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  • 1.
    Yun, Hao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Cui, Linhao
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Li, Luoyang
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Liu, Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Zhang, Xingliang
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an.
    Pyritized preservation of chancelloriids from the Cambrian Stage 3 ofSouth China and implications for biomineralization2021In: Geobios, ISSN 0016-6995, E-ISSN 1777-5728, Vol. 69, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enigmatic Cambrian animal chancelloriids were discovered in a wide range of taphonomic settings; however, preservation of biomineralized sclerite microstructure was solely known from secondarily phosphatized skeletal remains. Here, we investigate a uniquely pyritized chancelloriid from the lowerCambrian Guojiaba Formation in southern Shaanxi Province, China, using a combination of advanced analytic techniques. Results of the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Raman spectrum show that the sclerites and scleritomes are preserved as pyritized internal moulds witha calcitic outer layer. The outer layer enveloping the internal moulds likely represents the recrystallized counterpart of the original biomineralized sclerite wall. Distinctive fibrous microstructures are discovered in the sclerites, which echo the features seen in the phosphatized fossils of chancelloriids. The typical microstructure, along with the recrystallized calcite, corroborate the interpretation that chancelloriid sclerites were originally constructed by fibrous aragonite. The stability of the microstructure and mineral composition in both carbonate and siliciclastic backgrounds indicate that chancelloriids were adapted to exploit aragonitic fibres to build their skeletons regardless of the change of their living environments.

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  • 2.
    Yun, Hao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China.
    Zhang, Xingliang
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China;State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Brock, Glenn A.
    State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China;Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
    Li, Luoyang
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China;Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Guoxiang
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    anon, anon
    Biomineralization of the Cambrian chancelloriids2021In: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 49, p. 623-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As extinct animals that flourished during the Cambrian explosion, chancelloriids have a unique body plan lacking guts but with a flexible integument and a suite of star-shaped, hollow sclerites. Due to this body plan, along with the paucity of knowledge on sclerite biomineralization, the phylogenetic position of chancelloriids within the Metazoa is still controversial. Integration of analyses of diverse fossils from Cambrian stage 2 to the Wuliuan Stage of China and Australia indicates that chancelloriid sclerites possess an encasement-like organic layer and a fibrous aragonitic layer. The organic layer is inferred to be a specialized trait derived from the epidermal integument of the animal body. The sclerites were likely biomineralized by using the outer organic layer as a template to absorb cations and precipitate crystal nuclei, reflecting a strategy adopted by a range of eumetazoans with a developed epidermis. Therefore, the hypothesis that chancelloriids represent an epitheliozoan-grade animal and an early explorer of template-based biomineralization is supported.

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