Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 127
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Abu El-Enen, M.M.
    et al.
    Abu-Alam, T.S.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Ali, K.A.
    Okrusch, M.
    P–T path and timing of crustal thickening during amalgamation of East and West Gondwana: A case study from the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, Eastern Desert of Egypt.2016In: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 263, p. 213-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The southeastern sector of the Hafafit Metamorphic Complex, southern Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises infrastructural orthogneisses of tonalite and syenogranite parentage, amphibolites, and a volcano-sedimentary association. These are overthrust by an obducted suprastructural ophiolite nappes via the Nugrus thrust. The protolith of the biotite–hornblende-gneisses was formed during island-arc accretion, while that of the garnet–biotite gneisses were formed in a within-plate regime, consistent with a transition to a post-collisional setting. The volcano-sedimentary association comprises interbedded and intercalated highly foliated metapelitic schists, metabasites, and leucocratic gneisses, deposited in a back-arc basin. The metapelites and the leucocratic gneisses originated from immature Fe-shales and arkoses derived from intermediate-mafic and acidic igneous rocks, respectively, via weak chemical weathering in a tectonically active island arc terrane. The intercalated amphibolites were derived from tholeiitic basalts generated in a back-arc setting.

    The volcano-sedimentary association was metamorphosed under upper-amphibolite facies conditions with pressures of 9–13 kbar and temperatures of 570–675 °C, as derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosection calculation. A steep, tight clockwise P–T path is constrained and a geothermal gradient around 20 °C/km is estimated for the peak metamorphism. We assume that deformation and metamorphism are due to crustal thickening during the collision of East and West Gondwana, where peak metamorphism took place in the middle to lower crust at 33 km average crustal depth. This was followed by a subsequent quasi-isothermal decompression due to rapid exhumation during wrench tectonics. Sinistral transcurrent shearing with extensional denudation resulted in vertical ductile thinning that was accompanied by heat input from magmatism, as indicated by a higher geothermal gradient during retrograde metamorphism and exhumation of the complex.

    U–Pb data from magmatic zircons yields protolith ages of 731 ± 3 Ma for the biotite–hornblende gneisses and 646 ± 12 Ma for the garnet–biotite gneisses. Conforming to field evidence, our geochronology data point to a depositional age of the volcano-sedimentary cover at around 650 Ma. The age of metamorphism is constrained by a low Th/U ratio of a zircon grain crystallized at an age of 597 ± 6 Ma.

  • 2. Adam, B.
    et al.
    Klawonn, I.
    Svedén, J.
    Bergkvist, J.
    Nahar, N.
    Walve, J.
    Littmann, S.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Lavik, G.
    Kuypers, M.M.M.
    Ploug, H.
    N2-fixation, ammonium release, and N-transfer to the microbial and classical food web within a plankton community.2016In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 19, p. 450-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the role of N2-fixation by the colony-forming cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon spp., for the plankton community and N-budget of the N-limited Baltic Sea during summer by using stable isotope tracers combined with novel secondary ion mass spectrometry, conventional mass spectrometry and nutrient analysis. When incubated with 15N2, Aphanizomenon spp. showed a strong 15N-enrichment implying substantial 15N2-fixation. Intriguingly, Aphanizomenon did not assimilate tracers of 15NH4+ from the surrounding water. These findings are in line with model calculations that confirmed a negligible N-source by diffusion-limited NH4+ fluxes to Aphanizomenon colonies at low bulk concentrations (<250 nm) as compared with N2-fixation within colonies. No N2-fixation was detected in autotrophic microorganisms <5 μm, which relied on NH4+ uptake from the surrounding water. Aphanizomenon released about 50% of its newly fixed N2 as NH4+. However, NH4+ did not accumulate in the water but was transferred to heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms as well as to diatoms (Chaetoceros sp.) and copepods with a turnover time of ~5 h. We provide direct quantitative evidence that colony-forming Aphanizomenon releases about half of its recently fixed N2 as NH4+, which is transferred to the prokaryotic and eukaryotic plankton forming the basis of the food web in the plankton community. Transfer of newly fixed nitrogen to diatoms and copepods furthermore implies a fast export to shallow sediments via fast-sinking fecal pellets and aggregates. Hence, N2-fixing colony-forming cyanobacteria can have profound impact on ecosystem productivity and biogeochemical processes at shorter time scales (hours to days) than previously thought.

