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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    A bee-fly's host, Facebook, and DNA Barcoding.2016In: Barcode Bulletin, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    DNA-streckkodning - så går det till2014In: Bi-lagan, no 1, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Lindberg, Gunvi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Vårdal, hege
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Apelqvist, Niklas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Brodin, Yngve
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Arbetet med donationer av insektsamlingar vid Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet2014In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 134, p. 153-162Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the work with donated insect collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural

    History (NRM) in Stockholm, Sweden. The museum receives donations yearly from

    amateur entomologists, and they are an important contribution to the enrichment of the

    collections. For the collector it is satisfying that a public institution takes on the long term

    responsibility of safeguarding the scientific value in a collection, curating and making it

    available for study. Significant donations in the last years include that of Lars Huggert

    (Hymenoptera, Coleoptera), Hans Bartsch (Diptera) and Anders N. Nilsson (aquatic Coleoptera)

    to name a few. The curatorial and digitizing workload at the Entomology collection

    are unfortunately not matched by staff funding, and as at other European museums

    volunteer work constitute vital and invaluable help. We acknowledge especially some of

    the volunteer work in the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera collections. Recently we have engaged

    with amateur entomologists by organizing taxon-specific workshops at the museum

    which has stimulated exchange and collaboration. The Hymenoptera-day was visited by 30

    participants, and the Diptera-meeting by 49. As an example of what happens with a donation

    once it reaches the museum, we describe the work with a recent Coleoptera collection

    donation by Jan Olsson, Vallentuna. A few highlights from the unidentified material,

    including the Archostematan beetle Priacma serrata (Cupedidae) and the false jewelbeetle

    Schizopus laetus (Schizopodidae), are presented as they were new to the NRM collections.

    We also bring attention to two new websites: www.naturarv.se is the webportal presenting

    digitized material in Swedish natural history collections. Both metadata on specimens and

    photos are made searchable here. We also launch a new webpage at www.nrm.se/insektsdonationer

    where we write about new donations to the Entomology collections, with Jan

    Olsson’s Coleoptera collection first out.

  • 4.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Nilsson, Lars G R
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Åkerjordfly, Agrotis exclamationis, identifierad som värdart för svävflugan Villa hottentotta med hjälp av DNA streckkodning (Diptera: Bombyliidae).2015In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we identify Agrotis exclamationis (Linnaeus, 1758) as a host species for the bee y Villa hottentotta (Linnaeus, 1758) in Sweden. Host use and speci city for bee y species are generally very poorly known, why the hatching of a bee y of the genus Villa from an unknown Noctuid pupa caught our attention. The parasitized Noctuid pupa was found in a garden in Staffanstorp, Skåne (Sweden), in May 2015 and kept in a jar to hatch. The bee y hatched in June leaving two empty exuviae in the jar. DNA was extracted sepa- rately from both excuviae to identify the y and the host using DNA Barcoding. A 600+ bp long sequence of the gene Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 was sequenced for both samples and queried against the reference library BOLD (www.boldsystems.org). The Noctuid host pupa was unambiguously identi ed as the common Noctuid species Agrotis exclamationis. The sequence was identical to the most common haplotype over much of Europe. The bee y pupa was identi ed as Villa hottentotta, the most common Villa species in Sweden. This added a new Noctuid species to the list of known hosts for V. hottentotta which also includes several other Noctuid genera as well as a Geometrid moth. Belonging to the sand chamber group of bee ies where the female scatter the eggs on the ground while hovering, the active host-seeking rst instar planidium larvae bene ts from having a wide host range to potentially encounter in the substrate zone. 

  • 5. Biström, Olof
    et al.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    A new species of Peschetius GUIGNOT described from Sri Lanka (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2015In: Koleopterologische Rundschau, Vol. 85, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peschetius taprobanicus sp.n. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) is described on the basis of six specimens

    collected from Sri Lanka. Distinguishing characters are given for the new species.

