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  • 1. Alstrom, Per
    et al.
    Rasmussen, Pamela C.
    Sangster, George
    Dalvi, Shashank
    Round, Philip D.
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Yao, Cheng-Te
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Le Manh, Hung
    Lei, Fumin
    Olsson, Urban
    Multiple species within the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera-Brown Prinia P. polychroa complex revealed through an integrative taxonomic approach2019In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, p. 1-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We re-evaluated the taxonomy of the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera-Brown Prinia P. polychroa complex using molecular, morphological and vocal analyses. The extensive seasonal, sexual, age-related, geographical and taxon-specific variation in this complex has never before been adequately studied. As no previous genetic or vocal analyses have focused on this group, misinterpretation of taxonomic signals from limited conventional morphological study alone was likely. Using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we found that P. crinigera sensu lato (s.l.) comprises two non-sister groups of taxa (Himalayan crinigera and Chinese striata groups) that differ substantially morphologically and vocally and that are broadly sympatric in Yunnan Province, China. Prinia polychroa cooki (Myanmar) and P. p. rocki (southern Vietnam) are each morphologically, vocally and genetically distinct. Thai, Cambodian and Laotian populations formerly ascribed to P. p. cooki are morphologically and vocally most similar to and most closely related to Javan P. p. polychroa, and require a new name, proposed here. Prinia p. bangsi of Yunnan is part of the crinigera group rather than of P. polychroa, and hence there is no evidence for sympatry between P. polychroa s.l. and P. crinigera s.l., nor of the occurrence of P. polychroa in mainland China or Taiwan. We recommend the recognition of five species in the complex, with the following suggestions for new English names: Himalayan Prinia P. crinigera sensu stricto (s.s.; with subspecies striatula, crinigera, yunnanensis and bangsi); Chinese Prinia P. striata (subspecies catharia, parumstriata and striata); Burmese Prinia P. cooki (monotypic); Annam Prinia P. rocki (monotypic) and Deignan’s Prinia P. polychroa s.s. (subspecies Javan polychroa and the new Southeast Asian taxon). This study underlines the importance of using multiple datasets for the elucidation of diversity of cryptic bird species and their evolutionary history and biogeography.

  • 2. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Cibois, Alice
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Zuccon, Dario
    Gelang, Magnus
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Andersen, Michael J.
    Moyle, Robert G.
    Pasquet, Eric
    Olsson, Urban
    Comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the grassbirds and allies (Locustellidae) reveals extensive non-monophyly of traditional genera, and a proposal for a new classification2018In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 127, p. 367-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread Old World avian family Locustellidae (‘grassbirds and allies’) comprises 62 extant species in 11 genera. In the present study, we used one mitochondrial and, for most species, four nuclear loci to infer the phylogeny of this family. We analysed 59 species, including the five previously unsampled genera plus two genera that had not before been analysed in a densely sampled dataset. This study revealed extensive disagreement with current taxonomy; the genera Bradypterus, Locustella, Megalurus, Megalurulus and Schoenicola were all found to be non-monophyletic. Non-monophyly was particularly pronounced for Megalurus, which was widely scattered across the tree. Three of the five monotypic genera (Amphilais, Buettikoferella and Malia) were nested within other genera; one monotypic genus (Chaetornis) formed a clade with one of the two species of Schoenicola; whereas the position of the fifth monotypic genus (Elaphrornis) was unresolved. Robsonius was confirmed as sister to the other genera. We propose a phylogenetically informed revision of genus-level taxonomy, including one new generic name. Finally, we highlight several non-monophyletic species complexes and deep intra-species divergences that point to conflict in taxonomy and suggest an underestimation of current species diversity in this group.

  • 3. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Jønsson, Knud A.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ödeen, Anders
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species2015In: Royal Society Open Science, ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 2, article id 140364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has diverged mainly in plumage, which may be the result of selection for improved camouflage in its new arboreal niche, while selection pressures for other morphological changes have probably been weak owing to preadaptations for the novel niche. By contrast, we suggest that Amaurocichla's niche change has led to divergence in both structure and plumage.

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  • 4.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University , Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala , Sweden;Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , Chinaa.
    Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University , Gorgan , Iran.
    Donald, Paul F
    BirdLife International, The David Attenborough Building , Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ , UK;Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge , Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ , UK.
    Nymark, Marianne
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University , Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala , Sweden.
    Enbody, Erik D
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University , 751 23 Uppsala , Sweden;Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz , Santa Cruz, CA 95060 , USA.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Elisha, Emmanuel Barde
    Nigerian Montane Forest Project (NMPF), Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve , Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State , Nigeria;A.P. Leventis Ornithological Research Institute (APLORI), Biological Conservatory , Jos-East, Plateau State , Nigeria.
    Ndithia, Henry K
    Department of Zoology, Ornithology Section, National Museums of Kenya , PO Box 40658-00100 GPO, Nairobi , Kenya.
    Tieleman, B Irene
    Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen , Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen , The Netherlands.
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Department of Biodiversity, University of Limpopo , Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727 , South Africa.
    Olsson, Urban
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg , PO Box 463, 405 30 Göteborg , Sweden;Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre , PO Box 461, 405 30 Göteborg , Sweden.
    Rancilhac, Loïs
    Animal Ecology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University , Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala , Sweden.
    Stervander, Martin
    Bird Group, Natural History Museum , Akeman Street, Tring, Hertfordshire HP23 6AP , UK.
    Integrative taxonomy reveals unrecognised species diversity in African Corypha larks (Aves: Alaudidae)2023In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 5. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin
    Enbody, Erik D.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Crochet, Pierre-André
    Guillaumet, Alban
    Rancilhac, Loïs
    Tieleman, B. Irene
    Olsson, Urban
    Donald, Paul F.
    Stervander, Martin
    Systematics of the avian family Alaudidae using multilocus and genomic data2023In: Avian Research, ISSN 2053-7166, Vol. 14, p. 100095-100095, article id 100095Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 6. Alström, Per
    et al.
    Rasmussen, Pamela C.
    Sangster, George
    Dalvi, Shashank
    Round, Philip D.
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Yao, Cheng-Te
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Le Manh, Hung
    Lei, Fumin
    Olsson, Urban
    Multiple species within the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera–Brown Prinia P. polychroa complex revealed through an integrative taxonomic approach2020In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 162, no 3, p. 936-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We re‐evaluated the taxonomy of the Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera–Brown Prinia P. polychroa complex using molecular, morphological and vocal analyses. The extensive seasonal, sexual, age‐related, geographical and taxon‐specific variation in this complex has never before been adequately studied. As no previous genetic or vocal analyses have focused on this group, misinterpretation of taxonomic signals from limited conventional morphological study alone was likely. Using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we found that P. crinigera sensu lato (s.l.) comprises two non‐sister groups of taxa (Himalayan crinigera and Chinese striata groups) that differ substantially morphologically and vocally and that are broadly sympatric in Yunnan Province, China. Prinia polychroa cooki (Myanmar) and P. p. rocki (southern Vietnam) are each morphologically, vocally and genetically distinct. Thai, Cambodian and Laotian populations formerly ascribed to P. p. cooki are morphologically and vocally most similar to and most closely related to Javan P. p. polychroa, and require a new name, proposed here. Prinia p. bangsi of Yunnan is part of the crinigera group rather than of P. polychroa, and hence there is no evidence for sympatry between P. polychroa s.l. and P. crinigera s.l., nor of the occurrence of P. polychroa in mainland China or Taiwan. We recommend the recognition of five species in the complex, with the following suggestions for new English names: Himalayan Prinia P. crinigera sensu stricto (s.s.; with subspecies striatula, crinigera, yunnanensis and bangsi); Chinese Prinia P. striata (subspecies catharia, parumstriata and striata); Burmese Prinia P. cooki (monotypic); Annam Prinia P. rocki (monotypic) and Deignan's Prinia P. polychroa s.s. (subspecies Javan polychroa and the new Southeast Asian taxon). This study underlines the importance of using multiple datasets for the elucidation of diversity of cryptic bird species and their evolutionary history and biogeography.