  • 3. Ali, K.A.
    et al.
    Surour, A.A:
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Andresen, A.
    Single zircon Hf-O isotope constraints on the origin of A-type granites from the Jabal Al-Hassir ring complex, Saudi Arabia.2015In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 256, p. 131-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Jabal Al-Hassir ring complex in the southern Arabian Shield is an alkaline granite complex comprising an inner core of biotite granite that outwardly becomes a porphyritic sodic-calcic amphibole (ferrobarroisite–katophorite) granite. A combined study of mineral chemistry and single zircon Hf–O zircon isotope analyses was carried out to infer the magma sources of the Neoproterozoic post-collisional A-type granitoids in Saudi Arabia. The granitic rocks show high positive initial ɛHf(t) values of +7.0 to +10.3 and δ18O values of +5.8‰ to +7.4‰ that are consistent with melting of a juvenile crustal protolith that was formed during the Neoproterozoic assembly of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Crustal-model ages (Hf-tNC) of 0.71–0.94 Ga indicate minor contribution from an older continental crust in the formation of the Jabal Al-Hassir granitic rocks (crystallization age = 620 ±3 Ma), but any such component is likely to be Neoproterozoic in age. Temperature and oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) estimates suggested that the Jabal Al-Hassir A-type granite magma was generated at high temperature (820–1050 °C) and low ƒO2. Geochemical characteristics (e.g., low ƒO2), geochronological data, and Hf and O isotope compositions, indicate that the magmas of the Neoproterozoic A-type granites of the Jabal Al-Hassir ring complex were likely generated by crustal partial melting of a juvenile Neoproterozoic lower crustal tholeiitic rocks, following collision between East and West Gondwana in the final stages of the evolution of the Arabian Shield.

  • 4. Bellucci, Jeremy
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Humayan, M
    Hewins, R
    Zanda, B
    Pb-isotopic evidence for an early, enriched crust on Mars2015In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 410, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martian meteorite NWA 7533 is a regolith breccia that compositionally resembles the Martian surface measured by orbiters and landers. NWA 7533 contains monzonitic clasts that have zircon with U–Pb ages of 4.428 Ga. The Pb isotopic compositions of plagioclase and alkali feldspars, as well as U–Pb isotopic compositions of chlorapatitein the monzonitic clasts of NWA 7533 have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The U–Pb isotopic compositions measured from the chlorapatitein NWA 7533 yield an age of 1.357 ±81Ga(2σ). The least radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions measured in plagioclase and K-feldspar lie within error of the 4.428 Ga Geochron. These data indicate that the monzonitic clasts in NWA 7533 are a product of a differentiation history that includes residence in areservoir that formed prior to 4.428 Ga with a μ-value (238U/204Pb) of at least 13.4 ±1.7 (2σ)and aκ-value (232Th/238U) of ∼4.3. This μ-value is more than three times higher than any other documented Martian reservoir. These results indicate either the Martian mantle is significantly more heterogeneous than previously thought (μ-value of 1–14 vs. 1–5) and/or the monzonitic clasts formed by the melting of Martian crust with a μ-value of at least 13.4. Therefore, NWA 7533 may contain the first isotopic evidence for an enriched, differentiated crust on Mars.

