondwanide orogeny in the New England region of eastern Australia, integrated with information on the nature and timing of associated sedimentation, deformation, and metamorphism, allow resolution of a high-fidelity record of orogenesis.At the end of the Carboniferous, around 305 Ma, convergent margin magmatism, which had been active along the western margin of the New England region, terminated and was followed by a short pulse of regional compressional deformation and metamorphism, marking the commencement of the Tablelands phase of Gondwanide orogenesis. Deformation was almost immediately followed by the onset of clastic sedimentation and local calc-alkaline volcanism, dated at 293 Ma, in the extensional Barnard Basin. Emplacement of the two New England S-type granitic suites, the Bundarra and the Hillgrove suites, along with localized high-temperature, low-pressure metamorphism, was essentially contemporaneous, ranging in age from 296 to 288 Ma, and overlapped in time with I-type magmatism and the switch from regional compression to extension and Barnard Basin rifting.The Hunter-Bowen phase of the Gondwanide orogeny commenced with contractional deformation, resulting in termination of sedimentation in the Barnard Basin and regional deformation and metamorphism across New England and into the Sydney and Gunnedah basins to the west at around 265–260 Ma. Contractional loading of the Sydney and Gunnedah basins resulted in their conversion from extensional to foreland basins, which received ongoing pulses of sediment from the New England orogenic welt until 230 Ma. The Hunter-Bowen phase was associated with widespread I-type plutonism and volcanic activity in New England that ceased around 230 Ma, marking the termination of Gondwanide orogenesis.Orogenesis occurred in an evolving convergent plate-margin setting. S- and I-type magmatic activity ranging in age from ca. 300 to 230 Ma represents a stepping out of arc magmatism from the western margin of New England (prior to 305 Ma) into the preexisting arc-trench gap. There is no evidence that deformation was related to the collision of the convergent margin with a major lithospheric mass, and the widespread development of extensional basins in the eastern third of Australia in the Early Permian indicates control by phenomena acting on a continental scale, probably changing plate kinematics associated with the amalgamation of Pangea.

  • 3. Cawood, P. A.
    et al.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Strachan, R. A.
    Tanner, P. W. G.
    Provenance of the Highland Border Complex: constraints on Laurentian margin accretion in the Scottish Caledonides2012Inngår i: Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 169, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrasting tectonic models for the Highland Border Complex in the Scottish Caledonides view it either as part of the rifted Laurentian margin of the Iapetus Ocean or as an oceanic terrane. Detrital zircon data from sandstones of the complex yield age peaks at 2.8–2.6, 1.3 and 1.1–1.0 Ga and minor peaks at c. 1.7–1.9 Ga. These characteristics compare closely with those of the upper Dalradian Supergroup of the adjacent Grampian terrane, and with the record of eastern Laurentia. The data are also consistent with the Laurentian provenance indicated by palaeontological evidence from the complex, and field evidence for continuity with the Dalradian Supergroup. Detrital ages for the Cambrian Salterella Grit of the Caledonian foreland compare with those for approximately age-equivalent sandstones from the Highland Border Complex. Both were contemporaneous with the regressive Hawke Bay event, accounting for similarities in provenance, and further linking the Highland Border Complex to Laurentia. The Grampian terrane was being uplifted and shedding detritus throughout the Ordovician and Silurian. The absence of this event from the detrital zircon records of either the Midland Valley or Southern Upland terranes suggests that these blocks cannot have been in their current location relative to the Grampian terrane before the end of the Silurian.Supplementary material: The complete analytical dataset and cathodoluminescence images are available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18531.

  • 4. Cawood, Peter A.
    et al.
    Strachan, Robin A.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Millar, Ian L.
    Loewy, Staci L.
    Dalziel, Ian W.D.
    Kinny, Peter D.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Nemchin, Alexander A.
    Connelly, James N.
    Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic extensional and compressional history of East Laurentian margin sequences: The Moine Supergroup, Scottish Caledonides2015Inngår i: Geological Society of America Bulletin, ISSN 0016-7606, E-ISSN 1943-2674, Vol. 127, nr 3-4, s. 349-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoproterozoic siliciclastic-dominated sequences are widespread along the eastern margin of Laurentia and are related to rifting associated with the breakout of Laurentia from the supercontinent Rodinia. Detrital zircons from the Moine Supergroup, NW Scotland, yield Archean to early Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages, consistent with derivation from the Grenville-Sveconorwegian orogen and environs and accumulation post–1000 Ma. U-Pb zircon ages for felsic and associated mafic intrusions confirm a widespread pulse of extension-related magmatism at around 870 Ma. Pegmatites yielding U-Pb zircon ages between 830 Ma and 745 Ma constrain a series of deformation and metamorphic pulses related to Knoydartian orogenesis of the host Moine rocks. Additional U-Pb zircon and monazite data, and 40Ar/39Ar ages for pegmatites and host gneisses indicate high-grade metamorphic events at ca. 458–446 Ma and ca. 426 Ma during the Caledonian orogenic cycle.The presence of early Neoproterozoic siliciclastic sedimentation and deformation in the Moine and equivalent successions around the North Atlantic and their absence along strike in eastern North America reflect contrasting Laurentian paleogeography during the breakup of Rodinia. The North Atlantic realm occupied an external location on the margin of Laurentia, and this region acted as a locus for accumulation of detritus (Moine Supergroup and equivalents) derived from the Grenville-Sveconorwegian orogenic welt, which developed as a consequence of collisional assembly of Rodinia. Neoproterozoic orogenic activity corresponds with the inferred development of convergent plate-margin activity along the periphery of the supercontinent. In contrast in eastern North America, which lay within the internal parts of Rodinia, sedimentation did not commence until the mid-Neoproterozoic (ca. 760 Ma) during initial stages of supercontinent fragmentation. In the North Atlantic region, this time frame corresponds to a second pulse of extension represented by units such as the Dalradian Supergroup, which unconformably overlies the predeformed Moine succession.

