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  • 1. Kemp, Anthony I.S.
    et al.
    Vervoort, Jeffrey D.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Smithies, R. Hugh
    Lu, Yongjun
    A linked evolution for granite-greenstone terranes of the Pilbara Craton from Nd and Hf isotopes, with implications for Archean continental growth2023In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 601, p. 117895-117895, article id 117895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In felsic igneous rocks, the parent and daughter elements in the widely used Sm–Nd and Lu–Hf isotope tracer systems are mainly hosted in accessory phases. Recrystallisation and/or breakdown of these minerals during metamorphism, deformation and weathering potentially compromises the chemical and isotopic composition of the respective whole rocks, impeding the utility of such information for deducing the timing, rates and processes of crust-mantle differentiation in the early Earth. The different abilities of zircon and REE-rich minerals to withstand metamorphism have been suggested as a reason for the decoupling of the Lu–Hf and Sm–Nd isotope systems observed in a number of ancient gneiss terranes. The controls on element mobility and subsequent isotopic disturbance during recrystallisation and breakdown of LREE-rich accessory minerals are, however incompletely understood. Here, we use petrography, element mapping, and microanalysis of accessory minerals, in tandem with whole rock Sm–Nd data, to assess the reliability of the Sm–Nd system in the 3.59–3.58 Ga Mount Webber Gabbros, the oldest rocks in the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia). We show that despite multiple thermal events, which reset the mineral Sm–Nd systematics, and decomposition of the REE-rich mineral allanite, the Mount Webber rocks retained the Sm–Nd isotope signatures of their magmatic protoliths at the whole-rock scale. We show that the allanite breakdown occurred during modern, near-surface weathering processes at low temperature, such that the REE were sequestered into secondary minerals rather than escaping in higher temperature metamorphic fluids. The whole rock Sm–Nd, and zircon O–Hf signatures, together with new 142Nd isotope data, suggest derivation of the Mount Webber rocks from undifferentiated mantle sources that preserve no evidence for Hadean silicate Earth differentiation. This study highlights the benefits of a combined analytical approach using both in-situ and whole-rock isotope analyses to obtain a more complete record of the source and thermal evolution of ancient, highly metamorphosed igneous rocks.

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  • 2.
    Nilsson, Mimmi
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Klausen, Martin
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Break-up related 2170–2120 Ma mafic dykes across the North Atlantic craton: Final dismembering of a North Atlantic-Dharwar craton connection?2019In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    A new 3.59 Ga magmatic suite and a chondritic source to the east Pilbara Craton2019In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pilbara Craton, Western Australia hosts one of the best-preserved Paleoarchean granite-greenstone terrains on Earth, and is inferred to have developed on an older (> 3.8 Ga), possibly Hadean, continental substrate. Such ancient crust has, however, never been identified in outcrop. Here, we show that metamorphosed gabbroic, leucogabbroic and anorthositic rocks of the South Daltons area, in the western part of the Shaw Granitic Complex, formed at 3.59–3.58 Ga and were intruded by granitic magma at 3.44 Ga. The 3.59–3.58 Ga gabbroic rocks, here named the Mount Webber Gabbro, represent the oldest, unambiguous igneous rock emplacement in the Pilbara Craton and significantly predate the oldest volcanic activity of the 3.53–3.23 Ga Pilbara Supergroup within the East Pilbara Terrane. We interpret the Mount Webber Gabbro samples to represent fragments of a dismembered layered mafic intrusion. Mantle-like zircon δ18O and Hf isotope signatures indicate derivation from a chondritic to near chondritic mantle at ~3.59 Ga, and do not support the existence of a>3.8 Ga basement to the East Pilbara Terrane. These results strengthen the notion of an approximately chondritic>3.5 Ga mantle beneath the Pilbara Craton, and provide further evidence that recent estimates of Archean stabilised continental volumes, based on the assumption of crust extraction from a global, convecting depleted mantle reservoir, may be overestimated.