  • 5.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Joshua, Snape
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Direct Pb Isotopic Analysis of a Nuclear Fallout Debris Particle from the Trinity Nuclear Test2017In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 89, p. 1887-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pb isotope composition of a nuclear fallout debris particle has been directly measured in post-detonation materials produced during the Trinity nuclear test by a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) scanning ion image technique (SII). This technique permits the visual assessment of the spatial distribution of Pb and can be used to obtain full Pb isotope compositions in user-defined regions in a 70 μm × 70 μm analytical window. In conjunction with backscattered electron (BSE) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the same particle, the Pb measured in this fallout particle cannot be from a major phase in the precursor arkosic sand. Similarly, the Pb isotope composition of the particle is resolvable from the surrounding glass at the 2σ uncertainty level (where σ represents the standard deviation). The Pb isotope composition measured in the particle here is in excellent agreement with that inferred from measurements of green and red trinitite, suggesting that these types of particles are responsible for the Pb isotope compositions measured in both trinitite glasses. 

  • 6.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Ross, Kielman
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Pidgeon, Robert
    Geochronology of Hadean zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia constrained by quantitative scanning ion imaging2018In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 476, p. 469-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five Hadean (> 4 Ga) aged zircon grains from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt have been investigated by a secondary ion mass spectrometry scanning ion image technique. This technique has the ability to obtain accurate and precise full U-Pb systematics on a scale < 5 μm, as well as document the spatial distribution of U, Th and Pb. All five of the grains investigated here have complex cathodoluminescence patterns that correlate to different U, Th, and Pb concentration domains. The age determinations for these different chemical zones indicate multiple reworking events that are preserved in each grain and have affected the primary crystalized zircon on the scale of < 10 μm, smaller than conventional ion microprobe spot analyses. In comparison to the spot analyses performed on these grains, these new scanning ion images and age determinations indicate that almost half of the spot analyses have intersected several age and chemical domains in both fractured and unfractured parts of the individual crystals. Some of these unfractured, mixed domain spot analyses have concordant ages that are inaccurate. Thus, if the frequency of spot analyses intersecting mixed domains here is even close to representative of all other studies of the Jack Hills zircon population, it makes the interpretation of any trace element, Hf, or O isotopic data present in the literature tenuous. Lastly, all of the grains analysed here preserve at least two distinguishable 207Pb/206Pb ages. These ages are preserved in core-rim and/or complex internal textural relationships in unfractured domains. These secondary events took place at ca. 4.3, 4.2, 4.1, 4.0, 3.7, and 2.9 Ga, which are coincident with previously determined statistically robust age peaks present in this zircon population.

  • 7.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bland, Phil
    Benedix, Gretchen
    Roszjar, Julia
    Pb evolution in the Martian mantle2018In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 485, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial Pb compositions of one enriched shergottite, one intermediate shergottite, two depleted shergottites, and Nakhla have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). These values, in addition to data from previous studies using an identical analytical method performed on three enriched shergottites, ALH 84001, and Chassigny, are used to construct a unified and internally consistent model for the differentiation history of the Martian mantle and crystallization ages for Martian meteorites. The differentiation history of the shergottites and Nakhla/Chassigny are fundamentally different, which is in agreement with short-lived radiogenic isotope systematics. The initial Pb compositions of Nakhla/Chassigny are best explained by the late addition of a Pb-enriched component with a primitive, non-radiogenic composition. In contrast, the Pb isotopic compositions of the shergottite group indicate a relatively simple evolutionary history of the Martian mantle that can be modeled based on recent results from the Sm–Nd system. The shergottites have been linked to a single mantle differentiation event at 4504 Ma. Thus, the shergottite Pb isotopic model here reflects a two-stage history 1) pre-silicate differentiation (4504 Ma) and 2) post-silicate differentiation to the age of eruption (as determined by concordant radiogenic isochron ages). The μ-values (238U/204Pb) obtained for these two different stages of Pb growth are μ1 of 1.8 and a range of μ2 from 1.4–4.7, respectively. The μ1-value of 1.8 is in broad agreement with enstatite and ordinary chondrites and that proposed for proto Earth, suggesting this is the initial μ-value for inner Solar System bodies. When plotted against other source radiogenic isotopic variables (Sri, γ187Os, ε143Nd, and ε176Hf), the second stage mantle evolution range in observed mantle μ-values display excellent linear correlations (r2 > 0.85) and represent a spectrum of Martian mantle mixing-end members (depleted, intermediate, enriched).