  • 6. Biström, Olof
    et al.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) described from NE Thailand.2016In: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, no 632, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini) from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae). It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, Hydrovatus diversipunctatussp. n. and Hydrovatus globosussp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality "Khon Kaen" (a city and province). Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  • 7. Biström, Olof
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Taxonomic revision of Afrotropical Laccophilus Leach, 1815 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).2015In: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, no 542, p. 1-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The African species of the genus Laccophilus Leach, 1815, are revised, on the basis of study of adult specimens. In all, 105 species are now recognized. A phenetic character-analysis was undertaken, which resulted in a split of the genus into 17 species groups. Diagnoses and a description of each species are given together with keys for identification of species groups and species. We also provide habitus photos, illustration of male genitalia and distribution maps for all species. New species are described as follows: Laccophilus grossus sp. n. (Angola, Namibia), Laccophilus rocchii sp. n. (Tanzania, Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique), Laccophilus ferrugo sp. n. (Mozambique), Laccophilus furthi sp. n. (Madagascar), Laccophilus isamberti sp. n. (Madagascar), Laccophilus inobservatus sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Chad, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire and Asia: Yemen), Laccophilus cryptos sp. n. (Zaire, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa), Laccophilus enigmaticus sp. n. (Nigeria, Sudan), Laccophilus bellus sp. n. (Benin, Nigeria), Laccophilus guentheri sp. n. (Guinea, Ghana), Laccophilus guineensis sp. n. (Guinea), Laccophilus decorosus sp. n. (Uganda), Laccophilus empheres sp. n. (Kenya), Laccophilus inconstans sp. n. (Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon), Laccophilus brancuccii sp. n. (Central African Republic), Laccophilus incomptus sp. n. (Cameroon), Laccophilus australis sp. n. (Tanzania, South Africa), Laccophilus minimus sp. n. (Namibia), Laccophilus eboris sp. n. (Ivory Coast), Laccophilus insularum sp. n. (Madagascar), Laccophilus occidentalis sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Zaire) and Laccophilus transversovittatus sp. n. (Madagascar). Laccophilus restrictus Sharp, 1882, is restored as good species; not junior synonym of Laccophilus pictipennis Sharp, 1882. New synonyms are established as follows: Laccophilus continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935 = Laccophilus perplexus Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n., Laccophilus taeniolatus Régimbart, 1889 = Laccophilus congener Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n., Laccophilus adspersus Boheman, 1848 = Laccophilus vitshumbii Guignot, 1959, syn. n. = Laccophilus adspersus nigeriensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n. = Laccophilus adspersus sudanensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n., Laccophilus modestus Régimbart, 1895 = Laccophilus espanyoli Hernando, 1990, syn. n., Laccophilus flaveolus Régimbart, 1906 = Laccophilus pampinatus Guignot, 1941, syn. n., Laccophilus trilineola Régimbart, 1889 = Laccophilus simulator Omer-Cooper, 1958, syn. n., Laccophilus mediocris Guignot, 1952 = Laccophilus meii Rocchi, 2000, syn. n., Laccophilus epinephes Guignot, 1955 = Laccophilus castaneus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., Laccophilus saegeri Guignot, 1958 = Laccophilus comoensis Pederzani & Reintjes, 2002, syn. n., Laccophilus restrictus Sharp, 1882 = Laccophilus evanescens Régimbart, 1895, syn. n., Laccophilus incrassatus Gschwendtner, 1933 = Laccophilus virgatus Guignot, 1953, syn. n., Laccophilus cyclopis Sharp, 1882 = Laccophilus shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, syn. n., Laccophilus burgeoni Gschwendtner, 1930 = Laccophilus wittei Guignot, 1952, syn. n., Laccophilus secundus Régimbart, 1895 = Laccophilus torquatus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., Laccophilus desintegratus Régimbart, 1895 = Laccophilus sanguinosus Régimbart, 1895, syn. n. and Laccophilus flavopictus Régimbart, 1889 = Laccophilus bergeri Guignot, 1953, syn. n. = Laccophilus segmentatus Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Laccophilus productus Régimbart, 1906, Laccophilus ruficollis Zimmermann, 1919, Laccophilus sordidus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus alluaudi Régimbart, 1899, Laccophilus pictipennis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus wehnckei Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935, Laccophilus simplicistriatus Gschwendtner, 1932, Laccophilus complicatus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus rivulosus Klug, 1833, Laccophilus ampliatus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus pilitarsis Régimbart, 1906, Laccophilus adspersus Boheman, 1848, Laccophilus livens Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus modestus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus nodieri Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus flaveolus Régimbart, 1906, Laccophilus pallescens Régimbart, 1903, Laccophilus restrictus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus vermiculosus Gerstaecker, 1867, Laccophilus mocquerysi Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus bizonatus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus tschoffeni Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus persimilis Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus poecilus Klug, 1834, Laccophilus lateralis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus lateralis var. polygrammus Régimbart, 1903, Laccophilus cyclopis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, Laccophilus conjunctus Guignot, 1950, Laccophilus grammicus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus flavoscriptus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus flavosignatus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus brevicollis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus secundus Régimbart, Laccophilus desintegratus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus gutticollis Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus luctuosus Sharp, 1882 and Laccophilus inornatus Zimmermann, 1926. Laccophilus remex Guignot, 1952, comprises a species complex with uncertain taxonomic delimitation; the complex includes Laccophilus concisus Guignot, 1953, Laccophilus turneri Omer-Cooper, 1957 and Laccophilus praeteritus Omer-Cooper, 1957, as tentative synonyms of Laccophilus remex Guignot, 1952.

