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  • 1. Bergamini, Ariel
    et al.
    Studer, Lisa
    Valentini, Maya
    Jacot, Katja
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Profitieren Moose von Biodiversitätsförderflächen im Landwirtschaftsgebiet?2017Inngår i: NL-Inside, Vol. 1//17, s. 17-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Forskningsavdelningen centralt.
    SYNTHESYS offers access to European Natural History museums2014Inngår i: Gothenburg Systematikdagarna. Abstracts / [ed] Anonymous (ed), 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    SYNTHESYS offers access to European Natural History museums.Twenty partner institutions from 12 European countries form SYNTHESYS, and offer coordinated access to their vast natural history collections and state-of-the art analytical facilities and qualified support from in-house researchers and curators. The institutions also co-operate in Network activities to improve the collections’ management, long-term preservation and accessibility. A Joint research activity develops tools to enhance the quality of and increase access to digitalized collections and data within Natural History institutions. SYNTHESYS was initiated by CETAF and receives funding by the European Union’s Research Framework Programs. It recently  secured EC funding for a third period (SYNTHESYS3 in FP7; Grant no. 312253), which started on 1st September 2013 and lasts for four years. Scientists in based in European member or associate states apply for grants covering research costs and subsistence at one or several partner institutions with a proposal that is assessed by a committee based on scientific quality.

  • 3.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Korpelainen, Helena
    University of Helsinki.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    No evidence of sexual niche partitioning in a dioecious moss with raresexual reproduction2015Inngår i: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims. Roughly half of the species of bryophytes have separate sexes (dioecious) and half are hermaphroditic (monoecious). This variation has major consequences for the ecology and evolution of the different species. In some sexually reproducing dioecious bryophytes, sex ratio has been shown to vary with environmental conditions. This study focuses on the dioecious wetland moss Drepanocladus trifarius, which rarely produces sexual branches or sporophytes and lacks apparent secondary sex characteristics, and examines whether genetic sexes exhibit different habitat preferences, i.e. whether sexual niche partitioning occurs.

    Methods. A total of 277 shoots of D. trifarius were randomly sampled at 214 locations and 12 environmental factors were quantified at each site. Sex was assigned to the individual shoots collected in the natural environments, regardless of their reproductive status, using a specifically designed molecular marker associated with female sex.

    Key Results. Male and female shoots did not differ in shoot biomass, the sexes were randomly distributed with respect to each other, and environmental conditions at male and female sampling locations did not differ. Collectively, this demonstrates a lack of sexual niche segregation. Adult genetic sex ratio was female-biased, with 28 females for every male individual.

    Conclusions. The results show that although the sexes of D. trifarius did not differ with regard to annual growth, spatial distribution or habitat requirements, the genetic sex ratio as nevertheless significantly female-biased. This supports the notion that factors other than sex-related differences in reproductive costs and sexual dimorphism can also drive the evolution of biased sex ratios in plants

  • 4.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Persson, Christin
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Family affiliation, sexratio and sporophyte frequency in unisexual mosses2014Inngår i: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4074, E-ISSN 1095-8339, Vol. 174, s. 163-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of sex expression and sex ratios are key features of the life histories of organisms. Bryophytes are the only haploid-dominant land plants. In contrast with seed plants, more than half of bryophyte species are dioecious, with rare sexual expression and sporophyte formation and a commonly female-biased sex ratio. We asked whether variation in sex expression, sex ratio and sporophyte frequency in ten dioecious pleurocarpous wetland mosses of two different families was best explained by assuming that character states  evolved: (1) in ancestors within the respective families or (2) at the species level as a response to recent habitat conditions. Lasso regression shrinkage identified relationships between family membership and sex ratio and sporophyte frequency, whereas environmental conditions were not correlated with any investigated reproductive trait. Sex ratio and sporophyte frequency were correlated with each other. Our results suggest that ancestry is more important than the current environment in explaining reproductive patterns at and above the species level in the studied wetland mosses, and that mechanisms controlling sex ratio and sporophyte frequency are phylogenetically conserved. Obviously, ancestry should be considered in the study of reproductive character state variation in plants.

  • 5.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hallingbäck, Thomas
    Bryophyte Specialist Group2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Species Survival Commission (SSC), a science-based network comprising over 9,000 volunteer experts deployed across more than 130 Specialist Groups, Red List Authorities and Task Forces, all working together towards achieving the vision of “A world that values and conserves present levels of biodiversity,” presents its annual report for 2014. 