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  • 4.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    Hickman, Arthur (Contributor)
    Whitehouse, Martin (Contributor)
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Martin, Laure (Contributor)
    Grey, Chris (Contributor)
    A new 3.59 Ga magmatic suite and a chondritic source to the east Pilbara Craton2019In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, ISSN 0009-2541, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pilbara Craton, Western Australia hosts one of the best-preserved Paleoarchean granite-greenstone terrains on Earth, and is inferred to have developed on an older (> 3.8 Ga), possibly Hadean, continental substrate. Such ancient crust has, however, never been identified in outcrop. Here, we show that metamorphosed gabbroic, leucogabbroic and anorthositic rocks of the South Daltons area, in the western part of the Shaw Granitic Complex, formed at 3.59–3.58 Ga and were intruded by granitic magma at 3.44 Ga. The 3.59–3.58 Ga gabbroic rocks, here named the Mount Webber Gabbro, represent the oldest, unambiguous igneous rock emplacement in the Pilbara Craton and significantly predate the oldest volcanic activity of the 3.53–3.23 Ga Pilbara Supergroup within the East Pilbara Terrane. We interpret the Mount Webber Gabbro samples to represent fragments of a dismembered layered mafic intrusion. Mantle-like zircon δ18O and Hf isotope signatures indicate derivation from a chondritic to near chondritic mantle at ~3.59 Ga, and do not support the existence of a>3.8 Ga basement to the East Pilbara Terrane. These results strengthen the notion of an approximately chondritic>3.5 Ga mantle beneath the Pilbara Craton, and provide further evidence that recent estimates of Archean stabilised continental volumes, based on the assumption of crust extraction from a global, convecting depleted mantle reservoir, may be overestimated.

  • 5.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    A Yilgarn seed to the Pilbara Craton (Australia)? Evidence from inherited zircons2019In: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, ISSN 0091-7613, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 1098-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the age and compositional architecture of Archean cratonic lithosphere is critical for models of geodynamics and continental growth on early Earth, but can be difficult to unravel from the exposed geology. We report the occurrence of numerous >3.7 Ga zircon crystals in 3.45 Ga rhyolites of the eastern Pilbara Craton (Western Australia), which preserve evidence for an Eoarchean meta-igneous component in the deep Pilbara crust. This inherited zircon population shares similar and distinctive age and Hf-O isotope characteristics with the oldest gneissic components of the Yilgarn Craton ∼500 km farther south, suggesting a common ca. 3.75 Ga felsic crustal nucleus to these two Archean granite-greenstone terranes. We infer a pivotal role for such ‘seeds’ in facilitating the growth and persistence of Archean continental lithosphere.

  • 6.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    Kristinsdottir, Bara (Contributor)
    Kemp, Anthony (Contributor)
    Whitehouse, Martin (Contributor)
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Birimian crustal growth in the West African Craton: U-Pb, O and Lu-Hf isotope constraints from detrital zircon in major rivers2018In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, no 479, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined U-Pb, O and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of detrital zircon grains from five major rivers in Ghana are used to investigate the growth and evolution of the Birimian terrane of the West African Craton. The majority of the analysed zircon yields supra-chondritic εHf values, suggesting derivation from primarily juvenile host magmas. Zircon grains from the Birim River in southwestern Ghana deviate from the generally juvenile trend, where the sub-chondritic εHf but mantle-like δ18O of the 2.15 Ga population suggest reworking of ancient, but unweathered, meta-igneous crust. Hf-O isotope data from detrital zircons of the remaining rivers are consistent with sequential crust generation between ca. 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. Oxygen isotope data suggest that the contribution from Archaean sedimentary material to felsic magmas was below 30%, and in most cases below 10%. Zircon with strongly positive εHf values and elevated δ18O indicate rapid reworking of juvenile crust within southern Ghana. An increase towards heavier oxygen isotope signatures over time suggests a maturing arc system with rapid recycling of juvenile supracrustal material during the evolution of the Birimian terrane.

  • 7.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    Extensive reworking of Archaean crust within the Birimian terrane in Ghana as revealed by combined zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes2017In: Geoscience Frontiers, ISSN 1674-9871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Located in the southeastern parts of the Baoulé Mossi domain of the West African Craton, the Birimian terrane in Ghana is known to consist of predominantly juvenile crust emplaced during the Eburnean orogeny. Here we present novel coupled zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from nine Birimian granitoids intruding different domains from northwestern, western and southeastern Ghana. Sub-chondritic Eps-Hf-values indicating reworking of Archaean crust are recorded in zircon from both northwestern and southeastern Ghana. As a conservative estimate 71% of all analysed zircon grains spanning in age from 2220 Ma to 2130 Ma require contribution from a reworked Archaean source, contradicting the common belief that the Birimian terrane consist of predominantly juvenile crust. A minimum Eps-Hf-value of 10.5 at 2139 Ma suggests a Palaeoarchaean to late Mseoarchaean component as the contributing ancient source. Combined with previously reported heavy zircon Delta-18O signatures from Birimian river zircon in Ghana, our new data suggests reworking of Archaean aged sediments during subduction initiated crustal growth in the vicinity of one, or possibly in between two Archaean aged cratons.