  • 8.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Pidgeon, Robert
    Grange, Marion
    Reddy, Steven
    Timms, Nick
    A scanning ion imaging investigation into the micron-scale U-Pb systematics in a complex lunar zircon2016In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 438, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The full U-Pb isotopic systematics in a complex lunar zircon ‘Pomegranate’ from lunar impact breccia 73235 have been investigated by the development of a novel Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) scanning ion imaging (SII) technique. This technique offers at least a four-fold increase in analytical spatial resolution over traditional SIMS analyses in zircon. Results from this study confirm the hypothesis that the Pomegranate zircon crystallized at 4.302 ± 0.013 Ga and experienced an impact that formed, U-enriched zircon around primary zircon cores at 4.184 ± 0.007 Ga (2σ, all uncertainties). The increase in spatial resolution offered by this technique has facilitated targeting of primary zircon that was previously inaccessible to conventional spot analyses. This approach has yielded results indicating that individual grains with a diffusive distance of less than ~4 μm have been reset to the young impact age, while individual grains with a diffusive distance larger than ~6 μm have retained the old crystallization age. Assuming a broad range in cooling rate of 0.5–50 °C/year, which has been observed in a suite of similar lunar breccias, a maximum localized temperature generated by the impact that reset small prima- ry zircon and created new, high-U zircon is estimated to be between 1100 and 1280 °C.

  • 9.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Halogen and Cl isotopic systematics in Martian phosphates: Implications for the Cl cycle and surface halogen reservoirs on Mars2017In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 458, p. 192-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cl isotopic compositions and halogen (Cl, F, Br, and I) abundances in phosphates from eight Martian meteorites, spanning most rock types and ages currently available, have been measured in situ by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Likewise, the distribution of halogens has been documented by x-ray mapping. Halogen concentrations range over several orders of magnitude up to some of the largest concentrations yet measured in Martian samples or on the Martian surface, and the inter-element ratios are highly variable. Similarly, Cl isotope compositions exhibit a larger range than all pristine terrestrial igneous rocks. Phosphates in ancient (>4 Ga) meteorites (orthopyroxenite ALH 84001 and breccia NWA 7533) have positive d37Cl anomalies (+1.1 to +2.5 ‰).  These samples also exhibit explicit whole rock and grain scale evidence for hydrothermal or aqueous activity. In contrast, the phosphates in the younger basaltic Shergottite meteorites (<600 Ma) have negative d37Cl anomalies (-0.2 to -5.6 ‰).  Phosphates with the largest negative d37Cl anomalies display zonation where the rims of the grains are enriched in all halogens and have significantly more negative d37Cl anomalies indicating interaction with the surface of Mars during the latest stages of basalt crystallization. The phosphates with no textural, major element, or halogen enrichment evidence for mixing with this surface reservoir have an average d37Cl of -0.6 ‰, which suggests a similar Cl isotope composition between Mars, the Earth, and the Moon. The only process known to fractionate Cl isotopes, both positively and negatively, is formation of perchlorate, which has been detected in weight percent concentrations on the Martian surface. The age range and obvious mixing history of the phosphates studied here suggest perchlorate formation and halogen cycling via brines, which have also been observed on the Martian surface, has been active throughout Martian history. 