  • 6.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hallingbäck, Tomas
    Bryophyte Specialist Group. In "2015 Annual Report of the Species Survival Commission and the Global Species Program"2016Inngår i: Species, ISSN 1016-927x, s. 70-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Infraspecific sex ratio variation and its predictors in mosses – the case of the wetland moss Drepanocladus lycopodioides2015Inngår i: Botany 2015. Science and Plants for People. Abstracts. / [ed] Anonymous, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex ratio variation is a common but unexplained phenomenon of many species with chromosomal sex determination, including many bryophytes. Expressed sex ratio variation could be related to environmental conditions in a few mosses investigated to date. However, many bryophyte populations are non-fertile during their entire life cycle and intraspecific genetic sex ratio variation remains highly unexplored in natural populations. Drepanocladus lycopodioides, a pleurocarpous wetland moss with a distribution largely confined to Western Eurasia, rarely to occasionally forms sexual organs. It belongs to the majority of bryophytes that exhibits a female bias in expressed sex ratio. We applied a novel approach to sex individual shoots irrespective of their reproductive state using a specifically designed female-targeting molecular marker. We demonstrated that the bias in sex expression corresponds to a genetic female bias in the European adult population. Here, we investigated three regional populations of D. lycopodioides in its core distribution area. We asked whether haplotype diversity (H), sex expression (SE), genetic sex ratios, and sporophyte frequency varied within and among regions, whether these characteristics were related with each other, and / or to environmental parameters. Levels of H differed among regions and were positively related to habitat patch size. H was unequally partitioned between the sexes and was associated with estimated regional sporophyte frequency. Recorded plot-wise sporophyte frequency was generally very low in all regions. Overall genetic sex ratio was female-biased in all regions. Sex expression and genetic sex ratio varied strongly within regions (SE 0 –75%), with 27% of the plots lacking sex organs and 78% of the plots one-sexed, but differences among regions were non-significant. While no sex expression occurred in habitats deeper than 25cm, genetic sex ratio was not related to the measured environmental parameters.

  • 8.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Males Are Not Shy in the Wetland Moss Drepanocladus lycopodioides2013Inngår i: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 174, nr 5, s. 733-739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of research. Maintenance of dioecious and monoecious sexual systems at nearly equal frequencies, infrequent sexual expression, and distinctly female-skewed sex ratios among the dioecious species are reproductive characteristics of bryophytes, which are otherwise unusual among embryophytes. Most sex ratio assessments to date have relied on gametophytes forming sexual organs, and how these reflect genetic genders is largely unresolved.

    Methodology. For the European wetland moss Drepanocladus lycopodioides, we ask whether the adult expressed sex ratio is more strongly female biased than the “true” population sex ratio based on genetically male and female plants, i.e., whether males exhibit a lower sex expression rate than females (shy males). We assess expressed sex ratio on the basis of sex expression in individually scored herbarium specimens. We directly and on a large geographic scale assess nonexpressed sex ratio, for the second time in a moss, by sexing individual shoots from nonexpressing specimens using a molecular sex marker.

    Pivotal results. On the basis of the female and male frequencies in these two data sets and the overall proportion of expressing specimens, we estimate the European population sex ratio as 2.6 : 1 (female to male). All three sex ratios are significantly female skewed and do not significantly differ from each other, indicating that there is no gender difference in sex expression rates.

    Conclusions. These results and previous data for Drepanocladus trifarius show that males are not shy in the two wetland mosses of markedly different habitats.

  • 9.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Mass occurrence of springtails on a moss cushion – what are they doing?2015Inngår i: Melting Pot, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Abstracts: https://vega.nrm.se/vanstermenyn/forskningochsamlingar/meltingpot/2015.9654.html, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The motile spermatozoids of bryophytes can swim up to a few centimetres. They require free water to fertilize the egg of the female organs, which sit on plants separate from the males in more than 50% of the species. When the sex organs are produced on different plants, this presents a serious obstacle to successful fertilization. The problems are overcome by a variety of mechanisms. Some of the more spectacular include spermatozoid transport up to at least several decimetres by water movement, by water drops spread from splash-cups surrounding the male organs up to two meters, by ejection up to15 centimetres into the air, or by having dwarf males that grow directly on the female plants. Here we report on another special kind of spermatozoid transfer that we came across during fieldwork in 2014, namely by micro-arthropods. Bryophyte fertilization mediated by animals was suggested more than a century ago, and was recently shown to occur in experimental settings. However, our observation is likely one of the first made directly in nature.