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  • 8.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    Gerdes, Axel (Contributor)
    Extensive reworking of Archaean crust within the Birimian terrane in Ghana as revealed by combined zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes2018In: Geoscience Frontiers, Vol. 9, p. 173-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Located in the southeastern parts of the Baoulé Mossi domain of the West African Craton, the Birimian terrane in Ghana is known to consist of predominantly juvenile crust emplaced during the Eburnean orogeny. Here we present novel coupled zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from nine Birimian granitoids intruding different domains from northwestern, western and southeastern Ghana. Sub-chondritic Eps-Hf-values indicating reworking of Archaean crust are recorded in zircon from both northwestern and southeastern Ghana. As a conservative estimate 71% of all analysed zircon grains spanning in age from 2220 Ma to 2130 Ma require contribution from a reworked Archaean source, contradicting the common belief that the Birimian terrane consist of predominantly juvenile crust. A minimum Eps-Hf-value of 10.5 at 2139 Ma suggests a Palaeoarchaean to late Mseoarchaean component as the contributing ancient source. Combined with previously reported heavy zircon delta-18O signatures from Birimian river zircon in Ghana, our new data suggests reworking of Archaean aged sediments during subduction initiated crustal growth in the vicinity of one, or possibly in between two Archaean aged cratons.

  • 9.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology. University of Western Australia.
    Scherstén, Anders (Contributor)
    Lund University.
    Gerdes, Axel (Contributor)
    Goethe University.
    Næraa, Tomas (Contributor)
    Lund University.
    Tracing Proterozoic arc mantle Hf isotope depletion of southern Fennoscandia through coupled zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopes2017In: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 284–285, p. 122-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constraints on the composition of the depleted mantle Sm–Nd and Lu–Hf crust formation ages have a long history of scientific debate. When calculating mantle extraction ages, and constructing crustal growth models, a linear evolution of incompatible trace elements in a depleted mantle since > 4 Ga is routinely used. Mantle depletion however varies regionally and over time and subduction of sediments and oceanic crust renders a mantle-wedge variously enriched relative to a modelled depleted mantle.

    Here we show that primitive mantle-derived subduction related gabbroic intrusions from southern Fennoscandia have Hf isotope compositions that are enriched relative to a MORB-like linear depleted mantle evolution curve. Extrapolation of primitive Paleoproterozoic gabbro suites enables the construction of a regional mantle evolution curve, providing improved constraints on model ages, crustal residence times and the fraction of juvenile versus reworked continental crust. Convergent margins are assumed to be one of the main sites of continental crust growth, and using an overly depleted mantle source yield model ages that are too old, and hence cumulative crustal growth models show too much crust generation early in the Earth's history. The approach of using the Hf isotope composition of zircon from primitive subduction related gabbroic intrusions as a proxy for mantle Hf isotope composition, piloted in this study, can be applied to other convergent margins.

  • 10.
    Petersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kemp, Anthony I.S.
    Boyet, Maud
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Boyce, Matilda
    Roberts, Malcolm
    Kennedy, Allen
    Response of Sm–Nd isotope systematics to complex thermal histories: A case study from 3.58 Ga gneisses of the Pilbara Craton2023In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 620, p. 118346-118346, article id 118346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In felsic igneous rocks, the parent and daughter elements in the widely used Sm–Nd and Lu–Hf isotope tracer systems are mainly hosted in accessory phases. Recrystallisation and/or breakdown of these minerals during metamorphism, deformation and weathering potentially compromises the chemical and isotopic composition of the respective whole rocks, impeding the utility of such information for deducing the timing, rates and processes of crust-mantle differentiation in the early Earth. The different abilities of zircon and REE-rich minerals to withstand metamorphism have been suggested as a reason for the decoupling of the Lu–Hf and Sm–Nd isotope systems observed in a number of ancient gneiss terranes. The controls on element mobility and subsequent isotopic disturbance during recrystallisation and breakdown of LREE-rich accessory minerals are, however incompletely understood. Here, we use petrography, element mapping, and microanalysis of accessory minerals, in tandem with whole rock Sm–Nd data, to assess the reliability of the Sm–Nd system in the 3.59–3.58 Ga Mount Webber Gabbros, the oldest rocks in the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia). We show that despite multiple thermal events, which reset the mineral Sm–Nd systematics, and decomposition of the REE-rich mineral allanite, the Mount Webber rocks retained the Sm–Nd isotope signatures of their magmatic protoliths at the whole-rock scale. We show that the allanite breakdown occurred during modern, near-surface weathering processes at low temperature, such that the REE were sequestered into secondary minerals rather than escaping in higher temperature metamorphic fluids. The whole rock Sm–Nd, and zircon O–Hf signatures, together with new 142Nd isotope data, suggest derivation of the Mount Webber rocks from undifferentiated mantle sources that preserve no evidence for Hadean silicate Earth differentiation. This study highlights the benefits of a combined analytical approach using both in-situ and whole-rock isotope analyses to obtain a more complete record of the source and thermal evolution of ancient, highly metamorphosed igneous rocks.