  • 7. Bakker, Freek T
    et al.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Clarke, Julia A
    Cook, Joseph A
    Edwards, Scott V
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Faurby, Søren
    Ferrand, Nuno
    Gelang, Magnus
    Gillespie, Rosemary G
    Irestedt, Martin
    Lundin, Kennet
    Larsson, Ellen
    Matos-Maravi­, Pavel
    Muller, Johannes
    von Proschwitz, Ted
    Roderick, George K
    Schliep, Alexander
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Wiedenhoeft, John
    Källersjö, Mari
    The Global Museum: natural history collections and the future of evolutionary science and public education2020In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 8, article id e8225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural history museums are unique spaces for interdisciplinary research and educational innovation. Through extensive exhibits and public programming and by hosting rich communities of amateurs, students, and researchers at all stages of their careers, they can provide a place-based window to focus on integration of science and discovery, as well as a locus for community engagement. At the same time, like a synthesis radio telescope, when joined together through emerging digital resources, the global community of museums (the 'Global Museum') is more than the sum of its parts, allowing insights and answers to diverse biological, environmental, and societal questions at the global scale, across eons of time, and spanning vast diversity across the Tree of Life. We argue that, whereas natural history collections and museums began with a focus on describing the diversity and peculiarities of species on Earth, they are now increasingly leveraged in new ways that significantly expand their impact and relevance. These new directions include the possibility to ask new, often interdisciplinary questions in basic and applied science, such as in biomimetic design, and by contributing to solutions to climate change, global health and food security challenges. As institutions, they have long been incubators for cutting-edge research in biology while simultaneously providing core infrastructure for research on present and future societal needs. Here we explore how the intersection between pressing issues in environmental and human health and rapid technological innovation have reinforced the relevance of museum collections. We do this by providing examples as food for thought for both the broader academic community and museum scientists on the evolving role of museums. We also identify challenges to the realization of the full potential of natural history collections and the Global Museum to science and society and discuss the critical need to grow these collections. We then focus on mapping and modelling of museum data (including place-based approaches and discovery), and explore the main projects, platforms and databases enabling this growth. Finally, we aim to improve relevant protocols for the long-term storage of specimens and tissues, ensuring proper connection with tomorrow's technologies and hence further increasing the relevance of natural history museums.

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  • 8.
    Barani-Beiranvand, Hossein
    et al.
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Biol, Fac Sci, Khorasan E Razavi, Mashhad, Iran..
    Aliabadian, Mansour
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Biol, Fac Sci, Khorasan E Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.;Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Inst Appl Zool, RDZI, Mashhad, Iran..
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Darvish, Jamshid
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Biol, Fac Sci, Khorasan E Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.;Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Inst Appl Zool, Res Dept Rodentol, Mashhad, Iran..
    Szekely, Tamas
    Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Bath, Avon, England..
    van Dijk, Rene E.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Phylogeny of penduline tits inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite genotyping2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 932-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penduline tits (Remiz spp.) are renowned for their diverse mating and parenting strategies, and are a well-studied system by behavioural ecologists. However, the phylogenetic relationships and species delimitations within this genus are poorly understood. Here, we investigate phylogenetic relationships within the genus Remiz by examining the genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene of 64 individuals and in ten autosomal microsatellite markers from 44 individuals. The taxon sampling includes individuals from all currently recognized species (R. pendulinus, R. macronyx, R. coronatus, and R. consobrinus) and most subspecies in the Palearctic region. We showed that R. coronatus and R. consobrinus are genetically well differentiated and constitute independent evolutionary lineages, separated from each other and from R. pendulinus/macronyx. However, we found no evidence for significant differentiation among R. pendulinus/macronyx individuals in mtDNA haplotypes and only marginal differences between R. pendulinus and R. macronyx in microsatellite markers. Hence, based on present data our recommendation is to treat R. pendulinus and R. macronyx as conspecific and R. coronatus and R. consobrinus as separate species.

  • 9. Batalha-Filho, Henrique
    et al.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Silveira, Luis F
    Miyaki, Cristina Y
    Molecular systematics and evolution of the Synallaxis ruficapilla complex (Aves: Furnariidae) in the Atlantic Forest.2013In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neotropical Synallaxis ruficapilla complex is endemic to the Atlantic Forest and is comprised of three species: S. ruficapilla, S. whitneyi, and S. infuscata. This group is closely related to the Synallaxis moesta complex that occurs in the Andes, Tepuis, and Guianan shield. Here we used mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences to infer the phylogeny and the time of diversification of the S. ruficapilla and S. moesta complexes. We also included samples of an undescribed population of Synallaxis that resembles other populations of the S. ruficapilla complex. Our results showed that different geographical lineages within the S. ruficapilla complex are reciprocally monophyletic, but the northern form (S. infuscata) grouped with an Andean taxon. This suggests that at least two lineages of this group independently colonized the Atlantic Forest. Specimens of the undescribed population formed a monophyletic clade with deep divergence. Estimated diversification dates were within the late Pliocene to Pleistocene (2.75-0.16 million of years ago). This suggests that at this time there was a higher connectivity between habitats in the rugged landscapes of the circum-Amazonian bioregions. The observed Pleistocene diversification within the Atlantic Forest is congruent in space and time with studies of other co-distributed organisms, and may be associated with climate changes and tectonic activity during this period.

  • 10. Batalha-Filho, Henrique
    et al.
    Pessoa, Rodrigo O
    Fabre, Pierre-Henri
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Silveira, Luís F
    Miyaki, Cristina Y
    Phylogeny and historical biogeography of gnateaters (Passeriformes, Conopophagidae) in the South America forests.2014In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 79, p. 422-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships, divergence time and biogeography of Conopophagidae (gnateaters) based on sequence data of mitochondrial genes (ND2, ND3 and cytb) and nuclear introns (TGFB2 and G3PDH) from 45 tissue samples (43 Conopophaga and 2 Pittasoma) representing all currently recognized species of the family and the majority of subspecies. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Divergence time estimates were obtained based on a Bayesian relaxed clock model. These chronograms were used to calculate diversification rates and reconstruct ancestral areas of the genus Conopophaga. The phylogenetic analyses support the reciprocal monophyly of the two genera, Conopophaga and Pittasoma. All species were monophyletic with the exception of C. lineata, as C. lineata cearae did not cluster with the other two C. lineata subspecies. Divergence time estimates for Conopophagidae suggested that diversification took place during the Neogene, and that the diversification rate within Conopophaga clade was highest in the late Miocene, followed by a slower diversification rate, suggesting a diversity-dependent pattern. Our analyses of the diversification of family Conopophagidae provided a scenario for evolution in Terra Firme forest across tropical South America. The spatio-temporal pattern suggests that Conopophaga originated in the Brazilian Shield and that a complex sequence of events possibly related to the Andean uplift and infilling of former sedimentation basins and erosion cycles shaped the current distribution and diversity of this genus.