  • 10.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    A Pb isotopic resolution to the Martian meteorite age paradox2016In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 433, p. 241-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Nemchin, Alexander
    The Pb isotopic evolution of the Martian mantle constrained by initial Pb in Martian meteorites2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 120, p. 2224-2240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Sallstedt, Therese
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae2017In: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1-38, article id e2000735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ~1.6 Ga Tirohan Dolomite of the Lower Vindhyan in central India contains phosphatized stromatolitic microbialites. We report from there uniquely well-preserved fossils interpreted as probable crown-group rhodophytes (red algae). The filamentous form Rafatazmia chitrakootensis n. gen, n. sp. has uniserial rows of large cells and grows through diffusely distributed septation. Each cell has a centrally suspended, conspicuous rhomboidal disk interpreted as a pyrenoid. The septa between the cells have central structures that may represent pit connections and pit plugs. Another filamentous form, Denaricion mendax n. gen., n. sp., has coin-like cells reminiscent of those in large sulfur-oxidizing bacteria but much more recalcitrant than the liquid-vacuole-filled cells of the latter. There are also resemblances with oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, although cell volumes in the latter are much smaller. The wider affinities of Denaricion are uncertain. Ramathallus lobatus n. gen., n. sp. is a lobate sessile alga with pseudoparenchymatous thallus, “cell fountains,” and apical growth, suggesting florideophycean affinity. If these inferences are correct, Rafatazmia and Ramathallus represent crown-group multicellular rhodophytes, antedating the oldest previously accepted red alga in the fossil record by about 400 million years.

  • 13. Bezenjani, R. Nasiri
    et al.
    Pease, V.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Shalaby, M. H.
    Kadi, K. A.
    Kozdroj, W.
    Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance of the Neoproterozoic Hammamat Group (Igla Basin), Egypt and the Thalbah Group, NW Saudi Arabia: Implications for regional collision tectonics2014In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 245, p. 225-243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Bingen, B.
    et al.
    Corfu, F.
    Stein, H.J.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    U-Pb geochronology of the syn-orogenic Knaben molybdenum deposits, Sveconorwegian orogen, Norway2015In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 152, p. 537-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paired isotope dilution – thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U–Pb data elucidate geochronological relations in the historically important Knaben molybdenum mining district, Sveconorwegian Orogen, south Norway. This polyphase district provided c. 8.5 Mt of ore with a grade of 0.2%. It consists of mineralized quartz veins, silica-rich gneiss, pegmatites and aplites associated with a heterogeneous, locally sulphide-bearing, amphibolites facies gneiss called Knaben Gneiss, and hosted in a regional-scale monotonous, commonly weakly foliated, granitic gneiss. An augen gneiss at the Knaben I deposit yields a 1257±6 Ma magmatic zircon age, dating the pre-Sveconorwegian protolith of the Knaben Gneiss. Mineralized and non-mineralized granitic gneiss samples at the Knaben II and Kvina deposits contain some 1488–1164 Ma inherited zircon and yield consistent intrusion ages of 1032±4, 1034±6 and 1036±6 Ma. This age links magmatism in the district to the regional 1050–1020 Ma Sirdal I-type granite suite, corresponding to voluminous crustal melting during the Sveconorwegian orogeny. A high-U, low-Th/U zircon rim is present in all samples. It defines several age clusters between 1039±6 and 1009±7 Ma, peaking at c. 1016 Ma and overlapping with a monazite age of 1013±5 Ma. The rim records protracted hydrothermal activity, which started during the main magmatic event and outlasted it. This process was coeval with regional high-grade Sveconorwegian metamorphism. Molybdenum deposition probably started during this event when silica-rich mineralizing fluids or hydrous magmas were released from granite magma batches. An analogy between the Knaben district and shallow, short-lived porphyry Mo deposits is inappropriate.