  • 5. Grange, M.
    et al.
    Scharer, U.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Girardeau, J.
    Cornen, G.
    Plume–Lithosphere Interaction during Migration of Cretaceous Alkaline Magmatism in SW Portugal: Evidence from U–Pb Ages and Pb–Sr–Hf Isotopes2010Inngår i: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 1143-1170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large massifs of alkaline rocks are exposed along ∼250 km of the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Their origin is still poorly understood, including the precise timing of their emplacement and their relationships with the well-constrained alkaline magmatic rocks that occur 200–1000 km offshore. To elucidate the precise timing and origin of the alkaline magmatism in this region, magmatic rocks from the three major alkaline massifs (Sintra, Sines, and Monchique) and an isolated diorite intrusion (Ribamar, north of Sintra) have been dated by the U–Pb method on titanite and zircon and characterized based on their Pb, Sr, and Hf isotopic compositions obtained on feldspar and zircon. From north to south, the resulting ages are: 88·3 ± 0·5 Ma (95% confidence level) for Ribamar, 83·4 ± 0·7, 82·0 ± 0·7, 81·7 ± 0·4, and 80·1 ± 1·0 Ma for the Sintra complex, 77·2 ± 0·6, 77·2 ± 0·4, and 76·1 ± 1·3 Ma for the Sines massif, and 70·0 ± 2·9 and 68·8 ± 1·0 Ma for the Monchique complex. Initial isotopic compositions of Pb in feldspars are in the range of 18·522–19·299 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15·555–16·007 for 207Pb/204Pb, and 38·480–39·330 for 208Pb/204Pb. Initial 87Sr/86Sr of feldspars varies between 0·70274 and 0·70481 and initial Hf isotope ratios yield εHfi values between +3·7 and +9·6. These results, together with major, trace, and rare earth element analyses, show that the ages, (207Pb/204Pb)i, and (87Sr/86Sr)i increase northward, whereas the alkaline affinity, (206Pb/204Pb)i, and εHfi increase southward, substantiating a north–south trend of geochemical and age variation. The isotopic composition of the studied rocks can be explained by partial melting of a sub-lithospheric mantle source with an enriched DMM (Depleted MORB Mantle) signature and subsequent contamination by the metasomatized Iberian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The north–south age trend is in agreement with the motion of the Iberian plate between 88 and 60 Ma. The spatial and temporal variations in the isotopic signatures are explained by differences in the contribution of the two source components. The sub-lithospheric mantle-derived magmas are more contaminated by the SCLM in the northern part of the alignment, compared with the southern part of the studied region, where the rocks have isotopic signatures closer to those of enriched sub-lithospheric mantle. Our data are incorporated into a geodynamical model that explains the overall distribution of alkaline magmatism in this part of the eastern Central Atlantic, and provide new constraints on the occurrence of alkaline magmatism along the Iberian margin and the NW African plate. The spatial distribution of the magmatism is directly correlated with the motion of the Iberian plate above a deep-rooted thermal anomaly (mantle plume) that has caused magmatism since the Cretaceous.

  • 6. Marzoli, A.
    et al.
    Callegaro, S.
    Dal Corso, J.
    Davies, J.H.F.L.
    Chiaradia, M.
    Youbi, N.
    Bertrand, H.
    Reisberg, L.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Jourdan, F.
    The Central Atlantic magmatic province: a review2018Inngår i: The late triassic world / [ed] L.H. Tanner, Springer Publishing Company, 2018, s. 91-125Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7. Marzoli, Andrea
    et al.
    Aka, Festus T.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Callegaro, Sara
    N’ni, Jean
    Deep to shallow crustal differentiation of within-plate alkaline magmatism at Mt. Bambouto volcano, Cameroon Line2015Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 220-223, s. 272-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At Mt. Bambouto, a continental stratovolcano of the Cameroon Line, magmatic activity lasted for over 20Ma and was characterized by at least two caldera formation events. Here we present detailed mineral and whole-rock compositions of Mt. Bambouto basanites, hawaiites, trachytes and phonolites, with emphasis on caldera related volcanic rocks. These data show that differentiation took place within a complex magma plumbing system, with magma chambers occurring at different depths within the crust. Though differentiation was chiefly dominated by fractional crystallization, chemical mineral zoning of olivines, clinopyroxenes, and feldspars is also indicative of open-system processes such as magma mixing and magma chamber recharge. Chemical zoning is evident mainly in the outer 100 microns of the analyzed crystals, suggesting that magma mixing occurred shortly before eruption. The last caldera collapse at about 15Ma also marked a clear change in the magma plumbing system. Before caldera collapse, Mt. Bambouto was characterized by a dominant production of peralkaline quartz trachytic magmas in shallow magma chambers. During this phase, evolved basic magmas (hawaiites) and strongly evolved alkaline magmas were formed in middle and upper crustal magma chambers, respectively. After emptying of the shallow quartz trachytic magma chamber and caldera collapse, magmas from the deep magmatic plumbing system were mobilized and partially mixed. This triggered eruptions of magmas on the caldera rims.

  • 8. Marzoli, Andrea
    et al.
    Bertrand, Hervé
    Youbi, Nasrrddine
    Callegaro, Sara
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Reisberg, Laurie
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Brownlee, Sarah I
    Jourdan, Fred
    Zanetti, Alberto
    Davies, Joshua H F L
    Cuppone, Tiberio
    Mahmoudi, Abdelkader
    Medina, Fida
    Renne, Paul R
    Bellieni, Giuliano
    Crivellari, Stefano
    El Hachimi, Hind
    Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil
    Meyzen, Christine M
    Tegner, Christian
    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in Morocco2019Inngår i: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 945-996Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is a large igneous province (LIP) composed of basic dykes, sills, layered intrusions and lava flows emplaced before Pangea break-up and currently distributed on the four continents surrounding the Atlantic Ocean. One of the oldest, best preserved and most complete sub-provinces of the CAMP is located in Morocco. Geochemical, geochronologic, petrographic and magnetostratigraphic data obtained in previous studies allowed identification of four strato-chemical magmatic units, i.e. the Lower, Intermediate, Upper and Recurrent units. For this study, we completed a detailed sampling of the CAMP in Morocco, from the Anti Atlas in the south to the Meseta in the north. We provide a complete mineralogical, petrologic (major and trace elements on whole-rocks and minerals), geochronologic (40Ar/39Ar and U–Pb ages) and geochemical set of data (including Sr–Nd–Pb–Os isotope systematics) for basaltic and basaltic–andesitic lava flow piles and for their presumed feeder dykes and sills. Combined with field observations, these data suggest a very rapid (<0·3 Ma) emplacement of over 95% of the preserved magmatic rocks. In particular, new and previously published data for the Lower to Upper unit samples yielded indistinguishable 40Ar/39Ar (mean age = 201·2 ± 0·8 Ma) and U–Pb ages (201·57 ± 0·04 Ma), suggesting emplacement coincident with the main phase of the end-Triassic biotic turnover (c.201·5 to 201·3 Ma). Eruptions are suggested to have been pulsed with rates in excess of 10 km3/year during five main volcanic pulses, each pulse possibly lasting only a few centuries. Such high eruption rates reinforce the likelihood that CAMP magmatism triggered the end-Triassic climate change and mass extinction. Only the Recurrent unit may have been younger but by no more than 1 Ma. Whole-rock and mineral geochemistry constrain the petrogenesis of the CAMP basalts. The Moroccan magmas evolved in mid-crustal reservoirs (7–20 km deep) where most of the differentiation occurred. However, a previous stage of crystallization probably occurred at even greater depths. The four units cannot be linked by closed-system fractional crystallization processes, but require distinct parental magmas and/or distinct crustal assimilation processes. EC-AFC modeling shows that limited crustal assimilation (maximum c.5–8% assimilation of e.g. Eburnean or Pan-African granites) could explain some, but not all the observed geochemical variations. Intermediate unit magmas are apparently the most contaminated and may have been derived from parental magmas similar to the Upper basalts (as attested by indistinguishable trace element contents in the augites analysed for these units). Chemical differences between Central High Atlas and Middle Atlas samples in the Intermediate unit could be explained by distinct crustal contaminants (lower crustal rocks or Pan-African granites for the former and Eburnean granites for the latter). The CAMP units in Morocco are likely derived from 5–10% melting of enriched peridotite sources. The differences observed in REE ratios for the four units are attributed to variations in both source mineralogy and melting degree. In particular, the Lower basalts require a garnet peridotite source, while the Upper basalts were probably formed from a shallower melting region straddling the garnet–spinel transition. Recurrent basalts instead are relatively shallow-level melts generated mainly from spinel peridotites. Sr–Nd–Pb–Os isotopic ratios in the CAMP units from Morocco are similar to those of other CAMP sub-provinces and suggest a significant enrichment of the mantle-source regions by subducted crustal components. The enriched signature is attributed to involvement of about 5–10% recycled crustal materials introduced into an ambient depleted or PREMA-type mantle, while involvement of mantle-plume components like those sampled by present-day Central Atlantic Ocean Island Basalts (OIB, e.g. Cape Verde and Canary Islands) is not supported by the observed compositions. Only Recurrent basalts may possibly reflect a Central Atlantic plume-like signature similar to the Common or FOZO components.