  • 11. Chattopadhyay, Balaji
    et al.
    Forcina, Giovanni
    Garg, Kritika M.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Guerrini, Monica
    Barbanera, Filippo
    Rheindt, Frank E.
    Novel genome reveals susceptibility of popular gamebird, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, Phasianidae), to climate change2021In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We produced a high-quality de novo genome assembly of the red-legged partridge A. rufa, the first reference genome of its genus, by utilising novel 10× Chromium technology. The estimated genome size was 1.19 Gb with an overall genome heterozygosity of 0.0022; no runs of homozygosity were observed. In total, 21,589 protein coding genes were identified and assigned to 16,772 orthologs. Of these, 201 emerged as unique to Alectoris and were enriched for positive regulation of epithelial cell migration, viral genome integration and maturation. Using PSMC analysis, we inferred a major demographic decline commencing ~140,000 years ago, consistent with forest expansion and reduction of open habitats during the Eemian interglacial. Present-day populations exhibit the historically lowest genetic diversity. Besides implications for management and conservation, this genome also promises key insights into the physiology of these birds with a view to improving poultry husbandry practices.

  • 12. Cros, Emilie
    et al.
    Ng, Elize Y. X.
    Oh, Rachel R. Y.
    Tang, Qian
    Benedick, Suzan
    Edwards, David P.
    Tomassi, Suzanne
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Rheindt, Frank E.
    Fine‐scale barriers to connectivity across a fragmented South‐East Asian landscape in six songbird species2020In: Evolutionary Applications, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1026-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat  fragmentation  is  a major  extinction  driver.  Despite  dramatically  increas-ing fragmentation across the globe, its specific impacts on population connectivityacross species with differing life histories remain difficult to characterize, let alonequantify. Here, we investigate patterns of population connectivity in six songbirdspecies from Singapore, a highly fragmented tropical rainforest island. Using massivepanels of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms across dozens of samplesper species, we examined population genetic diversity, inbreeding, gene flow andconnectivity among species along a spectrum of ecological specificities. We found ahigher resilience to habitat fragmentation in edge-tolerant and forest-canopy speciesas compared to forest-dependent understorey insectivores. The latter exhibited lev-els of genetic diversity up to three times lower in Singapore than in populations fromcontiguous forest elsewhere. Using dense genomic and geographic sampling, weidentified individual barriers such as reservoirs that effectively minimize gene flowin sensitive understorey birds, revealing that terrestrial forest species may exhibitlevels of sensitivity to fragmentation far greater than previously expected. This studyprovides a blueprint for conservation genomics at small scales with a view to iden-tifying preferred locations for habitat corridors, flagging candidate populations forrestocking with translocated individuals and improving the design of future reserves.

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  • 13. de Raad, Jordi
    et al.
    Päckert, Martin
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Janke, Axel
    Kryukov, Alexey P.
    Martens, Jochen
    Red’kin, Yaroslav A.
    Sun, Yuehua
    Töpfer, Till
    Schleuning, Matthias
    Neuschulz, Eike Lena
    Nilsson, Maria A.
    Speciation and population divergence in a mutualistic seed dispersing bird2022In: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bird-mediated seed dispersal is crucial for the regeneration and viability of ecosystems, often resulting in complex mutualistic species networks. Yet, how this mutualism drives the evolution of seed dispersing birds is still poorly understood. In the present study we combine whole genome re-sequencing analyses and morphometric data to assess the evolutionary processes that shaped the diversification of the Eurasian nutcracker (Nucifraga), a seed disperser known for its mutualism with pines (Pinus). Our results show that the divergence and phylogeographic patterns of nutcrackers resemble those of other non-mutualistic passerine birds and suggest that their early diversification was shaped by similar biogeographic and climatic processes. The limited variation in foraging traits indicates that local adaptation to pines likely played a minor role. Our study shows that close mutualistic relationships between bird and plant species might not necessarily act as a primary driver of evolution and diversification in resource-specialized birds.

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  • 14.
    Delling, Bo
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Thörn, Filip
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Norén, Michael
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Museomics reveals the phylogenetic position of the extinct Moroccan trout Salmo pallaryi2023In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 619-627Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Christidis, Les
    Cooper, Alan
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Jackson, Jennifer
    Johansson, Ulf S
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Norman, Janette A
    A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens.2002In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 269, no 1488, p. 235-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoogeographic, palaeontological and biochemical data support a Southern Hemisphere origin for passerine birds, while accumulating molecular data suggest that most extant avian orders originated in the mid-Late Cretaceous. We obtained DNA sequence data from the nuclear c-myc and RAG-1 genes of the major passerine groups and here we demonstrate that the endemic New Zealand wrens (Acanthisittidae) are the sister taxon to all other extant passerines, supporting a Gondwanan origin and early radiation of passerines. We propose that (i) the acanthisittids were isolated when New Zealand separated from Gondwana (ca. 82-85 Myr ago), (ii) suboscines, in turn, were derived from an ancestral lineage that inhabited western Gondwana, and (iii) the ancestors of the oscines (songbirds) were subsequently isolated by the separation of Australia from Antarctica. The later spread of passerines into the Northern Hemisphere reflects the northward migration of these former Gondwanan elements.

  • 16.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Christidis, Les
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Norman, Janette A
    Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes: Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds.2002In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic relationships of the lyrebirds are investigated using DNA sequence data. The aligned data matrix consists of 4027 bp obtained from three nuclear genes (c-myc, RAG-1 and myoglobin intron II) and two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and ND2). Both maximum-likelihood and parsimony analyses show that the lyrebirds unambiguously belong to the oscine radiation, and that they are the sister taxon to all other oscines. The results do not support the suggestion based on DNA-DNA hybridization data (Sibley and Ahlquist, 1990) that the treecreepers and bowerbirds are part of the lyrebird clade. Nevertheless, treecreepers and bowerbirds are sister taxa to all other oscines (except the lyrebirds) and may constitute a monophyletic group, although bootstrap support values for this clade are low. A major disagreement between the present analysis and that based on DNA-DNA hybridization data is that the Corvida (sensu Sibley and Ahlquist, 1990) and Passerida are not reciprocally monophyletic, as we find the latter group be nested within the Corvida. Also, the superfamilies Meliphagoidea and Corvoidea sensu, are not recovered as monophyletic in the present study. Within the oscine radiation, all taxa belonging to the earliest splits are confined to the Australo-Papuan region. This suggests strongly that the origins and early radiation of the oscines occurred in the southern supercontinent Gondwana. A new classification of the major groups of passerines is presented following from the results presented in the present study, as well as those published recently on analyses of sequence data from the nuclear c-myc and RAG-1 genes (Ericson et al., 2002; Irestedt et al., 2001).

  • 17.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Envall, Ida
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Norman, Janette A
    Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data.2003In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 3, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have not been tested by analysis of DNA sequence data. Herein we utilize 1692 bp of aligned, nuclear DNA sequences obtained from 23 charadriiform species, representing 15 families. We also test earlier suggestions that bustards and sandgrouses may be nested with the charadriiforms. The data is analysed with methods based on the parsimony and maximum-likelihood criteria.