     

     

  • 10.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Mass-occurrence of springtails on Tortula cernua: A field-observation ofpossible animal-mediated fertilization2015Inngår i: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Sammelst du Moose oder Flechten auf deinen Auslandreisen? – Gedanken zum Nagoya-Protokoll2015Inngår i: Meylania, Vol. 55, artikkel-id 29-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Bisang, Irene
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Can the meiotic sex ratio explain the sex ratio bias in adult populations in the dioicous moss Drepanocladus lycopodioides?2017Inngår i: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Glime, Janice
    et al.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Sexuality: Sex ratio and sex expression. Chapt. 3-2.2014Inngår i: Bryophyte Ecology, Vol. 1. Physiological Ecology. / [ed] Glime, Janice, Houghton, MI 49931: Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many species exhibit a strongly female-biased phenotypically expressed sex ratio that likewise is in some cases genetic and in others possibly due to varying responses to environmental conditions. The "shy male" hypothesis lacks support in explaining most of this female bias. Examples of distinct male bias in expressed sex ratios also exist. Sex ratios based on genetic information on non-expressing plants is known for a very limited number of species.  Some species, perhaps more than we realize, have sexual plasticity. That is, they have different gender expressions in different years, possibly dependent on age or available energy resources. This can be due to hormonal expressions of the same or neighboring plants. When sexual reproduction fails, asexual reproduction by specialized propagules can compensate, and this is especially true for dioicous species. Because of the energy cost of producing sporophytes, males might have the energy needed for producing asexual structures. In addition, clonal growth and fragmentation can help the species spread. A modeling study suggests that disturbance level (weather, pollution, fire, etc) affects genders differentially, hence maintaining both sexes in the long term. Epiphytes are frequently isolated on a tree with only one sex present. They can benefit from asexual reproduction and have a higher than average percent of propguliferous taxa.

  • 14. Glime, Janice
    et al.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Sexuality: Size and sex differences. Chapt. 3-3.2014Inngår i: Bryophyte Ecology, Vol. 1. Physiological Ecology, Houghton, MI 49931: Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Males and females can differ in non-sexual ways, including size, biomass, branching, maturation rate, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate. Large female and small male plants (dwarf males) are known among bryophytes, but not the converse, except in non-sporophytic Diphyscium. Most dwarf males develop on the leaves or tomentum of females of the species. Dwarf males are often missed in surveys and this omission can cause misleading results in sex ratio determination. Spores of some species develop dwarf males on females of the species but normal males on other substrates. Dwarfism can increase the success of fertilization while decreasing the competition for resources with the females.

    Bryophytes are isosporous, but some species exhibit anisospory; some exhibit false anisospory due to abortion of spores. The anisosporous condition seems to present a potential advantage for fertilization when it is correlated with the presence of dwarf males. On the other hand, this strategy reduces the dispersal of the larger female spores compared to that of the smaller male spores. This is less of a problem if nearly all females get fertilized. Many anisosporous and false anisosporous conditions occur in species with no dwarf males (Mogensen 1981). This causes us to seek other explanations for their presence, including abortion related to water, space, and nutrient limitations within the capsule. The abortions can provide room for remaining developing spores while maintaining protection and resources for them.

  • 15. Glime, Janice
    et al.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Sexuality: its determination.  Chapt. 3-1.2014Inngår i: Bryophyte Ecology, Vol. 1. Physiological Ecology. / [ed] Glime, Janice, Houghton, MI 49931-1295: Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The liverwort genus Sphaerocarpos was the first genus in which sex chromosomes were known in plants. Many bryophytes possess sex chromosomes (X & Y chromosomes, or designated U & V to refer to their haploid condition) which may play a role in gender determination. Bryophytes can be monoicous (bisexual) or dioicous (unisexual). Gametangia in monoicous bryophytes can be autoicous (♂ & ♀ gametangia in separate clusters), paroicous (♂ & ♀ gametangia in separate groupings but one cluster), or synoicous (♂ & ♀ gametangia intermixed in same cluster). Monoicy frequently has arisen through hybridization and polyploidy. Transitions from monoicy to dioicy and vice versa have happened multiple times. There have been more changes from monoicy to dioicy than the reverse in mosses, whereas the opposite was the case in hornworts. McDaniel et al. suggested that dioicy works best when there are advantages to both sexes for being separate. Sperm dispersal begins with bursting of the antheridium, often accompanied by movement with surface tension of water drops. In thallose liverworts, sperm are often expelled explosively into the air. Sperm dispersal is usually accomplished by movement through a water film or by splashing and is sometimes aided by gravity. But some species have their sperm dispersed by invertebrates, including insects and mites. Dispersing sperm are known to survive as much as 200 hours and travel distance is known up to 230 cm. Travel distance and weather seem to be the most important factors in determining the success of fertilization in bryophytes