  • 15. Bingen, B.
    et al.
    Solli, A.
    Viola, G.
    Torgersen, E.
    Sandstad, J.S.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Røhr, T.
    Ganerød, M.
    Nasuti, A.
    Geochronology of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, Finnmark, Norway: Tectonic implications in a Fennoscandia context.2015In: Norwegian Journal of Geology, Vol. 95, p. 365-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zircon U–Pb geochronological data in 18 samples from Finnmarksvidda and one sample from the Repparfjord Tectonic Window, northern Norway, constrain the evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt and neighbouring units in a Fennoscandia context. The Jergul Complex is an Archaean cratonic block of Karelian affinity, made of variably gneissic, tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite–granite plutonic rocks formed between 2975 ± 10 and 2776 ± 6 Ma. It is associated with the Archaean Goldenvárri greenstone–schist formation. At the base of the Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, the Masi Formation is a typical Jatulian quartzite, hosting a Haaskalehto-type, albite–magnetite-rich, mafic sill dated at 2220 ± 7 Ma. The Likčá and Čáskejas formations represent the main event of basaltic magmatism. A synvolcanic metagabbro dates this magmatism at 2137 ± 5 Ma. The geochemical and Nd isotopic signature of the Čáskejas Formation (eNd = +2.2 ± 1.7) is remarkably similar to coeval dykes intruding the Archaean Karelian Craton in Finland and Russia (eNd = +2.5 ± 1.0). The Čáskejas Formation can be correlated with the Kvenvik Formation in the Alta–Kvænangen Tectonic Window. Two large granite plutons yield ages of 1888 ± 7 and 1865 ± 8 Ma, and provide a maximum age for shearing along two prominent NNW–SSE-oriented shear zones recording Svecokarelian transpression. The Bidjovagge Au–Cu deposit formed around 1886 to 1837 Ma and is also related to this NNW–SSE-oriented shear system. The Ráiseatnu Complex is mainly composed of granitic gneisses formed between 1868 ± 13 and 1828 ± 5 Ma, and containing metasediment rafts and zircon xenocrysts ranging from c. 3100 to 2437 Ma. The Kautokeino Greenstone Belt and Ráiseatnu Complex are interpreted as Palaeoproterozoic, pericontinental, lithospheric domains formed during rifting between Archaean cratonic domains. They accommodated oblique convergence between the Karelian and the Norrbotten Archaean cratons during the Svecokarelian orogeny.

  • 16. Bolhar, R.
    et al.
    Hofmann, A.
    Kemp, A.I.S.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Wind, S.
    Kamber, B.S.
    Juvenile crust formation in the Zimbabwe Craton deduced from the O-Hf isotopic record of 3.8-3.0 Ga detrital zircons2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 215, p. 432-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hafnium and oxygen isotopic compositions measured in-situ on U-Pb dated zircon from Archaean sedimentary successions belonging to the 2.9–2.8 Ga Belingwean/Bulawayan groups and previously undated Sebakwian Group are used to characterize the crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton prior to 3.0 Ga. Microstructural and compositional criteria were used to minimize effects arising from Pb loss due to metamorphic overprinting and interaction with low-temperature fluids. 207Pb/206Pb age spectra (concordance >90%) reveal prominent peaks at 3.8, 3.6, 3.5, and 3.35 Ga, corresponding to documented geological events, both globally and within the Zimbabwe Craton. Zircon δ18O values from +4 to +10‰ point to both derivation from magmas in equilibrium with mantle oxygen and the incorporation of material that had previously interacted with water in near-surface environments. In εHf-time space, 3.8–3.6 Ga grains define an array consistent with reworking of a mafic reservoir (176Lu/177Hf ∼0.015) that separated from chondritic mantle at ∼3.9 Ga. Crustal domains formed after 3.6 Ga depict a more complex evolution, involving contribution from chondritic mantle sources and, to a lesser extent, reworking of pre-existing crust. Protracted remelting was not accompanied by significant mantle depletion prior to 3.35 Ga. This implies that early crust production in the Zimbabwe Craton did not cause complementary enriched and depleted reservoirs that were tapped by later magmas, possibly because the volume of crust extracted and stabilised was too small to influence (asthenospheric) mantle isotopic evolution. Growth of continental crust through pulsed emplacement of juvenile (chondritic mantle-derived) melts, into and onto the existing cratonic nucleus, however, involved formation of complementary depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle since the early Archaean, indicative of strongly coupled evolutionary histories of both reservoirs, with limited evidence for recycling and lateral accretion of arc-related crustal blocks until 3.35 Ga.