    RESULTS: Several novel phylogenetic relationships were recovered and strongly supported by the data, regardless of which method of analysis was employed. These include placing the gulls and allied groups as a sistergroup to the sandpiper-like birds, and not to the plover-like birds. The auks clearly belong to the clade with the gulls and allies, and are not basal to most other charadriiform birds as suggested in analyses of morphological data. Pluvialis, which has been supposed to belong to the plover family (Charadriidae), represents a basal branch that constitutes the sister taxon to a clade with plovers, oystercatchers and avocets. The thick-knees and sheathbills unexpectedly cluster together.

    CONCLUSION: The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes. Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences. The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes.

  • 18.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Johansson, Ulf S
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Evolution, biogeography, and patterns of diversification in passerine birds2003In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes and discusses the many new insights into passerine evolution gained from an increased general interest in avian evolution among biologists, and particularly from the extensive use of DNA sequence data in phylogenetic reconstruction. The sister group relationship between the New Zealand rifleman and all other passerines, indicates the importance of the former southern supercontinent Gondwana in the earliest evolution of this group. Following the break-up of Gondwana, the ancestors of other major passerine groups became isolated in Australia (oscines), South America (New World suboscines), and possibly, the then connected Kerguelen Plateau/India/Madagascar tectonic plates (Old World suboscines). The oscines underwent a significant radiation in the Australo-Papuan region and only a few oscine lineages have spread further than to the nearby Southeast Asia. A remarkable exception is the ancestor to the vast Passerida radiation, which now comprises 35% of all bird species. This group obviously benefitted greatly from the increased diversity in plant seed size and morphology during the Tertiary. The lyrebirds (and possibly scrub-birds) constitute the sister group to all other oscines, which renders “Corvida” (sensu Sibley and Ahlquist 1990) paraphyletic. Sequence data suggests that Passerida, the other clade of oscines postulated based on the results of DNA–DNA hybridizations, is monophyletic, and that the rockfowl and rock-jumpers are the most basal members of this clade. The suboscines in the Old World (Eurylamides) and the New World (Tyrannides), respectively, are sister groups. A provisional, working classification of the passerines is presented based on the increased understanding of the major patterns of passerine evolution.

  • 19.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Nylander, Johan A A
    Christidis, Les
    Joseph, Leo
    Qu, Yanhua
    Parallel Evolution of Bower-Building Behavior in Two Groups of Bowerbirds Suggested by Phylogenomics2020In: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 820-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bowerbirds in New Guinea and Australia include species that build the largest and perhaps most elaborately decorated constructions outside of humans. The males use these courtship bowers, along with their displays, to attract females. In these species, the mating system is polygynous and the females alone incubate and feed the nestlings. The bowerbirds also include 10 species of the socially monogamous catbirds in which the male participates in most aspects of raising the young. How the bower-building behavior evolved has remained poorly understood, as no comprehensive phylogeny exists for the family. It has been assumed that the monogamous catbird clade is sister to all polygynous species. We here test this hypothesis using a newly developed pipeline for obtaining homologous alignments of thousands of exonic and intronic regions from genomic data to build a phylogeny. Our well-supported species tree shows that the polygynous, bower-building species are not monophyletic. The result suggests either that bower-building behavior is an ancestral condition in the family that was secondarily lost in the catbirds, or that it has arisen in parallel in two lineages of bowerbirds. We favor the latter hypothesis based on an ancestral character reconstruction showing that polygyny but not bower-building is ancestral in bowerbirds, and on the observation that Scenopoeetes dentirostris, the sister species to one of the bower-building clades, does not build a proper bower but constructs a court for male display. This species is also sexually monomorphic in plumage despite having a polygynous mating system. We argue that the relatively stable tropical and subtropical forest environment in combination with low predator pressure and rich food access (mostly fruit) facilitated the evolution of these unique life-history traits.

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  • 20.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics, Swedish Museum of Natural History, PO Box 50007, 10405, Stockholm, Sweden.
    She, Huishang
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
    Genomic signatures of rapid adaptive divergence in a tropical montane species2021In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 20210089-20210089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountain regions contain extraordinary biodiversity. The environmental heterogeneity and glacial cycles often accelerate speciation and adaptation ofmontane species, but how these processes influence the genomic differentiation of these species is largely unknown. Using a novel chromosomelevel genome and population genomic comparisons, we study allopatricdivergence and selection in an iconic bird living in a tropical mountainregion in New Guinea, Archbold’s bowerbird (Amblyornis papuensis). Ourresults show that the two populations inhabiting the eastern and western Central Range became isolated ca 11 800 years ago, probably because the suitablehabitats for this cold-tolerating bird decreased when the climate got warmer.Our genomic scans detect that genes in highly divergent genomic regions areover-represented in developmental processes, which is probably associatedwith the observed differences in body size between the populations. Overall,our results suggest that environmental differences between the eastern andwestern Central Range probably drive adaptive divergence between them.

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  • 21.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Klopfstein, Seraina
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Nguyen, Jacqueline MT
    Nylander, Johan A A
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Dating the diversification of the major lineages of Passeriformes (Aves)2014In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The avian Order Passeriformes is an enormously species-rich group, which comprises almost 60% ofall living bird species. This diverse order is believed to have originated before the break-up of Gondwana in the lateCretaceous. However, previous molecular dating studies have relied heavily on the geological split between NewZealand and Antarctica, assumed to have occurred 85–82 Mya, for calibrating the molecular clock and might thusbe circular in their argument.Results: This study provides a time-scale for the evolution of the major clades of passerines using seven nuclearmarkers, five taxonomically well-determined passerine fossils, and an updated interpretation of the New Zealandsplit from Antarctica 85–52 Mya in a Bayesian relaxed-clock approach. We also assess how different interpretationsof the New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event influence our age estimates. Our results suggest that thediversification of Passeriformes began in the late Cretaceous or early Cenozoic. Removing the root calibration forthe New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event (85–52 Mya) dramatically increases the 95% credibility intervals andleads to unrealistically old age estimates. We assess the individual characteristics of the seven nuclear genesanalyzed in our study. Our analyses provide estimates of divergence times for the major groups of passerines,which can be used as secondary calibration points in future molecular studies.Conclusions: Our analysis takes recent paleontological and geological findings into account and provides the bestestimate of the passerine evolutionary time-scale currently available. This time-scale provides a temporalframework for further biogeographical, ecological, and co-evolutionary studies of the largest bird radiation, andadds to the growing support for a Cretaceous origin of Passeriformes.

  • 22.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Olson, Storrs L.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Alvarenga, Herculano
    Fjeldsa, Jon
    Circumscription of a monophyletic family for the tapaculos (Aves: Rhinocryptidae)2010In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 151, no 2, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    A genomic perspective of the pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea suggests a long history of low effective population size2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 16853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the possibly extinct pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea unambiguously shows that it belongs to the pochard radiation that also includes the genera Aythya and Netta. It is the sister to all modern-day pochards and belongs to a lineage that branched off from the others more than 2.8 million years ago. Rhodonessa caryophyllacea is believed to never have been common in modern time and we show this has probably been the situation for as long as 100,000 years. Our results suggest that their effective population size varied between 15,000 and 25,000 individuals during the last 150,000 years of the Pleistocene. The reasons behind this are largely unknown as very little is known about the life-history and biology of this species. Presumably it is due to factors related to feeding or to breeding, but we may never know this for sure.