  • 8. Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

  • 9.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The utility of CAD in recovering Gondwanan vicariance events and the evolutionary history of Aciliini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).2014In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Aciliini presently includes 69 species of medium-sized water beetles distributed on all continents except Antarctica. The pattern of distribution with several genera confined to different continents of the Southern Hemisphere raises the yet untested hypothesis of a Gondwana vicariance origin. The monophyly of Aciliini has been questioned with regard to Eretini, and there are competing hypotheses about the intergeneric relationship in the tribe. This study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis focused on the tribe Aciliini and it is based on eight gene fragments. The aims of the present study are: 1) to test the monophyly of Aciliini and clarify the position of the tribe Eretini and to resolve the relationship among genera within Aciliini, 2) to calibrate the divergence times within Aciliini and test different biogeographical scenarios, and 3) to evaluate the utility of the gene CAD for phylogenetic analysis in Dytiscidae.

    Results

    Our analyses confirm monophyly of Aciliini with Eretini as its sister group. Each of six genera which have multiple species are also supported as monophyletic. The origin of the tribe is firmly based in the Southern Hemisphere with the arrangement of Neotropical and Afrotropical taxa as the most basal clades suggesting a Gondwana vicariance origin. However, the uncertainty as to whether a fossil can be used as a stem-or crowngroup calibration point for Acilius influenced the result: as crowngroup calibration, the 95% HPD interval for the basal nodes included the geological age estimate for the Gondwana break-up, but as a stem group calibration the basal nodes were too young. Our study suggests CAD to be the most informative marker between 15 and 50 Ma. Notably, the 2000 bp CAD fragment analyzed alone fully resolved the tree with high support.

    Conclusions

    1) Molecular data confirmed Aciliini as a monophyletic group. 2) Bayesian optimizations of the biogeographical history are consistent with an influence of Gondwana break-up history, but were dependent on the calibration method. 3) The evaluation using a method of phylogenetic signal per base pair indicated Wnt and CAD as the most informative of our sampled genes.

  • 10. Fossen, Erlend I
    et al.
    Ekrem, Torbjørn
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).2016In: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, no 564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence strongly suggest that Hydrobius arcticus and the three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes are separate species and Hydrobius rottenbergii Gerhardt, 1872, stat. n. and Hydrobius subrotundus Stephens, 1829, stat. n. are elevated to valid species. An identification key to northern European species of Hydrobius is provided.

  • 11. Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Bini, Luis M
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Unravelling the correlates of species richness and ecological uniqueness in a metacommunity of urban pond insects2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 73, p. 422-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City ponds have the potential to harbour a rich biodiversity of aquatic insects despite being located in an urban landscape. However, our current knowledge on the correlates of pond biodiversity is limited and even less is known about the factors that influence the ecological uniqueness of urban ponds. The multiple environmental gradients, at different spatial scales, that may affect biodiversity and ecological uniqueness of urban ponds can thus be seen both as an opportunity and as a challenge for a study. In this study, we aimed to fill this gap by focusing on aquatic insect assemblages in 51 ponds in the Swedish city of Stockholm, using a metacommunity perspective. We found that species richness was primarily determined by the density of aquatic insects, water depth and proportion of buildings around the pond. The uniqueness of ponds was estimated as local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD), and it was primarily related to the proportion of arable land and industry around the ponds. With regard to the metacommunity we found two interesting patterns. First, there was a negative relationship between richness and LCBD. Second, biodiversity was spatially independent, suggesting that spatially-patterned dispersal did not structure species richness or LCBD. These last two patterns are important when considering conservation efforts of biodiversity in city ponds. We hence suggest that the conservation of insect biodiversity in urban pond should consider the surroundings of the ponds, and that high-richness ponds are not necessarily those that require most attention because they are not ecologically the most unique.