  • 9. Marzoli, Andrea
    et al.
    Davies, Joshua H F L
    Youbi, Nasrrddine
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Dal Corso, Jacopo
    Dunkley, Daniel J.
    Fioretti, Anna Maria
    Bellieni, Giuliano
    Medina, Fida
    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik
    McHone, Greg
    Font, Eric
    Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil
    Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada2017Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 278-281, s. 229-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U–Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1–0.9Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling (i.e. uplift) of the Hercynian chain during emplacement of CAMP lava flows, combined with subsidence of the volcanic grabens.

  • 10.
    merle, renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Post-spreading deformation and associated magmatism along the Iberia-Morocco Atlantic margins: Insight from submarine volcanoes of the Tore-Madeira Rise2019Inngår i: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Caroff, Martial
    Girardeau, Jacques
    Cotten, Joseph
    Guivel, Christèle
    Segregation vesicles, cylinders, and sheets in vapor-differentiated pillow lavas: examples from Tore-Madeira Rise and Chile Triple Junction2005Inngår i: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 141, nr 1, s. 109-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a detailed field and laboratory study of internal segregation structures of two hand-size pillow lavas samples. They were dredged, respectively, on the Josephine seamount, Tore-Madeira Rise (TMR), and on a small quaternary volcanic edifice located on the continental edge of the trench close to the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). Both pillows display a combination of four types of segregation structures (spherical vesicles, pipe vesicles, vesicle cylinders, and vesicle sheets) observed so far only within subaerial basalt flows typically 2–10 m thick. In particular, the samples offer a remarkable exposure of the transition between pipe vesicles and cylinders. We show that the vesicle sheets are not generated by the same mechanism in both occurrences; they do not seem to be connected to cylinders in the CTJ pillow as they are in the TMR pillow. The two pillows are geochemically distinct, the TMR being alkaline and the CTJ calc–alkaline. Two types of internal differentiation are proposed. The first one implies the extraction of the residual liquid from the host lava and transport towards the segregation structures, whereas the other one results from in situ crystallization within one given structure. In the latter case, glass composition is highly dependant on the nature of the neighbouring crystallizing minerals. The degree of crystallization required to produce a crystal framework strong enough for generating the segregation structures seems to be lower in pillows (ca. 25% crystallization) than in vapor-differentiated basaltic lava flows (35% crystallization).

  • 12.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Jourdan, F.
    Girardeau, J.
    Geochronology of the Tore-Madeira Rise seamounts and surrounding areas: a review2018Inngår i: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, ISSN 0812-0099, E-ISSN 1440-0952, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 591-605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar data for two of the Tore-Madeira Rise (TMR) volcanic seamounts. A sample from Tore East seamount on the northern part of the TMR yielded an ultra-precise age of 80.50 ± 0.13 Ma (2σ) that is similar within uncertainties to a published age obtained by U–Pb TIMS technique on titanites and zircons extracted from Tore NW seamount. Another sample from Isabelle seamount, located on the southern part of the TMR failed to produce a plateau age but yielded a minimum age estimate of >85 Ma. We filtered the published ages available on the TMR, the surrounding seamounts and the massifs of southwest Portugal to better understand the origin of this magmatic province. Together with this dataset, our new data suggest that: (1) a hypothetical Madeira hot-spot track spanning from Serra de Monchique on the continent to Madeira Archipelago is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of several seamounts geographically located within or very close to this alleged hot-spot track yet being much older than the age predicted by the age trend. (2) The geographical distribution and age pattern of the TMR and surrounding areas magmatism are still best explained by the interaction of a mantle melting anomaly emitting magma pulses and the different motion phases of the Iberia plate since 103 Ma.

  • 13.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Marzoli, Andrea
    Renne, Paul R.
    Grange, Marion
    Girardeau, Jacques
    Evidence of multi-phase Cretaceous to Quaternary alkaline magmatism on Tore–Madeira Rise and neighbouring seamounts from <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar ages2009Inngår i: Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 166, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tore–Madeira Rise is a seamount chain located 300 km off the Portugal and Morocco coasts attributed to hotspot activity. U–Pb ages of lavas from the northern and central Tore–Madeira Rise range between 103 and 80.5 Ma whereas 40Ar/39Ar ages from the central and southern Tore–Madeira Rise yield ages ranging from 94.5 to 0.5 Ma. We performed new 40Ar/39Ar measurements to better understand the geodynamic history of the Tore–Madeira Rise. Plagioclase ages from the Bikini Bottom and Torillon seamounts suggest ages of &amp;gt;90 Ma and ≥60 Ma, respectively. Amphiboles from the Seine seamount yield an age of 24.0 ± 0.8 Ma. Biotites from lavas of the Ashton seamount give ages of 97.4 ± 1.1 Ma and 97.8 ± 1.1 Ma. The geochronological database available on the Tore–Madeira Rise has been filtered on statistical criteria to eliminate unreliable ages. The resulting database reveals three pulses of alkaline magmatism on the Tore–Madeira Rise at 103–80.5 Ma, at c. 68 Ma and between 30 Ma and the present. The magmatism was continuous from 103 Ma until c. 68 Ma and from c. 30 Ma until the present on the Tore–Madeira Rise, the surrounding seamounts and the Portugal coast. We suggest that the space–time distribution of this magmatism results from the interaction between a wide thermal anomaly emitting magmatic pulses and the complex motion of the Iberian plate.Supplementary material: A detailed Ar measurements dataset is available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18359.