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  • 24. Ernst, Mario
    et al.
    Jønsson, Knud A.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Utilizing museomics to trace the complex history and species boundaries in an avian-study system of conservation concern2022In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A taxonomic classification that accurately captures evolutionary history is essential for conservation. Genomics provides powerful tools for delimiting species and understanding their evolutionary relationships. This allows for a more accurate and detailed view on conservation status compared with other, traditionally used, methods. However, from a practical and ethical perspective, gathering sufficient samples for endangered taxa may be difficult. Here, we use museum specimens to trace the evolutionary history and species boundaries in an Asian oriole clade. The endangered silver oriole has long been recognized as a distinct species based on its unique coloration, but a recent study suggested that it might be nested within the maroon oriole-species complex. To evaluate species designation, population connectivity, and the corresponding conservation implications, we assembled a de novo genome and used whole-genome resequencing of historical specimens. Our results show that the silver orioles form a monophyletic lineage within the maroon oriole complex and that maroon and silver forms continued to interbreed after initial divergence, but do not show signs of recent gene flow. Using a genome scan, we identified genes that may form the basis for color divergence and act as reproductive barriers. Taken together, our results confirm the species status of the silver oriole and highlight that taxonomic revision of the maroon forms is urgently needed. Our study demonstrates how genomics and Natural History Collections (NHC) can be utilized to shed light on the taxonomy and evolutionary history of natural populations and how such insights can directly benefit conservation practitioners when assessing wild populations.

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  • 25. Ertz, Damien
    et al.
    Tehler, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Frisch, Andreas
    Thor, Göran
    Pieter, van den Boom
    A large-scale phylogenetic revision of Roccellaceae (Arthoniales) reveals eight new genera2015In: Fungal Diversity, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Finch, Brian W.
    et al.
    Hatfield, R. Stratton
    Colombo, Silvia
    Kennedy, Adam S.
    te Raa, Marije
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    de Swardt, Dawid H.
    Grosel, Joe
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Cohen, Callan
    Olsson, Urban
    Donald, Paul F.
    Njoroge, Peter
    Frahnert, Sylke
    de Knijf, Peter
    Alström, Per
    Disjunct resident population of Melodious Lark Mirafra cheniana discovered in East Africa2022In: Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 2193-7192, E-ISSN 2193-7206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the discovery of a previously unknown population of Melodious Lark Mirafra cheniana from northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, some 2000 km north of what was previously thought to be its northern limit in central Zimbabwe. The identification of this population as M. cheniana is based primarily on analyses of mitochondrial DNA and song. We also clarify relationships within this genus by sequencing material of White-tailed Lark Mirafra albicauda for the first time; although its relationships with other species in the group remain unclear, our analyses clearly show it to be different from M. cheniana in the newly discovered population. The discovery of a population of M. cheniana in East Africa conforms to a known pattern for closely related lark species to have disjunct distributions in southern and eastern Africa.

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  • 27. Finch, Brian W.
    et al.
    Hatfield, R. Stratton
    Colombo, Silvia
    Kennedy, Adam S.
    te Raa, Marije
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    de Swardt, Dawid H.
    Grosel, Joe
    Engelbrecht, Derek
    Cohen, Callan
    Olsson, Urban
    Donald, Paul F.
    Njoroge, Peter
    Frahnert, Sylke
    de Knijf, Peter
    Alström, Per
    Disjunct resident population of Melodious Lark Mirafra cheniana discovered in East Africa2022In: Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 2193-7192, E-ISSN 2193-7206, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 55-71Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 28. Fjeldsa, Jon
    et al.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Zuccon, Dario
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    The Cinnamon Ibon Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus is a forest canopy sparrow2010In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 152, no 4, p. 747-760Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Fjeldsa, Jon
    et al.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Jonsson, Knud A.
    Ohlson, Jan I
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Phylogeny of the ovenbird genus Upucerthia: a case of independent adaptations for terrestrial life2007In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    et al.
    Zoological Museum Natural History Museum Copenhagen University Universitetsparken 15 Copenhagen Oe DK‐2100 Denmark;Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate GLOBE Institute University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 15, Building 3 Copenhagen Oe DK‐2100 Denmark.
    Dinesen, Lars
    Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate GLOBE Institute University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 15, Building 3 Copenhagen Oe DK‐2100 Denmark.
    Davies, Owen R.
    Department of Biological Sciences DST/NRF Centre of Excellence at the Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology University of Cape Town Rondebosch 7701 South Africa.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics Swedish Museum of Natural History PO Box 50007 Stockholm 10405 Sweden.
    Krabbe, Niels K.
    Zoological Museum Natural History Museum Copenhagen University Universitetsparken 15 Copenhagen Oe DK‐2100 Denmark.
    Hansen, Louis A.
    Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate GLOBE Institute University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 15, Building 3 Copenhagen Oe DK‐2100 Denmark.
    Bowie, Rauri C. K.
    Department of Biological Sciences DST/NRF Centre of Excellence at the Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology University of Cape Town Rondebosch 7701 South Africa;Department of Integrative Biology Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California 3101 Valley Life Science Building Berkeley CA 94720‐3160 USA.
    Description of two new Cisticola species endemic to the marshes of the Kilombero floodplain of southwestern Tanzania2021In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 163, no 4, p. 1330-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of two undescribed cisticola warblers in the marshes of the Kilombero floodplain in central Tanzania has been known since the 1980s and these putative new species have been illustrated in field guides on African birds, although with no formal name. Here we name both species, based on two museum specimens collected in 1961 and recently detected in a museum collection. We use these specimens to provide formal descriptions of each form and, using DNA sequence data extracted from these specimens, we place them in a broad phylogenetic framework for the genus Cisticola. The phylogenetic placement indicates that one of the new species is nested within a group of plain-backed duetting cisticolas and the other within the streak-backed marsh cisticolas. We use our own and public recordings to characterize the vocal repertoire of each of these new species and compare song characteristics with other members of their respective clades. Dating of nodes in the molecular phylogeny suggests that both cisticolas endemic to the Kilombero became isolated and diverged from their sister-species between 2.5 and 3.5 million years ago, long after the formation of the Eastern Arc Mountains and the Malawi Rift. We propose that both species should be classified as globally endangered, owing to immense anthropogenic pressures on the floodplain, as documented in several publications and by a recent Ramsar Advisory Mission.

  • 31. Fjeldså, Jon
    et al.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Molecular data reveal some major adaptational shifts in the early evolution of the most diverse avian family, the Furnariidae2005In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 146, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust phylogeny estimate for the family Furnariidae (sensu lato) was obtained using sequences of two nuclear introns and one mitochondrial gene (cyt b). Contrary to the widely accepted sister-group relationship of ovenbirds (Furnariinae) and woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptinae), a basal clade is suggested for Sclerurus and Geositta, while Xenops, hitherto considered an aberrant ovenbird, was found to occupy a basal position on the woodcreeper lineage. The morphological variation is re-interpreted in view of this revised phylogenetic hypothesis. Presumably, the remarkable adaptive radiation in this family started as primitive, Sclerurus-likes forms, which used the tail as a prop during terrestrial feeding, lured up to seek food on tree-trunks. The two basal woodcreeper genera, Xenops and then Glyphorynchus, show strong cranial specializations for hammering in wood, thus presenting a remarkable parallelism with the family Picidae, Xenops resembling a piculet, Glyphorynchus, a diminutive woodpecker. However, this specialization was lost in other woodcreepers, which show a more normal passerine skull, adapted for probing and prying in tree-trunk crevices and sallying for escaping insects. The ovenbirds developed a more flexible (rhynchokinetic) bill, well suited for probing and retrieving hidden prey in dead-leaf clusters and debris suspended in the vegetation, and in epiphyte masses. Adaptations to live in open terrain are secondary.