  • 12.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Monaghan, Michael
    Dispersal is linked to habitat use in 59 species of water beetles (Coleoptera: Adephaga) on Madagascar2014In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 37, p. 001-008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lentic habitats (standing water, such as ponds and lakes) differ from lotic habitats (running water; streams and rivers) in their spatiotemporal persistence, with lentic habitats being more ephemeral in evolutionary time. This habitat instability is thought to select for dispersal, and several phylogenetic and macroecological studies have suggested that high rates of dispersal are more characteristic of lentic than lotic species. We tested this hypothesis using a comparative population genetic and phylogeographic approach based on mitochondrial DNA for 59 aquatic beetle species, sampled across Madagascar. Species were classified as lotic (n = 25), lentic (n = 25), or lotolentic (associated with both running and standing water; n = 9). Hierarchical population genetic structure (AMOVA), nucleotide diversity (π), and geographic structure were compared among habitat types. Lotic species had significantly greater population structure (ФST = 0.55, hierarchical AMOVA) than lentic (ФST = 0.13) and lotolentic (ФST = 0.19) species using phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) to correct for phylogeny. Body size was independent of habitat preference, and did not explain any of the intraspecific variation. A greater proportion of lotic species were endemic to Madagascar and lotic species had more pronounced geographic structure in their haplotype networks. The results indicate that dispersal is consistently lower among lotic species, independent of phylogenetic relatedness. This has macroevolutionary and biogeographical consequences for the freshwater fauna of this tropical biodiversity hotspot where remaining natural habitats are becoming increasingly isolated from one another.

  • 13. Holmgren, Sandra
    et al.
    Angus, Robert
    Jia, Fenglong
    Chen, Zhen-Ning
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Resolving the taxonomic conundrum in Graphoderus of the east Palearctic with a key to all species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).2016In: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, no 574, p. 113-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Holarctic diving beetle genus Graphoderus (Dytiscinae, Aciliini) contains relatively few and well-known species but these may still be difficult to identify based on external characters. A taxonomic problem in the eastern Palearctic was discovered that relates to the Palearctic Graphoderus zonatus (Hoppe, 1795) and the Nearctic Graphoderus perplexus Sharp, 1882. Based on qualitative and quantitative characters, especially on male genitalia which have been poorly studied in the past, it is shown that eastern Palearctic specimens identified by previous authors as either of the two species in fact belongs to a third species. The synonymized name Graphoderus elatus Sharp, 1882, is reinstated as a valid species (stat. n.) and a lectotype is designated from the mixed syntype series. The male genitalia of all known Graphoderus species have been examined and an illustrated identification key to the genus is provided. The three species in the complex of focus, Graphoderus elatus, Graphoderus zonatus and Graphoderus perplexus are found to have allopatric distributions; Graphoderus perplexus in the Nearctic region, Graphoderus zonatus in the west Palearctic region and eastwards to the Yenisei-Angara river and Graphoderus elatus east of the Yenisei-Angara river. All previous records of either Graphoderus zonatus or Graphoderus perplexus in the east Palearctic, east of the Yenisei-Angara river turned out to be misidentified Graphoderus elatus. This conclusion also brings with it that dimorphic females, thought only to be present in the single subspecies Graphoderus zonatus verrucifer (CR Sahlberg, 1824), proved to be present also in a second species, Graphoderus elatus. The dimorphic female forms is either with dorsally smooth elytra and pronotum or conspicuously granulated elytra and wrinkly pronotum. As has been shown in Graphoderus zonatus verrucifer there is a correlation between the occurrence of granulate female forms in a population and an increase in the number of adhesive discs on pro- and mesotarsus in males within Graphoderus elatus.