  • 14.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix
    Tronche, Elodie
    Girardeau, Jacques
    Occurrence of inherited supra-subduction zone mantle in the oceanic lithosphere as inferred from mantle xenoliths from Dragon Seamount (southern Tore–Madeira Rise)2012Inngår i: Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 169, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinel-bearing peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths dredged from the Dragon Seamount (southern Tore–Madeira Rise, West Iberia and Morocco margin) give an insight into the composition of the underlying lithosphere. These xenoliths are devoid of evidence of strong host lava–peridotite interaction and re-equilibration or late impregnation in the plagioclase facies. The spinels and pyroxenes from the Dragon peridotites have compositions distinct from those of both lherzolites and harzburgites from the Iberia margin and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. They display a highly depleted composition, in particular, high Cr-number, up to 0.63 in the spinels, consistent with a melting degree between 12 and 19%. Because of the strong chemical similarities between the Tore–Madeira Rise, Newfoundland peridotites, and peridotites from supra-subduction zones, we propose that the Dragon peridotites formed in a similar context. The pyroxenites display a cumulate texture and are probably a high-temperature–high-pressure cumulate formed by fractional crystallization from a melt. The Tore–Madeira Rise peridotites may represent a former mantle wedge in an oceanic arc, later included into the continental lithosphere and finally tectonically disseminated within the lithosphere during the rifting of the Newfoundland–Iberia continental lithosphere. As a consequence, rifting processes may produce heterogeneities in the oceanic lithosphere and influence isotopic compositions of ocean island basalt-type lavas during plume–lithosphere interactions, as inferred for the southern Tore–Madeira Rise.Supplementary material: Further information on the analytical results is available at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18512.

  • 15.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Marzoli, Andrea
    Bertrand, Hervé
    Reisberg, Laurie
    Verati, Chrystèle
    Zimmermann, Catherine
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Bellieni, Giuliano
    Ernesto, Marcia
    40Ar/39Ar ages and Sr–Nd–Pb–Os geochemistry of CAMP tholeiites from Western Maranhão basin (NE Brazil)2011Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 122, nr 3, s. 137-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), emplaced at the Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) boundary (~200Ma), is among the largest igneous provinces on Earth. The Maranhão basin in NE Brazil is located around 700km inland and 2000km from the site of the earliest Pangea disruption. The CAMP tholeiites occur only in the western part of the basin and have been described as low and high-Ti. Here we document the occurrence of two sub-groups among the high-Ti tholeiites in the Western Maranhão basin. The major and trace elements and the Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic ratios define three chemical groups corresponding to the low-Ti (TiO2<1.3wt.%), high-Ti (TiO2~2.0wt.%) and evolved high-Ti (TiO2>3wt.%) western Maranhão basin tholeiites (WMBT). The new 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages obtained on plagioclase separates for high-Ti (199.7±2.4Ma) and evolved high-Ti WMBT (197.2±0.5Ma and 198.2±0.6Ma) are indistinguishable and identical to those of previously analyzed low-Ti WMBT (198.5±0.8Ma) and to the mean 40Ar/39Ar age of the CAMP (199±2.4Ma). We also present the first Re–Os isotopic data for CAMP basalts. The low and high-Ti samples display mantle-like initial (187Os/188Os)i ranging from 0.1267 to 0.1299, while the evolved high-Ti samples are more radiogenic ((187Os/188Os)i up to 0.184) We propose that the high-Ti WMBT were derived from the sub-lithospheric asthenosphere, and contaminated during ascent by interaction with the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The evolved high-Ti WMBT were derived from the same asthenospheric source but experienced crustal contamination. The chemical characteristics of the low-Ti group can be explained by partial melting of the most fertile portions of the SCLM metasomatized during paleo-subduction. Alternatively, the low-Ti WMBT could be derived from the sub-lithospheric asthenosphere but the resulting melts may have undergone contamination by the SCLM. The occurrences of high-Ti basalts are apparently not restricted to the area of initial continental disruption which may bring into question previous interpretations such as those relating high-Ti CAMP magmatism to the initiation of Atlantic ridge spreading or as the expression of a deep mantle plume. We propose that the CAMP magmatism in the Maranhão basin may be attributed to local hotter mantle conditions due to the combined effects of edge-driven convection and large-scale mantle warming under the Pangea supercontinent. The involvement of a mantle-plume with asthenosphere-like isotopic characteristics cannot be ruled out either as one of the main source components of the WMBT or as a heat supplier.

  • 16.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Marzoli, Andrea
    Reisberg, Laurie
    Bertrand, Hervé
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Callegaro, Sara
    Jourdan, Fred
    Bellieni, Giuliano
    Kontak, Dan
    Puffer, John
    McHone, J. Gregory
    Sr, Nd, Pb and Os Isotope Systematics of CAMP Tholeiites from Eastern North America (ENA): Evidence of a Subduction-enriched Mantle Source2013Inngår i: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 133-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest igneous provinces on Earth, with an areal extent exceeding 107 km2. Here we document the geochemical characteristics of CAMP basalts from Triassic–Jurassic basins in northeastern USA and Nova Scotia (Canada). The CAMP rocks occur as lava flows, sills and dykes. All of our analysed samples show chemical characteristics typical of CAMP basalts with low titanium content, which include enrichment in the most incompatible elements and negative Nb anomalies. All the basalts also show enriched Sr–Nd–Pb initial (t = 201 Ma) isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pbini. = 18·155–18·691, 207Pb/204Pbini. = 15·616–15·668, 208Pb/204Pbini. = 38·160–38·616, 143Nd/144Ndini. = 0·512169–0·512499). On the basis of stratigraphy, rare earth element (REE) chemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope composition, three chemical groups are defined. The Hook Mountain group, with the lowest La/Yb ratios, initial 206Pb/204Pbini. &gt;18·5 and 143Nd/144Ndini. &gt; 0·51238, comprises all the lastest and upper stratigraphic units. The Preakness group, with intermediate La/Yb ratios, 206Pb/204Pbini. &gt; 18·5 and 0·51233 &gt; 143Nd/144Ndini. &gt; 0·51225, comprises the intermediate units. The Orange Mountain group has the highest La/Yb ratios and 143Nd/144Ndini. &lt; 0·51235 and involves all the earliest and stratigraphically lowest units, including the entire North Mountain basalts from Nova Scotia. In this last group, three sub-groups may be distinguished: the Rapidan sill, which has 206Pb/204Pbini. higher than 18·5, the Shelburne sub-group, which has 143Nd/144Ndini. &lt; 0·51225, and the remaining Orange Mt samples. With the exception of one sample, the Eastern North America (ENA) CAMP basalts display initial 187Os/188Os ratios in the range of mantle-derived magmas (&lt;0·15). Simple modelling shows that the composition of the ENA CAMP basalts cannot plausibly be explained solely by crustal contamination of oceanic island basalt (OIB), mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) or oceanic plateau basalt (OPB) magmas. Mixing of such magma compositions with sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM)-derived melts followed by crustal contamination, by either assimilation–fractional crystallization (AFC) or assimilation through turbulent ascent (ATA) processes is somewhat more successful. However, this latter scenario does not reproduce the REE and isotopic composition of the ENA CAMP in a fully satisfactory manner. Alternatively, we propose a model in which asthenospheric mantle overlying a subducted slab (i.e. mantle wedge) was enriched during Cambrian to Devonian subduction by sedimentary material, isotopically equivalent to Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic crustal rocks. Subsequently, after subduction ceased, the isotopic composition of this mantle evolved by radioactive decay for another 170 Myr until the CAMP magmatic event. Varying amounts and compositions of the incorporated sedimentary component coupled with radiogenic ingrowth over time can account for the main geochemical characteristics of the ENA CAMP (enriched incompatible element patterns, negative Nb anomalies, enriched Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic composition) and the differences between the three chemical groups.