  • 32. Fjeldså, Jon
    et al.
    Zuccon, Dario
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Johansson, Ulf S
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Sapayoa aenigma: a New World representative of 'Old World suboscines'.2003In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 270 Suppl 2, p. S238-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passerine birds are very plastic in their adaptations, which has made it difficult to define phylogenetic lineages and correctly allocate all species to these. Sapayoa aenigma, a member of the large group of New World flycatchers, has been difficult to place, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments have indicated that it may have been misplaced. This is confirmed here, as base sequencing of two nuclear genes places it as a deep branch in the group of broadbills and pittas of the Old World tropics. The peculiar distribution of this lineage may be best explained in terms of a Gondwanic and Late Cretaceous origin of the passerine birds, as this particular lineage dispersed from the Antarctic landmass, reaching the Old World tropics via the drifting Indian plate, and South America via the West Antarctic Peninsula.

  • 33. Ghorbani, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Aliabadian, Mansour
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Irestedt, Martin
    Hao, Yan
    Sundev, Gombobaatar
    Lei, Fumin
    Ma, Ming
    Olsson, Urban
    Alström, Per
    Densely sampled phylogenetic analyses of the Lesser Short‐toed Lark (Alaudala rufescens) — Sand Lark (A. raytal) species complex (Aves, Passeriformes) reveal cryptic diversity2020In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, ISSN - 0300-3256, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 427-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The taxonomy of the Lesser/Asian Short‐toed Lark Alaudala rufescens–cheleensis complex has been debated for decades, mainly because of minor morphological differentiation among the taxa within the complex, and different interpretations of the geographical pattern of morphological characters among different authors. In addition, there have been few studies based on non‐morphological traits. It has recently been suggested based on a molecular study of the lark family Alaudidae that the Sand Lark A. raytal is nested within this complex. We here analysed mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) from 130 individuals across the range of this complex (hereafter called Alaudala rufescens–raytal complex), representing all except two of the 18 currently recognized subspecies. We also analysed 11 nuclear markers from a subsample of these individuals, representing all of the clades found in the cyt b tree. Five primary clades were recovered, which confirmed that A. raytal is nested within this complex. Divergence time estimates among these five clades ranged from 1.76 to 3.16 million years (my; 95% highest posterior density [HPD] 1.0–4.51 my) or 1.99–2.53 my (95% HPD 0.96–4.3 my) in different analyses. Only four of the currently recognized subspecies were recovered as monophyletic in the cyt b tree. Our results call for a taxonomic revision, and we tentatively suggest that at least four species should be recognized, although we stress the need for an approach integrating molecular, morphological and other data that are not yet available.

  • 34.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Batalha-Filho, Henrique
    Univ Fed Bahia, Biol Inst, BR-40170115 Salvador, BA, Brazil..
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, POB 50007, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Christidis, Les
    Southern Cross Univ, Natl Marine Sci Ctr, Coffs Harbour 2450, Australia..
    Schodde, Richard
    CSIRO, Natl Res Collect Australia, Australian Natl Wildlife Collect, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Phylogeny, biogeography and taxonomic consequences in a bird-of-paradise species complex, Lophorina-Ptiloris (Aves: Paradisaeidae)2017In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 181, no 2, p. 439-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogeographical history and taxonomic delimitation in the Australo-Papuan bird-of-paradise Lophorina-Ptiloris species complex is examined with a combination of DNA and morphological markers. The results suggest that the complex started to diverge in the mid-Pliocene, driven by initial isolation and adaptation to altitudinally different habitats. As in many other New Guinean avian taxa, phylogeographic structure is more varied in montane Lophorina than foothill Ptiloris. With the exception of populations of Lophorina in the eastern New Guinean cordillera, phylogenetic patterns from molecular data and morphological discontinuities are consistently concordant, as are molecular species delimitation tests with previous morphology-based circumscription of taxa in Ptiloris. In Lophorina, however, both molecular data and significant, re-discovered morphological traits identify several taxa as more deeply differentiated than hitherto thought. Accordingly, we use these data in an integrative taxonomic approach to re-delimit taxa in the entire clade, including the recognition of three species in the previously monospecific Lophorina. In Lophorina, the identity of several type specimens is reviewed, one new subspecies is described from the Vogelkop, and the identity of the species name superba Pennant is resolved by neotypification, with correction of its author.

  • 35.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Batalha-Filho, Henrique
    Roselaar, Cees S.
    Christidis, Les
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Contrasting phylogeographic signatures in two Australo-Papuan bowerbird species complexes (Aves: Ailuroedus): Phylogeography of Ailuroedus2016In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, ISSN - 1463-6409, Vol. - 45, no - 4, p. 365-379Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    Oliver, Paul
    Joseph, Leo
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    No Signs of Genetic Erosion in a 19th Century Genome of the Extinct Paradise Parrot (Psephotellus pulcherrimus)2019In: DIVERSITY-BASEL, Vol. 11, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paradise Parrot, Psephotellus pulcherrimus, was a charismatic Australian bird that became extinct around 1928. While many extrinsic factors have been proposed to explain its disappearance, it remains unclear as to what extent genetic erosion might have contributed to the species’ demise. In this study, we use whole-genome resequencing to reconstruct a 15x coverage genome based on a historical museum specimen and shed further light on the evolutionary history that preceded the extinction of the Paradise Parrot. By comparing the genetic diversity of this genome with genomes from extant endangered birds, we show that during the species’ dramatic decline in the second half of the 19th century, the Paradise Parrot was genetically more diverse than individuals from species that are currently classified as endangered. Furthermore, demographic analyses suggest that the population size of the Paradise Parrot changed with temperature fluctuations during the last glacial cycle. We also confirm that the Golden-shouldered Parrot, Psephotellus chrysopterygius, is the closest living relative of this extinct parrot. Overall, our study highlights the importance of museum collections as repositories of biodiversity across time and demonstrates how historical specimens can provide a broader context on the circumstances that lead to species extinctions.

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    Paradise parrot
  • 37.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fabre, Pierre-Henri
    Batalha-Filho, Henrique
    Jønsson, Knud A
    Roselaar, Cees S
    Sangster, George
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    The spatio-temporal colonization and diversification across the Indo-Pacific by a 'great speciator' (Aves, Erythropitta erythrogaster).2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1759, p. 20130309-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Indo-Pacific region has arguably been the most important area for the formulation of theories about biogeography and speciation, but modern studies of the tempo, mode and magnitude of diversification across this region are scarce. We study the biogeographic history and characterize levels of diversification in the wide-ranging passerine bird Erythropitta erythrogaster using molecular, phylogeographic and population genetics methods, as well as morphometric and plumage analyses. Our results suggest that E. erythrogaster colonized the Indo-Pacific during the Pleistocene in an eastward direction following a stepping stone pathway, and that sea-level fluctuations during the Pleistocene may have promoted gene flow only locally. A molecular species delimitation test suggests that several allopatric island populations of E. erythrogaster may be regarded as species. Most of these putative new species are further characterized by diagnostic differences in plumage. Our study reconfirms the E. erythrogaster complex as a 'great speciator': it represents a complex of up to 17 allopatrically distributed, reciprocally monophyletic and/or morphologically diagnosable species that originated during the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that observed latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence among avian sister species may have been affected by incomplete knowledge of taxonomic limits in tropical bird species.