  • 14. Houshuai, Wang
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Holloway, Jeremy D
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Fan, Xiaoling
    Janzen, Daniel H
    Hallwachs, Winnie
    Wen, Lijun
    Wang, Min
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholm University.
    Molecular phylogeny of Lymantriinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Erebidae) inferred from eight gene regions2015In: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 579-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the evolutionary history of Lymantriinae and test the present higher-level classification, we performed the first broad-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily, based on 154 exemplars representing all recognized tribes and drawn from all major biogeographical regions. We used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) and six nuclear genes (elongation factor-1α, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein, ribosomal protein S5, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and wingless). Data matrices (in total 5424 bp) were analysed by parsimony and model-based evolutionary methods (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference). Based on the results of the analyses, we present a new phylogenetic classification for Lymantriinae composed of seven well-supported tribes, two of which are proposed here as new: Arctornithini, Leucomini, Lymantriini, Orgyiini, Nygmiini, Daplasini trib. nov. and Locharnini trib. nov. We discuss the internal structure of each of these tribes and address some of the more complex problems with the genus-level classification, particularly within Orgyiini and Nygmiini.

  • 15. Karlsson Green, Kristina
    et al.
    Svensson, Erik
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Härdling, Roger
    Hansson, Bengt
    The interplay between local ecology, divergent selection and genetic drift in population divergence of a sexually antagonistic female trait2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 1934-1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically polymorphic species offer the possibility to study maintenance of genetic variation and the potential role for genetic drift in population divergence. Indirect inference of the selection regimes operating on polymorphic traits can be achieved by comparing population divergence in neutral genetic markers with population divergence in trait frequencies. Such an approach could further be combined with ecological data to better understand agents of selection. Here, we infer the selective regimes acting on a polymorphic mating trait in an insect group; the dorsal structures (either rough or smooth) of female diving beetles. Our recent work suggests that the rough structures have a sexually antagonistic function in reducing male mating attempts. For two species (Dytiscus lapponicus andGraphoderus zonatus), we could not reject genetic drift as an explanation for population divergence in morph frequencies, whereas for the third (Hygrotus impressopunctatus) we found that divergent selection pulls morph frequencies apart across populations. Furthermore, population morph frequencies in H. impressopunctatus were significantly related to local bioclimatic factors, providing an additional line of evidence for local adaptation in this species. These data, therefore, suggest that local ecological factors and sexual conflict interact over larger spatial scales to shape population divergence in the polymorphism.

  • 16.
    Miller, Kelly
    et al.
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Diving Beetles of the World - Systematics and Biology of the Dytiscidae.2016Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Miller, Kelly
    et al.
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Predaceous Diving Beetle Sexual Systems2014In: Ecology, Systematics and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) / [ed] Donald A Yee, Springer, 2014, p. 199-233Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Predaceous diving beetles have an impressively diverse array of

    morphological and behavioral attributes associated with sexual systems. These

    include anatomical dimorphisms with males and females exhibiting many secondary

    sexual features, behavioral dimorphisms in precopulatory and copulatory activities,

    extensive variation in male and female genitalia, and sperm complexity that includes

    sperm conjugation and heteromorphism. Many of these attributes appear to be

    correlated, suggesting emphasis by certain clades on particular sexual systems.

    For example, members of Dytiscinae appear to emphasize pre-insemination sexual

    selection with female resistance behavior possibly associated with the male ability

    to threaten suffocation of females during copulatory activities, which take place

    over many hours of mate guarding. In this case, males have large adhesive discs

    on their protarsi used to better subdue a resistant female, whereas females have

    modified pronotal and elytral cuticle that interfere with male adhesive discs.

    This group also has among the simplest male sperm and female reproductive tract 

     morphology, suggesting more limited post-insemination selection, but strong

    pre-insemination sexual antagonism. In contrast, members of Hydroporinae

    have no obvious pre- insemination mating behaviors and only short mating

    durations. This group also has dramatically complex female reproductive tracts

    and male sperm morphology including conjugation and heteromorphism suggesting

    intensity in post- insemination sperm choice, sperm cooperation, and sperm competition.

    Here, dytiscid sexual attributes are reviewed along with discussion of dytiscid

    sexual system evolution.