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  • 11.
    Petersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Söderlund, Ulf
    Scherstén, Anders
    Waight, Tod
    Nilsson, Mimmi K.M.
    Vervoort, Jeff
    The robustness of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic systems during metamorphism – A case study of the Åker metabasite in southern Sweden2023In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 394, p. 107122-107122, article id 107122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While whole-rock Lu-Hf isotope analysis remains one of the only ways to obtain initial Hf isotope signatures of old mafic rocks, Hf isotope analyses of more robust accessory zircon in intermediate to silicic rocks have largely replaced whole-rock analyses during the last decade. This has led to a discrepancy in the amount of existing data from mafic and felsic lithologies. However, especially in mafic, Si-poor rocks with a metamorphic imprint, Hf isotope data rely on whole-rock analysis since baddeleyite, commonly used for U-Pb age analyses of mafic rocks, is sensitive to alteration and metamorphism. Hence, to accurately evaluate the trace element and isotope signatures of altered mafic rocks, it is important to understand the mechanisms of element mobility during metamorphism. Here, we report whole-rock trace element compositions, Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope data from variably deformed and metamorphosed samples of a mafic intrusion in southern Sweden, the Åker metabasite. These data suggest that trace elements were undisturbed on a whole-rock sample scale during deformation at upper amphibolite facies (at least 1000 MPa and 600 °C) metamorphism under hydrated conditions. Despite redistribution of Zr associated with the breakdown of baddeleyite and other igneous phases, the Åker metabasite has retained its chemical and isotopic integrity since igneous crystallisation at ca. 1565 Ma. This study demonstrates and strengthens the feasibility of whole-rock analyses of (meta-)mafic rocks for determining initial εNd and εHf values, despite deformation and metamorphism under hydrated amphibolite-grade metamorphic conditions. Testing the coherence of the calculated initial Nd and Hf isotope ratios by examining variably deformed and metamorphosed varieties of a rock in a single outcrop, could be used as a model for research on more complex Archean rocks.

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  • 12.
    Petersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Tual, Lorraine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope data in eclogite and metagabbro from southern Sweden reveal a common long-lived evolution and enriched source2020In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 253-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several orogenies have shaped the bedrock of southern Sweden. While mafic intrusions represent significant sources of information for reconstructing geodynamics and crustal evolution, the characterization of the various generations of such intrusions in Sweden remains limited. We reportin situzircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data from a Fe-Ti eclogite and a coronitic metagabbro from the Eastern Segment in southern Sweden. Crystallisation ages at 1683 +/- 17 Ma of the eclogite suggest affiliation with the surrounding 1730-1660 Ma Transscandinavian Igneous Belt intrusions that dominate the Eastern Segment. Secondary zircon growth and Pb-loss in the eclogite sample at 1459 +/- 44 Ma and the crystallisation of the metagabbro at 1431 +/- 26 Ma overlap and are related to magmatic activity during the Hallandian orogeny. Zircon Hf isotope signatures with chondritic and sub-chondritic values at similar to 1683 Ma and similar to 1431 Ma, respectively, correspond to an enriched (or mildly depleted) source in line with a "Mixed Svecofennian Crustal Reservoir". These isotope signatures are more enriched than those in the surrounding gneisses. Zircon isotope data from the herein analysed zircon grains indicate that the eclogite and metagabbro had an enriched mafic source in the mid to lower crust, or within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle below Fennoscandia.

  • 13. Rowe, Matthew L.
    et al.
    Kemp, Anthony I.S.
    Wingate, Michael T.D.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    van der Riet, Christiaan
    Cratonisation of Archaean continental crust: Insights from U–Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry of granitic rocks in the Narryer Terrane, northwest Yilgarn Craton2022In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 372, p. 106609-106609, article id 106609Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Trevisan, Veronica G.
    et al.
    Hagemann, Steffen G.
    Loucks, Robert R.
    Xavier, Roberto P.
    Motta, João G.
    Parra-Avila, Luis A.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Gao, Jian-Feng
    Kemp, Anthony I.S.
    Assis, Rafael R.
    Tectonic switches recorded in a Paleoproterozoic accretionary orogen in the Alta Floresta Mineral Province, southern Amazonian Craton2021In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 364, p. 106324-106324, article id 106324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kemp, Anthony I.S.
    Petersson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Persistent mildly supra-chondritic initial Hf in the Lewisian Complex, NW Scotland: Implications for Neoarchean crust-mantle differentiation2022In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 606, p. 121001-121001, article id 121001Article in journal (Refereed)
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