  • 16. Glime, Janice
    et al.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Sexuality:Reproductive barriers and trade-offs. Chapt. 3-4.2014Inngår i: Bryophyte Ecology, Vol. 1. Physiological Ecology., Houghton, MI 49931: by Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists , 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Monoicy (both sexes on same individual) frequently has arisen through hybridization and polyploidy (multiple sets of chromosomes). Barriers to hybridization and to selfing in bryophytes are poorly known. These include external barriers such as spatial/geographic isolation, ecological isolation, and seasonal isolation. Internal barriers include gametic isolation, genetic incompatibility, hybrid sterility, and reduced fitness. Nevertheless, hybridization seems to have played a major role in the evolution of monoicy due to lack of these barriers in many species. Formation of gametangia and especially sporophyte formation incur reproductive costs measurable in reduced future vegetative and reproductive performance. Overall investment in sexual reproduction may vary among species, in some cases being greater in males and in others greater in females, depending on if assessed at the pre- or postfertilization stage.

    Tradeoffs occur between dispersal ability of small spores and success of establishment of large spores. Fragments and vegetative diaspores are most successful at colonizing over short distances and are more likely to succeed than spores. Asexual reproduction can keep the species going for many years in the absence of sexual reproduction. Tradeoffs occur also among asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, and vegetative performance. These tradeoffs vary among species.

    The dominant haploid state of bryophytes limits their ability to store recessive alleles, but autopolyploidy, somatic mutations, vegetative reproduction, and independent assortment at meiosis contribute to diversity. Despite their clonal nature, bryophytes still exhibit considerable genetic variation.

    The dominant haploid state of bryophytes limits their ability to store recessive alleles, but autopolyploidy, somatic mutations, vegetative reproduction, and independent assortment at meiosis contribute to diversity.  Despite their clonal nature, bryophytes still exhibit considerable genetic variation.  This may be explained in part by the Red Queen hypothesis, a hypothesis that also might explain the persistence of evolution to a dioicous condition despite the difficulty of accomplishing sexual reproduction.  Inbreeding depression may occur in monoicous bryophytes, but very limited data suggest that may be to a limited degree compared to that of tracheophytes.

    Bryophytes may lack the morphological diversity expressed by sporophytes in higher plants, but there is evidence that haploid plants and their diaspores can contain as much diversity as tracheophytes, often expressed in their biochemistry as a variety of secondary compounds rather than in morphology.  They have life strategies that have survived since the beginning of land plants.

  • 17. Hallingbäck, Tomas
    et al.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Bergamini, Ariel
    A glimpse of bryophyte conservation activities around the globe: Conservation reports from the members of the IUCN Bryophyte Specialist Group.2015Inngår i: Bryological Times, Vol. 141, nr 2, s. 16-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Are morphology andenvironment correlated with male dwarfism in pleurocarpous mosses?2015Inngår i: Arctoa: A Journal of Briology, ISSN 0131-1379, Vol. 24, s. 362-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Brukar du samla mossor när du reser utomlands?2015Inngår i: Myrinia, ISSN 1102-4194, Vol. 25, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The 'Nagoya Protocol' and its implications on collecting bryophytes abroad are discussed