  • 18.
    Miller, Kelly
    et al.
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The phylogeny and classification of predaceous diving beetles.2014In: Ecology, Systematics and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) / [ed] Donald A Yee, Springer, 2014, p. 49-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The phylogenetics and higher (family-group) classifi cation of extant

    members of the beetle family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera), or predaceous diving beetles,

    is reviewed and reassessed. A phylogenetic analysis of the family is presented based

    on 168 species of diving beetles and 9 outgroup taxa from Gyrinidae, Noteridae,

    Amphizoidae and Paelobiidae. All currently recognized dytiscid subfamilies and

    tribes are represented, most by multiple genera and species. Data include 104 morphological

    characters and approximately 6,700 aligned bases from 9 DNA sequence

    fragments from cytochrome c oxidase I  (COI) and II  (COII), histone III  (H3), 16S

    rRNA  (16S), 12S rRNA  (12S), arginine kinase  (argkin), RNA polymerase II  (RNA

    pol II), elongation factor 1 alpha  (Ef1α ), and wingless  (wnt). Parsimony and

    Bayesian analyses were conducted. The topology of the parsimony tree (consensus

    of 13 equally parsimonious solutions) exhibits numerous anomalies inconsistent

    with convincing morphological features and the Bayesian results and has,

    generally, relatively poor bootstrap support for major clades. The Bayesian topology

    is more consistent with major morphological features and has strong support 

     for most clades, and conclusions are based primarily on this estimate. Major

    higher-level phylogenetic relationships with strong support include: (1) monophyly

    of Dytiscidae Leach, (2) Matinae Branden sister to the rest of Dytiscidae,

    (3) Agabinae Thomson + Colymbetinae Erichson, (4) Hydrodytinae

    Miller + Hydroporinae Aubé, (5) Dytiscinae Leach + Laccophilinae Gistel +

    Cybistrini Sharp + Copelatinae Branden, (6) monophyly of the subfamilies Matinae,

    Colymbetinae, Copelatinae, Coptotominae Branden, Lancetinae Branden,

    Laccophilinae (including Agabetes  Crotch), Agabinae (support weaker than in other

    subfamilies) and Hydroporinae (monophyly of Hydrodytinae not tested), (7) paraphyly

    of Dytiscinae with Cybistrini sister to Laccophilinae (with strong support)

    and this clade sister to other Dytiscinae, and (8) monophyly of both Agabini

    ( Agabus  -group of genera) and Hydrotrupini Roughley ( Hydrotrupes  Sharp and the

    Platynectes  -group of genera). Major conclusions regarding tribes within

    Hydroporinae include: (1) monophyly of the tribes Vatellini Sharp, Methlini

    Branden, Hydrovatini Sharp, Hygrotini Portevin, Hyphydrini Gistel (without

    Pachydrus  Sharp) and Bidessini Sharp (including Peschetius  Guignot, Hydrodessus

     J. Balfour-Browne and Amarodytes  Régimbart) (monophyly of Laccornini

    Wolfe and Roughley and Pachydrini Biström, Nilsson and Wewalka not tested),

    (2) Pachydrini is a problematic, long-branched taxa resolved here as sister to

    Hydrovatini but with weak support, (3) Hydroporini monophyletic except for

    Laccornellus  Roughley and Wolfe and Canthyporus  Zimmermann, (4) Laccornellus

     and Canthyporus  together monophyletic and sister to Hydroporinae except

    Laccornini. Four groups are resolved within Hydroporini exclusive of

    Laccornellus  + Canthyporus  corresponding to the Deronectes  -, the Graptodytes  -,

    the Necterosoma  - and the Hydroporus  -groups of genera. The classifi cation of

    Dytiscidae is revised with the following taxonomic changes: (1) Hydrotrupini is

    recognized as a tribe of Agabinae including the genus Hydrotrupes  and the

    Platynectes  -group of genera ( new status  ), (2) the genus Rugosus  García is moved

    from Colymbetinae to Copelatinae ( new placement  ), (3) Cybistrini is elevated

    from tribe rank within Dytiscinae to subfamily of Dytiscidae ( new rank  ), (4)

    Hyderodini Miller is placed as a junior synonym of Dytiscini ( new synonymy  ), (5)

    Laccornellus  and Canthyporus  are removed from Hydroporini and placed in their

    own tribe, Laccornellini ( new tribe  ), (6) the following family group names are

    resurrected from synonymy with Hydroporini and placed as subtribes within

    Hydroporini, Deronectina Galewski (for the Deronectes  -group of genera, new

    status  ), Siettitiina Smrž (for the Graptodytes  -group of genera, new status  ),

    Sternopriscina Branden (for the Necterosoma  -group of genera, new status  ), and

    Hydroporina (for the Hydroporus  -group of genera, new status  ), (7) Carabhydrini

    Watts is placed as a junior synonym of Sternopriscina ( new synonymy  ), and

    (8) Hydrodessus  , formerly incerta sedis  with respect to tribe, is placed in Bidessini

    ( new placement  ). Each subfamily, tribe and subtribe is diagnosed and its taxonomic

    history discussed.