  • 17.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Nemchin, A. A.
    Grange, M. L.
    Whitehouse, M. J.
    Pidgeon, R. T.
    High resolution U-Pb ages of Ca-phosphates in Apollo 14 breccias: Implications for the age of the Imbrium impact2014Inngår i: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 49, nr 12, s. 2241-2251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Previous age estimates of the Imbrium impact range from 3770 to 3920 Ma, with the latter being the most commonly accepted age of this basin-forming event. The occurrence of Ca-phosphates in Apollo 14 breccias, interpreted to represent ejecta formed by this impact, provides a new opportunity to date the Imbrium event as well as refining the impact history of the Moon. We present new precise U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphates from impact breccia sample 14311 that are concordant and give a reliable weighted average age of 3938 ± 4 Ma (2σ). Comparison with previously published U-Pb data on phosphate from Apollo 14 samples indicate that all ages are statistically similar and suggest phosphates could have been formed by the same impact at 3934 Ma ± 3 Ma (2σ). However, this age is older than the 3770 to 3920 Ma range determined for other samples and also interpreted as formed during the Imbrium impact. This suggests that several impacts occurred during a 20?30 Ma period around 3900 Ma and formed breccias sampled by the Apollo missions.

  • 18.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Schärer, Urs
    Girardeau, Jacques
    Cornen, Guy
    Cretaceous seamounts along the continent–ocean transition of the Iberian margin: U–Pb ages and Pb–Sr–Hf isotopes2006Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 70, nr 19, s. 4950-4976Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To elucidate the age and origin of seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic, 54 titanite and 10 zircon fractions were dated by the U–Pb chronometer, and initial Pb, Sr, and Hf isotope ratios were measured in feldspars and zircon, respectively. Rocks analyzed are essentially trachy-andesites and trachytes dredged during the “Tore Madeira” cruise of the Atalante in 2001. The ages reveal different pulses of alkaline magmatism occurring at 104.4±1.4 (2σ) Ma and 102.8±0.7 Ma on the Sponge Bob seamount, at 96.3±1.0 Ma on Ashton seamount, at 92.3±3.8 Ma on the Gago Coutinho seamount, at 89.3±2.3 Ma and 86.5±3.4 Ma on the Jo Sister volcanic complex, and at 88.3±3.3 Ma, 88.2±3.9, and 80.5±0.9 Ma on the Tore locality. No space–time correlation is observed for alkaline volcanism in the northern section of the Tore-Madeira Rise, which occurred 20–30 m.y. after opening of the eastern North Atlantic. Initial isotope signatures are: 19.139–19.620 for 206Pb/204Pb, 15.544–15.828 for 207Pb/204Pb, 38.750–39.936 for 208Pb/204Pb, 0.70231–0.70340 for 87Sr/86Sr, and +6.9 to +12.9 for initial epsilon Hf. These signatures are different from Atlantic MORB, the Madeira Archipelago and the Azores, but they lie in the field of worldwide OIB. The Cretaceous seamounts therefore seem to be generated by melts from a OIB-type source that interact with continental lithospheric mantle lying formerly beneath Iberia and presently within the ocean–continent transition zone. Inheritance in zircon and high 207Pb of initial Pb substantiate the presence of very minor amounts of continental material in the lithospheric mantle. A long-lived thermal anomaly is the most plausible explanation for alkaline magmatism since 104 Ma and it could well be that the same anomaly is still the driving force for tertiary and quaternary alkaline magmatism in the eastern North Atlantic region. This hypothesis is agreement with the plate-tectonic position of the region since Cretaceous time, including an about 30° anti-clockwise rotation of Iberia.

  • 19.
    Merle, Renaud
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Olierook, Hugo K.H.
    Manatschal, Gianreto
    Origin of widespread Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in the Central Atlantic: A single melting anomaly?2019Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 342-343, s. 480-498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The age and origin of the Late Cretaceous magmatism on the North American and Iberian-African margins and the adjacent northern Central and Southern North Atlantic ocean are not well constrained due to the lack of appropriate data. To solve this issue, we used the 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes geochemistry of basalts from the New England Seamounts (NES) and the J-Anomaly Ridge (JAR) as these localities on the North American margin are still poorly investigated. We obtained a reliable age of 82.39 ± 0.12 Ma (2σ) for the Nashville Seamount (NES) and an alteration age of ca. 76 Ma for the JAR. Our new dates from the New England Seamounts, combined with those available from the Tore–Madeira Rise and SW Portugal, on the Iberia–African margins, confirm an overlapping period of activity around 105-80 Ma on both the North American and Iberian-African margins and the adjacent oceanic basins. Plate kinematic reconstructions indicate that these magmatic occurrences were located within a ~1000 km radius within the yet narrow Atlantic Ocean. The J-Anomaly Ridge samples were most likely formed at the mid-Atlantic ridge around ~120 Ma. The Sr-Nd-Pb initial isotopic ratios from the New England seamounts show similarities with the chemical signature of the Tore–Madeira Rise and, to a lesser extent, SW Portugal. Moreover, New England Seamounts display a trend toward EMI isotopic end-member, similar to those documented in at the Late Cretaceous Godzilla seamount on the Tore–Madeira Rise and sills from ODP Site 1276. The shared chemical signature is distributed across a torus-shaped area of ~2000 × 2000 km at a near-fixed location on Earth and is not temporally-controlled, suggesting a large-scale chemical anomaly in the shallow mantle. Therefore, geochronological, geochemical and plate reconstructions imply a large-scale, anomalously fertile mantle source that generated widespread magmatism during the Late Cretaceous in the northern Central Atlantic.