  • 20.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Infraspecific diversity in a spore-dispersed species with limited distribution range2015Inngår i: Systematics and Biodiversity, ISSN 1477-2000, E-ISSN 1478-0933, Vol. 13, s. 17-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Korpelainen, Helena
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Identifying sex in non-fertile individuals of the moss Drepanocladus turgescens (Bryophyta: Amblystegiaceae) using a novel molecular approach2016Inngår i: Journal of plant research, ISSN 0918-9440, E-ISSN 1618-0860, Vol. 129, s. 1005-1010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22. Huttunen, Sanna
    et al.
    Ahonen, I.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna
    Vänni, J.
    Sammalretki Ahvenanmalle keväällä 20132014Inngår i: Bryobrotherella, ISSN 1456-2766, Vol. 17, s. 114-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23. Huxley, Rob
    et al.
    Dekker, René
    Reeve, Lucy
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    A Simple Self- Assessment tool for collections managementand care2014Inngår i: Abstract SPNHC 29th Annual Meeting, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010 the EU SYNTHESYS project launched a simple to use, online self-assessment form to evaluate the status of natural history collections management. (www.synthesys.info/network-activities/synthesys3-na2/self-assessment/) Institutions self-assess at the level appropriate to their collections and resources i.e. institutional or  departmental. The survey covers all areas impacting on collections from storage environment and use of materials to budget allocation. Institutions record performance against 63 benchmarks relating to managing collections and an automatically generated report is returned with suggestions for improvement. A criticality factor is applied to the results highlighting areas of greatest risk and also advice on non-urgent areas for improvement.Results were validated and consistency encouraged through audit visits by experts. Results suggested that variation between reported data and the auditors’ assessment was a result of interpretation of questions or a correctable weakness in the scoring system and need for audits could be less once these have been addressed. Seventeen institutions from eight European countries completed the survey representing more than 200 million specimens. Of these fourteen were audited. The results were analysed and common strengths and weaknesses identified. Particular areas of strength or weakness were related to institution size. If more institutions complete the survey the more useful data will be available to help direct training, staff development and to support large funding bids to address common weaknesses. Several institutions used the exercise as evidence to support their funding bids. Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm and Naturalis, Leiden for example used the data to plan major improvements to collections management.

  • 24. Kvaček, Jiri
    et al.
    Vacek, Frantisek
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Enghoff, Henrik
    Guiraud, Michel
    Haston, Elspeth
    Koureas, Dimitris
    Mergen, Patricia
    Quaisser, Christine
    Smirnova, Larissa
    European Roadmap for Natural History Collections: Deliverable 3.6, Synthesis of systematic resources, SYNTHESYS, Grant no. 3122532016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    SYNTHESYS3 consortium recognises the importance of the Societal Challenges identified by the Horizon2020 programme and relevance of natural history collections for solving problems outside the traditional and conventional fields. We have reviewed 26 Use Cases backed up by documentary evidence demonstrating how the collections, expertise and services can be used to find solutions to a range of societal challenges. The Use Case review has been made available on-line in a format which allows updating and the inclusion of additional examples. It constitutes the first element for building a roadmap for the access policy of the European natural history institutions. This will enable further discussion on the prioritisation of solutions by a wider community.

  • 25. Patino, Jairo
    et al.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Dirkse, Gerard
    Bjarnason, Agust H.
    Ah-Peng, Claudine
    Vanderpoorten, Alain
    Baker’s law and the island syndromes in bryophytes2013Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 101, s. 1245-1255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The evolution of island syndromes has long served as a model to understand the mechanisms accounting for phenotypic differentiation. Combining literature data with actual observations, we determine whether typical syndromes such as the loss of dispersal power and the bias towards selfcompatibility s law) apply to vagile organisms, using bryophytes as a model.

    2. The life-history traits (LHTs) observed in oceanic island floras were statistically different from those observed on continents, evidencing the evolution of island syndromes. In contrast, LHTs of continental and continental island floras were similar, pointing to differences in migration intensity between continents, continental islands and oceanic islands.

    3. The proportion of bisexual species was significantly higher on oceanic islands than on continents. A significant proportion of species that are unisexual or bisexual on continents shifted towards exclusive bisexuality on oceanic islands, suggesting that Baker’s law applies to bryophytes. The underlying mechanisms, however, probably differ from in situ selection for selfing.

    4. The proportion of species producing specialized asexual diaspores, which are assumed to play a role in short-distance dispersal (SDD), was higher on oceanic islands than on continents. The proportion of species producing spores, which are involved in long-distance dispersal (LDD), exhibited the reverse trend, suggesting a shift in the prevalent reproductive strategy to favour SDD on oceanic islands. Approximately 50% of the species, however, maintained the ability to produce sporophytes on oceanic islands, and the relative frequency of fertile shoots within collections of four model species was even higher on islands than on continents.

    5. Synthesis. Bryophytes exhibit typical island syndromes, indicating that migration rates between oceanic islands and continents are not sufficient to prevent the effects of genetic drift and contradicting the view that the sea does not impede migration in the group. Significant shifts in life-history traits (LHTs) towards increased production of specialized asexual diaspores and decreased sporophyte production on oceanic islands indeed point to a global loss of long-distance dispersal (LDD) ability. The maintenance of traits characteristic for LDD in a large number of species has, however, substantial consequences for our understanding of island plant evolution, and in particular, for our vision of islands as evolutionary dead ends.

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