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  • 1.
    Olsen, Paul E.
    et al.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.
    Sha, Jingeng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, East Beijing Road 39, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Fang, Yanan
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, East Beijing Road 39, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Chang, Clara
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.
    Kent, Dennis V.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA;Earth & Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Whiteside, Jessica
    Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA.
    Kinney, Sean
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.
    Lampert, Alissa
    Malk Partners, 16 W. 22nd St., New York, NY 10010.
    MacLennan, Scott
    School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Empirical record, geochronology and theoretical determinates of Mesozoic climate in the Junggar Basin, northwest China in relation to other basins in northeast China2024In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 538, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesozoic continental basins of northern China, including the Junggar Basin, provide some of the most spectacular and important fossil assemblages in the world, but their climatic and environmental contexts have been shrouded in uncertainty. Here we examine the main factors that determine those contexts: palaeolatitude; the effects of changing atmospheric gases on the radiative balance; and orbitally paced variations in insolation. Empirical evidence on these factors is accumulating rapidly and promises to upend many long standing paradigms. We focus primarily on the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang northwest China with the renowned Shishugou Biota and the basins in Liaoning, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia with their famous Jehol and Yanliao Biotas. Accurate geochronology is necessary for disentangling these various factors and we review the Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous U-Pb ages for these areas and supply one new LA-ICP-MS age for the otherwise un-dated Sangonghe Formation of Early Jurassic age. We review climatic-sensitive facies patterns in North China and show that the climatic context changed synchronously in northwestern and northeastern China consistent with a previously proposed huge Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous True Polar Wander (TPW) event with all the major plates of East Asia docked with Siberia and moving together since at least the Triassic, when the north China Basins were at Arctic latitudes. We conclude that this TPW shift is was responsible for the coals and ice rafted debris being produced at high latitudes and the red beds and eolian strata being deposited at low latitudes, within the same basin. The climatic and taphonomic context in which the famous Shishugou, Yanlaio and Jehol biotas preserved was thus a function of TPW as opposed to local tectonics or climate change.

  • 2.
    Olsen, Paul
    et al.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA..
    Sha, Jingeng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China..
    Fang, Yanan
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China..
    Chang, Clara
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA..
    Whiteside, Jessica H.
    School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK..
    Kinney, Sean
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA..
    Sues, Hans-Dieter
    Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA..
    Kent, Dennis
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA.;Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA..
    Schaller, Morgan
    Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA..
    Vajda, Vivi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arctic ice and the ecological rise of the dinosaurs2022In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 8, no 26, p. 1-9, article id eabo6342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant lake ice-rafted debris in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic strata of the Junggar Basin of northwestern China (paleolatitude ~71°N) indicates that freezing winter temperatures typified the forested Arctic, despite apersistence of extremely high levels of atmospheric Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2). Phylogenetic bracket analysis shows that non-avian dinosaurs were primitively insulated, enabling them to access rich deciduous and evergreen Arctic vegetation, even under freezing winter conditions. Transient but intense volcanic winters associated withmassive eruptions and lowered light levels led to the end-Triassic mass extinction (201.6 Ma) on land, decimating all medium- to large-sized nondinosaurian, noninsulated continental reptiles. In contrast, insulated dinosaurs were already well adapted to cold temperatures, and not only survived but also underwent a rapid adaptive radiation and ecological expansion in the Jurassic, taking over regions formerly dominated by large noninsulated reptiles.

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