  • 20.
    Merle, Renaud
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Marzoli, A.
    Aka, F. T.
    Chiaradia, J. M.
    Reisberg, L.
    Castorina, F.
    Jourdan, F.
    Renne, P. R.
    N’ni, J.
    Nyobe, J. B.
    Mt Bambouto Volcano, Cameroon Line: Mantle Source and Differentiation of Within-plate Alkaline Rocks2017Inngår i: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 933-962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Late Cretaceous–Quaternary Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a 1600 km long chain of volcanoes that straddles the continent–ocean boundary and extends from the Gulf of Guinea to the interior of the African continent. The magmatic activity started at 70 Ma and has continued until the present. The products of this magmatic activity are distinctive in terms of petrology and isotope geochemistry, the variety of volcanic rocks ranging from ultrabasic, alkaline to sub-alkaline lavas to highly evolved alkaline lavas with isotopic compositions indicating complex combinations of both sub-lithospheric (HIMU, EM, DMM) and lithospheric components (sub-continental lithospheric mantle and crust). We conducted a petrological and geochemical study of a set of volcanic rocks, sampled from the rim and interior of the Miocene Mt Bambouto caldera, one of the 12 main volcanic centres of the CVL. The rocks were analysed for their whole-rock major and trace element contents, 40Ar/39Ar ages and whole-rock Sr–Nd–Pb–Os isotopic compositions. Phonolites and quartz-trachytes of the Mt Bambouto caldera are derived by fractional crystallization of highly alkaline and moderately alkaline parental basic magmas, respectively. Assimilation of the shallow crust has affected both alkaline and subalkaline magmas, suggesting that the petrogenesis of the differentiated rocks cannot be explained by crustal contamination alone. Only minor amounts (usually less than 5%) of assimilation of upper crustal silicic rocks from the local Pan-African basement are required to produce the most differentiated compositions. The rocks with the highest crustal contribution are Q-normative trachytes from peripheral cones, as well as one Ne-trachyte. Mt Bambouto basic–ultrabasic rocks, including basanites and alkali-basalts with high 187Os/188Osi, might have experienced some crustal contamination, but it must have been a limited process. Some Mt Bambouto ultrabasic to basic rocks show large ion lithophile element enrichment, notably of Sr, Ba and P compared with Zr. These samples also have relatively radiogenic Sr and unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions. Such compositions are similar to those of the high-Sr group identified by previous studies. Most of the basic rocks do not show such characteristics and are identified as a low-Sr group. We interpret the geochemical characteristics of the high-Sr group as resulting from the partial melting of a depleted mantle (DMM-like) peridotite source containing pyroxenite veins that had interacted with carbonatitic fluids. To test this hypothesis, we used a new modelling approach based on Monte Carlo simulation; this method has the advantage of deciphering how different mantle components interacted through time. Our modelling confirms the plausibility of a three-component source. In addition, it suggests that the carbonatitic fluid first mixed with the pyroxenititic component and the resulting melt interacted with a DMM-like mantle. Both high-Sr and low-Sr groups can be produced by such a mixing scenario but with a stronger contribution of the carbonatitic fluid for the high-Sr group. At the time of melting, these source components could have been located in a metasomatized region of the sublithospheric mantle (uppermost section of the asthenosphere) or in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle.

  • 21. Olierook, H. K. H.
    et al.
    Timms, N. E.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Jourdan, F.
    Wilkes, P. G.
    Paleodrainage and fault development in the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia during and after the breakup of Gondwana from 3D modelling of the Bunbury Basalt2015Inngår i: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, ISSN 0812-0099, E-ISSN 1440-0952, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 289-305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22. Olierook, Hugo K.H.
    et al.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Age of the Barremian–Aptian boundary and onset of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron2019Inngår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The age assigned to the boundary of the Barremian and Aptian stages remains one of the most poorly constrained post-Pangean stratigraphic boundaries. The lack of a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the stage boundary has hampered efforts to calibrate the absolute age of the Cretaceous period in the geological time scale. The current definition of the Barremian–Aptian boundary also approximates the onset of magnetic polarity chron M0r; the end of this chron denotes the start of the Cretaceous Normal polarity Superchron that is of fundamental importance for plate reconstructions. Currently, there is up to 5% discrepancy in the age estimates of the Barremian–Aptian boundary (ca. 126–121 Ma) and the start of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Here, we review available geochronological information from the late Barremian and early Aptian stages collected from the Pacific Ocean, China, California, the Ontong Java Nui large igneous province and the High Arctic large igneous province. By utilizing only robust geochronological data including U-Pb and recalibrated 40Ar/39Ar ages from sites with magnetic polarity information and/or paleontological constraints, we calculate a best estimate of between 123.8 and 121.8 Ma for the Barremian–Aptian boundary and the onset of chron M0r at 2σ confidence. Using estimates of the duration of chron M0r (0.49 ± 0.10 Myr, 2σ), we conservatively compute the start of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron to between 123.4 and 121.2 Ma (2σ). Using an age of 83.07 ± 0.15 Ma (2σ) for the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron, the duration of the superchron is also constrained to between 38.0 and 40.5 Myr (2σ). These age ranges for the Barremian–Aptian boundary, the onset of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and the duration of the superchron currently provide the best estimates until a GSSP is formally ratified.

  • 23. Olierook, Hugo K.H.
    et al.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Timms, Nicholas E.
    Kusznir, Nick
    Muhling, Janet R.
    Bunbury Basalt: Gondwana breakup products or earliest vestiges of the Kerguelen mantle plume?2016Inngår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 440, s. 20-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we investigate the role of a mantle plume in the genesis of the Bunbury Basalt using high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and whole-rock geochemistry, and by using crustal basement thickness of the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Australian continent. The Bunbury Basalt is a series of lava flows and deep intrusive rocks in southwestern Australia thought to be the earliest igneous products from the proto-Kerguelen mantle plume. Nine new plateau ages indicate that the Bunbury Basalt erupted in three distinct phases, at 136.96±0.43 Ma, 132.71±0.43 Ma and 130.45±0.82 Ma. All Bunbury Basalt samples are enriched tholeiitic basalts with varying contributions from the continental lithosphere that are similar to other Kerguelen plume-products. Based on plate reconstructions and the present geochronological constraints, the eruption of the oldest Bunbury Basalt preceded the emplacement of the Kerguelen large igneous province by at least 10–20 m.y. Such age differences between a precursor and the main magmatic event are not uncommon but do require additional explanation. Low crustal stretching factors beneath the Bunbury Basalt (β≈1.4) indicate that decompression melting could not have been generated from asthenospheric mantle with a normal chemistry and geotherm. An elevated geotherm from the mantle plume coupled with the geochemical similarity between the Bunbury Basalt and other Kerguelen plume-products suggests a shared origin exists. However, new age constraints of the oldest Bunbury Basalt are synchronous with the breakup of eastern Gondwana and the initial opening of the Indian Ocean at ca. 137–136 Ma, which may mean an alternative explanation is possible. The enriched geochemistry can equally be explained by a patch of shallow mantle beneath the southern Perth Basin. The patch may have been enriched during Gondwana suturing at ca. 550–500 Ma, during early rifting events by magmatic underplating or by intruded melts into the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. This enriched geochemical signature would then be sufficient to trigger decompression melting from passive rifting between Greater India and Australia with no contribution from the Kerguelen hotspot. We conclude that although the proto-Kerguelen hotspot is certainly a possible explanation for the genesis of the Bunbury Basalt, decompression melting of an enriched patch of subcontinental lithospheric mantle is an alternative theory.