  • 19. Morinière, Jérôme
    et al.
    Michat, Mariano
    Jäch, Manfred
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Hendrich, Lars
    Balke, Michael
    Anisomeriini diving beetles – an Atlantic-Pacific Island disjunction on Tristan da Cunha and Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández?2015In: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anisomeriini diving beetles contain only two enigmatic species, representing a remarkable disjunction between the Pacific Juan Fernández Islands (Anisomeria bistriata) and the South Atlantic Tristan da Cunha Archipelago (Senilites tristanicola). They belong to the Colymbetinae, which contain 140 species worldwide. Here we aim to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the Anisomerinii and use > 9000 bp DNA sequence data from 13 fragments of 12 loci for a comprehensive sampling of Colymbetinae species. Analyses under different optimization criteria converge on very similar topologies, and show unambiguously that Anisomeria bistriata andSenilites tristanicola belong to the Neotropical Rhantus signatus species group, a comparatively recent clade within Colymbetinae. Anisomeriini therefore are synonomized with Colymbetini and both species are transferred to Rhantus accordingly, resulting in secondary homonymy of Rhantus bistriatus (Brullé, 1835) with Rhantus bistriatus (Bergsträsser, 1778). We propose the replacement name Rhantus selkirki Jäch, Balke & Michat nom. nov. for the Juan Fernández species. Presence of these species on remote islands is therefore not relictary, but the result of more recent range expansions out of mainland South America. Finally, we suggest that Carabdytini should be synonymized with Colymbetini. Our study underpins the Hennigian principle that a natural classification can be derived only from the search for shared apomorphies between species, not from differences.

  • 20. Morinière, Jérôme
    et al.
    Van Dam, Matthew H
    Hawlitschek, Oliver
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Michat, Mariano C
    Hendrich, Lars
    Ribera, Ignacio
    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A
    Balke, Michael
    Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods.2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  • 21.
    Stålstedt, Jeanette
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Wohltmann, Andreas
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Makol, Joanna
    Towards resolving the double classification in Erythraeus (Actinotrichida: Erythraeidae): matching larvae with adults using 28S sequence data and experimental rearing2016In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 761-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The taxonomy of free-living adults and heteromorphic parasitic larvae of Parasitengona mites has in the past been treated independently resulting in a double classification. Correct linkage of names still remains unknown for many species. A holistic understanding of species is imperative for understanding their role in ecosystems. This is particularly true for groups like parasitengone mites with a radically altered lifestyle during development—parasitic to predatory. Here, we infer linkages of three nominal species of Erythraeus, using matching with 28S DNA sequence data from field-collected specimens and through laboratory rearing. The general mixed Yule coalescent method (GMYC) was used to explicitly test if field-collected specimens representing heteromorphic life instars were conspecific. The field-collected larvae were allocated to adults of Erythraeus cinereus and Erythraeus regalis, respectively. Laboratory rearing of the same two species confirmed the matching done by DNA. Rearing was also successful for Erythraeus phalangoides after eggs were treated to an imitated winter diapause. This integrative taxonomic approach of molecular, morphological, and rearing data resulted in the following synonyms: E. phalangoides (De Geer, 1778) [= Erythraeus adrastus(Southcott, 1961), syn. nov.], E. cinereus (Dugès, 1834) [= Erythraeus jowitae Haitlinger, 1987, syn. nov.], and E. regalis (C.L. Koch, 1837) [= Erythraeus kuyperi (Oudemans, 1910), syn. nov., = Erythraeus gertrudae Haitlinger, 1987, syn. nov.]. The molecular evidence confirmed the separate identity of three further members of the genus. We provide redescriptions of E. phalangoidesE. cinereus, and E. regalis after modern standards, and neotypes are designated.

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