  • 38.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Dalén, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Convergent evolution, habitat shifts and variable diversification rates in the ovenbird-woodcreeper family (Furnariidae).2009In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 9, p. 268-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Neotropical ovenbird-woodcreeper family (Furnariidae) is an avian group characterized by exceptionally diverse ecomorphological adaptations. For instance, members of the family are known to construct nests of a remarkable variety. This offers a unique opportunity to examine whether changes in nest design, accompanied by expansions into new habitats, facilitates diversification. We present a multi-gene phylogeny and age estimates for the ovenbird-woodcreeper family and use these results to estimate the degree of convergent evolution in both phenotype and habitat utilisation. Furthermore, we discuss whether variation in species richness among ovenbird clades could be explained by differences in clade-specific diversification rates, and whether these rates differ among lineages with different nesting habits. In addition, the systematic positions of some enigmatic ovenbird taxa and the postulated monophyly of some species-rich genera are evaluated.

    RESULTS: The phylogenetic results reveal new examples of convergent evolution and show that ovenbirds have independently colonized open habitats at least six times. The calculated age estimates suggest that the ovenbird-woodcreeper family started to diverge at ca 33 Mya, and that the timing of habitat shifts into open environments may be correlated with the aridification of South America during the last 15 My. The results also show that observed large differences in species richness among clades can be explained by a substantial variation in net diversification rates. The synallaxines, which generally are adapted to dry habitats and build exposed vegetative nests, had the highest diversification rate of all major furnariid clades.

    CONCLUSION: Several key features may have played an important role for the radiation and evolution of convergent phenotypes in the ovenbird-woodcreeper family. Our results suggest that changes in nest building strategy and adaptation to novel habitats may have played an important role in a diversification that included multiple radiations into more open and bushy environments. The synallaxines were found to have had a particularly high diversification rate, which may be explained by their ability to build exposed vegetative nests and thus to expand into a variety of novel habitats that emerged during a period of cooling and aridification in South America.

  • 39.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Evolution of the ovenbird-woodcreeper assemblage(Aves: Furnariidae) - major shifts in nest architecture and adaptive radiation2006In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 260-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neotropical ovenbirds (Furnariidae) form an extraordinary morphologically and ecologically diverse passerine radiation, which includes many examples of species that are superficially similar to other passerine birds as a resulting from their adaptations to similar lifestyles. The ovenbirds further exhibits a truly remarkable variation in nest types, arguably approaching that found in the entire passerine clade. Herein we present a genus-level phylogeny of ovenbirds based on both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA including a more complete taxon sampling than in previous molecular studies of the group. The phylogenetic results are in good agreement with earlier molecular studies of ovenbirds, and supports the suggestion that Geositta and Sclerurus form the sister clade to both core-ovenbirds and woodcreepers. Within the core-ovenbirds several relationships that are incongruent with traditional classifications are suggested. Among other things, the philydorine ovenbirds are found to be non-monophyletic. The mapping of principal nesting strategies onto the molecular phylogeny suggests cavity nesting to be plesiomorphic within the ovenbird–woodcreeper radiation. It is also suggested that the shift from cavity nesting to building vegetative nests is likely to have happened at least three times during the evolution of the group. We suggest that the shifts in nest architecture within the furnariine and synallaxine ovenbirds have served as an ecological release that has facilitated diversification into new habitats and new morphological specializations.

  • 40.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Phylogenetic relationships of woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptinae) – incongruence between molecular and morphological data2004In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 280-288-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The woodcreepers is a highly specialized lineage within the New World suboscine radiation. Most systematic studies of higher level relationships of this group rely on morphological characters, and few studies utilizing molecular data exist. In this paper, we present a molecular phylogeny of the major lineages of woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptinae), based on nucleotide sequence data from a nuclear non-coding gene region (myoglobin intron II) and a protein-coding mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b). A good topological agreement between the individual gene trees suggests that the resulting phylogeny reflects the true evolutionary history of woodcreepers well. However, the DNA-based phylogeny conflicts with the results of a parsimony analysis of morphological characters. The topological differences mainly concern the basal branches of the trees. The morphological data places the genus Drymornis in a basal position (mainly supported by characters in the hindlimb), while our data suggests it to be derived among woodcreepers. Unlike most other woodcreepers, Drymornis is ground-adapted, as are the ovenbirds. The observed morphological similarities between Drymornis and the ovenbird outgroup may thus be explained with convergence or with reversal to an ancestral state. This observation raises the question of the use of characters associated with locomotion and feeding in phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony.

  • 41.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Johansson, Ulf S
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Systematic relationships and biogeography of the tracheophone suboscines (Aves: Passeriformes).2002In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on their highly specialized "tracheophone" syrinx, the avian families Furnariidae (ovenbirds), Dendrocolaptidae (woodcreepers), Formicariidae (ground antbirds), Thamnophilidae (typical antbirds), Rhinocryptidae (tapaculos), and Conopophagidae (gnateaters) have long been recognized to constitute a monophyletic group of suboscine passerines. However, the monophyly of these families have been contested and their interrelationships are poorly understood, and this constrains the possibilities for interpreting adaptive tendencies in this very diverse group. In this study we present a higher-level phylogeny and classification for the tracheophone birds based on phylogenetic analyses of sequence data obtained from 32 ingroup taxa. Both mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear genes (c-myc, RAG-1, and myoglobin) have been sequenced, and more than 3000 bp were subjected to parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses. The phylogenetic signals in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were compared and found to be very similar. The results from the analysis of the combined dataset (all genes, but with transitions at third codon positions in the cytochrome b excluded) partly corroborate previous phylogenetic hypotheses, but several novel arrangements were also suggested. Especially interesting is the result that the genus Melanopareia represents a basal branch within the tracheophone group, positioned in the phylogenetic tree well away from the typical tapaculos with which it has been supposed to group. Other novel results include the observation that the ground antbirds are paraphyletic and that Sclerurus is the sister taxon to an ovenbird-woodcreeper clade. Patterns of generic richness within each clade suggest that the early differentiation of feeble-winged forest groups took place south of the Amazon Basin, while the more recent diversification was near the equator and (in tapaculos and ovenbirds) in the south of the continent.

  • 42.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Nylander, Johan A A
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors.2004In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 4, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly understood. Herein, we present a hypothesis of the generic relationships of this group based on Bayesian inference analyses of two nuclear introns and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The level of phylogenetic congruence between the individual genes has been investigated utilizing Bayes factors. We also explore how changes in the substitution models affected the observed incongruence between partitions of our data set.

    RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis supports both novel relationships, as well as traditional groupings. Among the more interesting novel relationship suggested is that the Terenura antwrens, the wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata), the spot-winged antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) and the russet antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus) are sisters to all other typical antbirds. The remaining genera fall into two major clades. The first includes antshrikes, antvireos and the Herpsilochmus antwrens, while the second clade consists of most antwren genera, the Myrmeciza antbirds, the "professional" ant-following antbirds, and allied species. Our results also support previously suggested polyphyly of Myrmotherula antwrens and Myrmeciza antbirds. The tests of phylogenetic incongruence, using Bayes factors, clearly suggests that allowing the gene partitions to have separate topology parameters clearly increased the model likelihood. However, changing a component of the nucleotide substitution model had much higher impact on the model likelihood.