  • 24. Olierook, Hugo K.H.
    et al.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Toward a Greater Kerguelen large igneous province: Evolving mantle source contributions in and around the Indian Ocean2017Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 282-283, s. 163-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between the Kerguelen large igneous province and several moderately-voluminous magmatic domains emplaced on continental crust near the relict triple junction of eastern Gondwana remains tentative. In particular, linking Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic ratios of the 90,000km2 submerged Naturaliste Plateau at the relict triple junction of eastern Gondwana to the Kerguelen LIP were difficult due to previous age estimates of ca. 100Ma. Sericite hydrothermal plateau ages as old as 127.6±0.6Ma indicate that the volcanism on the plateau began at or prior to ca. 128Ma, which is >25m.y. older than previous estimations. These ages are closely matched by the then-nearby ca. 140–130Ma Comei, 137–130Ma Bunbury, 124Ma Wallaby Plateau and 118–117Ma Rajmahal-Bengal-Sylhet magmatic provinces. The Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic characteristics of the majority of these ca. 140–117Ma circum-eastern Gondwana magmatic provinces display only source contributions from the depleted asthenosphere and lithosphere with negligible contribution from the Kerguelen mantle plume. The Comei Province shows a direct plume-related melt signature, probably because it sits directly in the center of the modeled plume head position at 140–130Ma. We suggest that the Kerguelen mantle plume provided the additional heat necessary to melt the asthenosphere and lithosphere of the circum-eastern Gondwanan magmatic provinces. Only after the motion of the Kerguelen plume head into the nascent Indian Ocean at ca. 100–95Ma does a significant melt contribution from the Kerguelen mantle plume become evident in the isotopic signature, a signal that persists until the present-day. Despite differences in source contributions over time, it is clear that the Kerguelen mantle plume is necessary for the production of all the circum-eastern Gondwana magmatic domains, which we propose should be referred to as the Greater Kerguelen Large Igneous Province.

  • 25. Olierook, Hugo K.H.
    et al.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Sircombe, Keith
    Fraser, Geoff
    Timms, Nicholas E.
    Nelson, Gabriel
    Dadd, Kelsie A.
    Kellerson, Laurent
    Borissova, Irina
    Age and geochemistry of magmatism on the oceanic Wallaby Plateau and implications for the opening of the Indian Ocean2015Inngår i: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 43, nr 11, s. 971-974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal relationship between tectonic and volcanic activity on passive continental margins immediately before and after the initiation of mid-ocean ridge spreading is poorly understood because of the scarcity of volcanic samples on which to perform isotope geochronology. We present the first accurate geochronological constraints from a suite of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks dredged from the 70,000 km2 submerged Wallaby Plateau situated on the Western Australian passive margin. Plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar and zircon U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe ages indicate that a portion of the plateau formed at ca. 124 Ma. These ages are at least 6 m.y. younger than the oldest oceanic crust in adjacent abyssal plains (minimum = 130 Ma). Geochemical data indicate that the Wallaby Plateau volcanic samples are enriched tholeiitic basalt, similar to continental flood basalts, including the spatially and temporally proximal Bunbury Basalt in southwestern Australia. Thus, the Wallaby Plateau volcanism could be regarded as a (small) flood basalt event on the order of 104–105 km3. We suggest that magma could not erupt prior to 124 Ma because of the lack of space adjacent to the plateau. Eruption was made possible at 124 Ma via the opening of the Indian Ocean during the breakup of Greater India and Australia along the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. The scale of volcanism and the temporal proximity to breakup challenges the prevailing theory that the Western Australian margin formed as a volcanic passive margin. Given that the volume of volcanism is too small for typical flood basalts associated with volcanic passive margins, we suggest that the two end members, magma-poor and volcanic passive margins, should rather be treated as a continuum.

  • 26. Oostingh, K. F.
    et al.
    Jourdan, F.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Chiaradia, M.
    Spatio-temporal Geochemical Evolution of the SE Australian Upper Mantle Deciphered from the Sr, Nd and Pb Isotope Compositions of Cenozoic Intraplate Volcanic Rocks2016Inngår i: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 57, nr 8, s. 1509-1530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraplate basaltic volcanic rocks ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene are distributed across southeastern Australia in Victoria and eastern South Australia. They comprise four provinces differentiated on the basis of age and spatial distribution. The youngest of these (&lt;4·6 Ma) is the Newer Volcanic Province (NVP), which incorporates lava flows, scoria cones and maars, distributed across western and central Victoria into South Australia. The oldest eruptive rocks belong to the 95–19 Ma Older Volcanic Province, which comprises basaltic lava flows and shallow intrusions distributed across eastern and central Victoria. When examined within the broader framework of geochemical data available for Cretaceous to Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in southeastern Australia, new major, minor and trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses of volcanic rocks from the NVP suggest that their parental magmas originated from a distinctively different mantle source compared with that of the Older Volcanics. We propose that the magmas represented by the Older Volcanics originated from low degrees of partial melting of a mixed source of Indian mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-source mantle and calcio-carbonatite metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), followed by up to 20% fractional crystallization. The magmas of the youngest (&lt;500 ka) suite of the NVP (the Newer Cones) were generated by up to 13% partial melting of a garnet-rich source, followed by similar degrees of fractional crystallization. We also suggest that the temporally intermediate Euroa Volcanics (∼7 Ma) reflect chemical evolution from the source of the Older Volcanics to that of the Newer Cones. Furthermore, energy-constrained recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-RA x FC) modelling suggests that the Sr isotope signature of the ∼4·6–1 Ma Newer Plains component of the NVP can be explained by up to 5% upper crustal assimilation. On the basis of these results and data from the literature for mantle xenoliths, we propose a geodynamic model involving decompression melting of metasomatized veins at the base of the SCLM generating the Older Volcanics and modifying the ambient asthenosphere of Indian MORB isotope character. This was followed by thermal erosion and entrainment of the resulting depleted SCLM into the modified Indian MORB-source asthenospheric mantle, generating the Newer Cones. Such a model is in agreement with recent geophysical observations in the area suggesting edge-driven convection with shear-driven upwelling as a potential geodynamic model resulting in temporal upwelling in the region.

  • 27. Pidgeon, R. T.
    et al.
    Merle, Renaud E.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Grange, M. L.
    Nemchin, A. A.
    Whitehouse, M. J.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Annealing of radiation damage in zircons from Apollo 14 impact breccia 14311: Implications for the thermal history of the breccia2016Inngår i: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 155-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Impact breccia 14311, was collected from the Apollo 14 landing site as a potential sample of the underlying Fra Mauro Formation. Published zircon U-Pb ages of >4000 Ma date the source material of the breccia and the apatite U-Pb age of ~3940 Ma is interpreted as dating thermal resetting of the apatite U-Pb systems. In this contribution we present new age information on the late stage thermal history of the breccia based on the annealing of radiation damage in the zircons. From Raman spectroscopic determination of the radiation damage within SIMS analytical spots on the zircons and the U and Th concentrations determined on these spots, we demonstrate that the radiation damage in the zircons has been annealed and we estimate the age of annealing at 3410 ± 80 Ma. This age is interpreted as a cooling age following heating of the breccia to above the annealing temperature of ~230 °C for stage 1 radiation damage in zircon, but below the temperature needed to reset the U-Pb system of apatite (~500 °C). It is proposed that this thermal event was associated with the prolonged period of Mare volcanism, from 3150 to 3750 Ma, that generated massive basalt flows in the vicinity of the sample location.

  • 28. Pidgeon, R. T.
    et al.
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Grange, M. L.
    Nemchin, A. A.
    Annealing history of zircons from Apollo 14083 and 14303 impact breccias2018Inngår i: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 53, nr 12, s. 2632-2643Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Breccia boulders scattered around the 25 Ma Cone Crater near the Apollo 14 landing site provide a potential source of material ejected from the underlying Fra Mauro formation, which is interpreted to form from the ejecta blanket of the ~3.9 Ga Imbrium impact. However, questions remain as to whether all or some of the rocks collected are from the Fra Mauro Formation. In this contribution, we present new Raman measurements on zircons from impact breccias 14083 and 14303 that indicate a zircon radiation damage age of the breccias of 3900 ± 120 (2σ) Ma. These ages are compatible with a history of thermal shock during their emplacement as part of the Imbrium impact ejecta blanket. In contrast, previously published Raman analyses of zircons from a sample of breccia 14311 have a younger radiation damage age of 3410 ± 80 (2σ) Ma, confirming that this breccia had a different thermal history and was possibly unrelated to the Fra Mauro Formation. The radiation damage ages of breccias 14083 and 14303, in combination with previously published apatite U-Pb ages, place constraints on the thermal conditions within the Imbrium ejecta blanket.

  • 29. Sanchez, Guillaume
    et al.
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Hinschberger, Florent
    Thinon, Isabelle
    Girardeau, Jacques
    Post-spreading deformation and associated magmatism along the Iberia-Morocco Atlantic margins: Insight from submarine volcanoes of the Tore-Madeira Rise2019Inngår i: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 407, s. 76-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new high-resolution bathymetric map combined with a regional Digital Elevation Model (DEM) analysis reveal the modalities of occurrence and emplacement of post-spreading magmatism along the NNE-SSW oriented, 1000 km long Tore-Madeira Rise (TMR) as well as its relationship with the activity of major fault systems including the Estremadura Fault System (ESF) and the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ). Morphological and structural analysis of the bathymetric map were performed to map volcanic features such as eruptive cones, vents and fissures together with faults along the TMR. The new bathymetric map shows that the main NNW-SSE seamount alignment is formed by three structurally distinct volcanic massifs, the Tore, the Josephine and the Southern Volcanic Groups. The majority of the volcanoes of each group emplaced within or along specific portion of pre-existing faults (ESF and AGFZ) including splay fault, releasing bend, fault tips and interaction zones between different segments. Magmas were channelled into sub-vertical pre-existing lithospheric faults that acted as preferential pathways for the vertical magma ascent. Migration and final eruption of magma are controlled by the local stress variation induced by complex fault geometries, change in plate kinematics as well as strong shear zone anisotropy as suggested by the emplacement within localised areas of transtension. We conclude that post-spreading magma emplacement in the southern part of the Iberia margin was related to the development of a transtensional plate boundary between the Iberian and African Plate during the Late Cretaceous. More generally, our findings emphasize that the distribution of volcanism as the expression of the interaction between shallow plate tectonic and mantle processes should be included in plate kinematic reconstruction. This study also demonstrates that the accurate mapping of oceanic seafloor is pivotal to better understand tectono-magmatic evolution of volcanic seamount chains and geological processes in oceanic domains.

  • 30. Snape, Joshua F.
    et al.
    Nemchin, Alexander A.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    merle, renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Hopkinson, Thomas
    Anand, Mahesh
    The timing of basaltic volcanism at the Apollo landing sites2019Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 266, s. 29-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise crystallisation ages have been determined for a range of Apollo basalts from Pb-Pb isochrons generated using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of multiple accessory phases including K-feldspar, K-rich glass and phosphates. The samples analysed in this study include five Apollo 11 high-Ti basalts, one Apollo 14 high-Al basalt, seven Apollo 15 low-Ti basalts, and five Apollo 17 high-Ti basalts. Together with the samples analysed in two previous similar studies, Pb-Pb isochron ages have been determined for all of the major basaltic suites sampled during the Apollo missions. The accuracy of these ages has been assessed as part of a thorough review of existing age determinations for Apollo basalts, which reveals a good agreement with previous studies of the same samples, as well as with average ages that have been calculated for the emplacement of the different basaltic suites at the Apollo landing sites. Furthermore, the precision of the new age determinations helps to resolve distinctions between the ages of different basaltic suites in more detail than was previously possible. The proposed ages for the basaltic surface flows at the Apollo landing sites have been reviewed in light of these new sample ages. Finally, the data presented here have also been used to constrain the initial Pb isotopic compositions of the mare basalts, which indicate a significant degree of heterogeneity in the lunar mantle source regions, even among the basalts collected at individual landing sites.

  • 31. Ware, Bryant D
    et al.
    Jourdan, Fred
    Merle, Renaud
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Chiaradia, Massimo
    Hodges, Kyle
    The Kalkarindji Large Igneous Province, Australia: Petrogenesis of the Oldest and Most Compositionally Homogenous Province of the Phanerozoic2018Inngår i: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 635-665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kalkarindji Large Igneous Province (LIP) is a Middle Cambrian (511 Ma) continental flood basalt (CFB) province located in northern and central–west Australia that has been linked to an extinction event at the Early–Middle Cambrian boundary. The extent of this LIP has been estimated at about 2·1 x 106 km2, with exposures in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia. Major and trace element datasets reveal geochemical characteristics typical for continental flood basalts (CFBs) including: tholeiitic affinity; an enrichment in incompatible elements, in particular, large-ion lithophile elements (LILE); enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) compared to heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to N-MORB; negative Nb and Ta anomalies in normalized extended element patterns. Here we present the first comprehensive geochemical investigation of the Kalkarindji CFB province. The Kalkarindji CFBs are geochemically homogeneous, low-Ti basaltic andesites, with a nearly complete lack of basalts as defined using a total-alkalis vs silica diagram. All of the rocks analysed for Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic ratios display enriched initial (t = 511 Ma) isotopic compositions (143Nd/144Ni = 0·511928–0·511981; 87Sr/86Sri = 0·70917–0·71029; 206Pb/204Pbi = 18·105–18·843; 207Pb/204Pbi = 15·726–15·805; 208Pb/204Pbi = 38·374–39·208). Crustal assimilation models are interpreted to suggest that the geochemical characteristics, as well as the homogenous composition across the entire province, cannot be explained by continental crust contamination. Therefore, the enriched isotopic ratios (particularly the extremely high 207Pb/204Pbi and elevated 208Pb/204Pbi for moderate 206Pb/204Pbi), coupled with relative depletions in Nb and Ta concentrations, indicate the involvement of an ancient enriched lithospheric-like component in the genesis of the Kalkarindji CFB. We propose a model in which the source region was affected by an enrichment event at around 2·5 Ga (possibly through the addition of subducted sediments). Decompression melting and mantle warming (focused by edge driven convection) allowed melting of the fertile mantle to generate the Kalkarindji CFB province at c. 511 Ma.

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