    CONCLUSIONS: The phylogenetic results are in broad agreement with traditional classification of the typical antbirds, but some relationships are unexpected based on external morphology. In these cases their true affinities may have been obscured by convergent evolution and morphological adaptations to new habitats or food sources, and genera like Myrmeciza antbirds and the Myrmotherula antwrens obviously need taxonomic revisions. Although, Bayes factors seem promising for evaluating the relative contribution of components to an evolutionary model, the results suggests that even if strong evidence for a model allowing separate topology parameters is found, this might not mean strong evidence for separate gene phylogenies, as long as vital components of the substitution model are still missing.

  • 43.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Fuchs, Jérôme
    Jønsson, Knud A
    Ohlson, Jan I
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Pasquet, Eric
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    The systematic affinity of the enigmatic Lamprolia victoriae (Aves: Passeriformes) - an example of avian dispersal between New Guinea and Fiji over Miocene intermittent land bridges?2008In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1218-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Gelang, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Sangster, George
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Olsson, Urban
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Alstrom, Per
    Neumann's Warbler Hemitesia neumanni (Sylvioidea): the sole African member of a Palaeotropic Miocene avifauna2011In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Johansson, Ulf S
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Parsons, Thomas J.
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Phylogeny of major lineages of suboscines (Passeriformes) analysed by nuclear DNA sequence data2001In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic relationships among major groups of passeriform birds were studied by analyses of nucleotide sequence data from two nuclear genes, c-myc and RAG-1. The results corroborated both the monophyly of the order Passeriformes, and the major dichotomy into oscine and suboscine passerines previously suggested based on syringeal morphology and DNA-DNA hybridizations. The representatives of the Old World suboscines (families Eurylaimidae, Philepittidae and Pittidae) formed a monophyletic clade. The New World suboscines clustered into two clades. The first contained Conopophaga (Conopophagidae), Furnarius (Furnariidae), Lepidocolaptes (Dendrocolaptidae), Thamnophilus (Formicariidae), and Rhinocrypta (Rhinocryptidae). Previously, the monophyly of this group has been inferred from their possession of a unique, "tracheophone" syrinx, and from DNA-DNA hybridisation data. The second clade of New World suboscines includes Gubernetes and Muscivora (Tyrannidae), Phytotoma (Phytotomidae), Tityra (Cotingidae) and Pipra (Pipridae). This group of families have been considered monophyletic based on morphology (although ambiguously) and DNA-DNA hybridisation. The sister group relationship of Tityra and Phytotoma supports the previously supposed cotingid affinity of Phytotoma. Nuclear DNA data also unambiguously group the lyrebirds Menura with the oscines. The presented results from the analysis of nuclear DNA agree well with morphology and DNA-DNA hybridisation data. The precise age of the divergences studied herein are unknown but based on interpretations of the fossil record of passerine birds many of them might date back to the early Tertiary. The agreement between data from the nuclear DNA and other sources, along with the fact that neither of the studied genes showed sign of saturation, indicate the great potential of these two nuclear genes to resolve very old divergences in birds.

  • 46.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Jønsson, Knud A
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Christidis, Les
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    An unexpectedly long history of sexual selection in birds-of-paradise.2009In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 9, p. 235-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The birds-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae) form one of the most prominent avian examples of sexual selection and show a complex biogeographical distribution. The family has accordingly been used as a case-study in several significant evolutionary and biogeographical syntheses. As a robust phylogeny of the birds-of-paradise has been lacking, these hypotheses have been tentative and difficult to assess. Here we present a well supported species phylogeny with divergence time estimates of the birds-of-paradise. We use this to assess if the rates of the evolution of sexually selected traits and speciation have been excessively high within the birds-of-paradise, as well as to re-interpret biogeographical patterns in the group.

    RESULTS: The phylogenetic results confirm some traditionally recognized relationships but also suggest novel ones. Furthermore, we find that species pairs are geographically more closely linked than previously assumed. The divergence time estimates suggest that speciation within the birds-of-paradise mainly took place during the Miocene and the Pliocene, and that several polygynous and morphologically homogeneous genera are several million years old. Diversification rates further suggest that the speciation rate within birds-of-paradise is comparable to that of the enitre core Corvoidea.

    CONCLUSION: The estimated ages of morphologically homogeneous and polygynous genera within the birds-of-paradise suggest that there is no need to postulate a particularly rapid evolution of sexually selected morphological traits. The calculated divergence rates further suggest that the speciation rate in birds-of-paradise has not been excessively high. Thus the idea that sexual selection could generate high speciation rates and rapid changes in sexual ornamentations is not supported by our birds-of-paradise data. Potentially, hybridization and long generation times in polygynous male birds-of-paradise have constrained morphological diversification and speciation, but external ecological factors on New Guinea may also have allowed the birds-of-paradise to develop and maintain magnificent male plumages. We further propose that the restricted but geographically complex distributions of birds-of-paradise species may be a consequence of the promiscuous breeding system.

  • 47.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Ohlson, Jan I
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Zuccon, Dario
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Kallersjo, Mari
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    Nuclear DNA from old collections of avian study skins reveals the evolutionary history of the Old World suboscines (Aves, Passeriformes)2006In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 567-580Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Thörn, Filip
    Ericson, Per G.P.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    van Grouw, Hein
    Red'kin, Yaroslav A.
    Hellquist, Alexander
    Johansson, Frank
    Nylander, Johan A.A.
    A crowd-sourced genomic project to assess hybrid content in a rare avian vagrant (Azure Tit Cyanistes cyanus (Pallas, 1770))2023In: Avian Research, ISSN 2053-7166, Vol. 14, p. 100130-100130, article id 100130Article in journal (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Irestedt, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden.
    Thörn, Filip
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden;Department of Zoology Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Müller, Ingo A.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden;Department of Zoology Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Jønsson, Knud A.
    Natural History Museum of Denmark University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden.
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    Museum für Naturkunde Leibniz Institut für Evolutions‐ und Biodiversitätsforschung Berlin Germany.
    A guide to avian museomics: Insights gained from resequencing hundreds of avian study skins2022In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 2672-2684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological specimens in natural history collections constitute a massive repository of genetic information. Many specimens have been collected in areas in which they no longer exist or in areas where present-day collecting is not possible. There are also specimens in collections representing populations or species that have gone extinct. Furthermore, species or populations may have been sampled throughout an extensive time period, which is particularly valuable for studies of genetic change through time. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, natural history museum resources have become accessible for genomic research. Consequently, these unique resources are increasingly being used across many fields of natural history. In this paper, we summarize our experiences of resequencing hundreds of genomes from historical avian museum specimens. We publish the protocols we have used and discuss the entire workflow from sampling and laboratory procedures, to the bioinformatic processing of historical specimen data.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Ericson, Per G.P.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Irestedt, Martin
    The phylogenetic position of the world´s smallest passerine, the Pygmy Bushtit Psaltria exilis2016In: Ibis, ISSN 0019-1019, E-ISSN 1474-919X, Vol. 158, p. 519-529Article in journal (Refereed)
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