  • 17. Bollard, J.
    et al.
    Connelly, J.N.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Pringle, E.A.
    Bonal, E.A.
    Jørgensen, J.K.
    Nordlund, Å.
    Moynier, F.
    Bizzarro, M.
    Early formation of planetary building blocks inferred from Pb isotopic ages of chondrules.2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, article id e1700407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most abundant components of primitive meteorites (chondrites) are millimeter-sized glassy spherical chondrules formed by transient melting events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Using Pb-Pb dates of 22 individual chondrules, we show that primary production of chondrules in the early solar system was restricted to the first million years after the formation of the Sun and that these existing chondrules were recycled for the remaining lifetime of the protoplanetary disk. This finding is consistent with a primary chondrule formation episode during the early high-mass accretion phase of the protoplanetary disk that transitions into a longer period of chondrule reworking. An abundance of chondrules at early times provides the precursor material required to drive the efficient and rapid formation of planetary objects via chondrule accretion.

  • 18. Bouvier, Laura
    et al.
    Costa, Maria
    Connelly, James
    Jensen, Ninna
    Wielandt, Daniel
    Storey, Michael
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Snape, Joshua
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Moynier, Frederic
    Agranier, Arnaud
    Gueguen, Bleuenn
    Schonbachler, Maria
    Bizzarro, Martin
    Evidence for extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization and crust formation on Mars2018In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 558, p. 586-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of a primordial crust is a critical step in the evolution of terrestrial planets but the timing of this process is poorly understood. The mineral zircon is a powerful tool for constraining crust formation because it can be accurately dated with the uranium-to-lead (U–Pb) isotopic decay system and is resistant to subsequent alteration. Moreover, given the high concentration of hafnium in zircon, the lutetium-to-hafnium (176Lu–176Hf) isotopic decay system can be used to determine the nature and formation timescale of its source reservoir (1,2,3) Ancient igneous zircons with crystallization ages of around 4,430 million years (Myr) have been reported in Martian meteorites that are believed to represent regolith breccias from the southern highlands of Mars (4,5) These zircons are present in evolved lithologies interpreted to reflect re-melted primary Martian crust4, thereby potentially providing insight into early crustal evolution on Mars. Here, we report concomitant high-precision U–Pb ages and Hf-isotope compositions of ancient zircons from the NWA 7034 Martian regolith breccia. Seven zircons with mostly concordant U–Pb ages define 207Pb/206Pb dates ranging from 4,476.3 ± 0.9 Myr ago to 4,429.7 ± 1.0 Myr ago, including the oldest directly dated material from Mars. All zircons record unradiogenic initial Hf-isotope compositions inherited from an enriched, andesitic-like crust extracted from a primitive mantle no later than 4,547 Myr ago. Thus, a primordial crust existed on Mars by this time and survived for around 100 Myr before it was reworked, possibly by impacts (4,5) to produce magmas from which the zircons crystallized. Given that formation of a stable primordial crust is the end product of planetary differentiation, our data require that the accretion, core formation and magma ocean crystallization on Mars were completed less than 20 Myr after the formation of the Solar System. These timescales support models that suggest extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization leading to a gravitationally unstable stratified mantle, which subsequently overturns, resulting in decompression melting of rising cumulates and production of a primordial basaltic to andesitic crust (6,7).

  • 19. Brengman, L.
    et al.
    Fedo, C.M.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Micro-scale silicon isotope heterogeneity observed in hydrothermal quartz precipitates from the >3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt, SW Greenland.2016In: Terra Nova, ISSN 0954-4879, E-ISSN 1365-3121, Vol. 28, p. 70-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pillow basalt and chert form integral lithologies comprising many Archean greenstone belt packages. To investigate details of these lithologies in the >3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt, SW Greenland, we measured silicon isotope compositions of quartz crystals, by secondary ion mass spectrometry, from a quartz-cemented, quartz-amygdaloidal basaltic pillow breccia, recrystallized chert and chert clasts thought to represent silica precipitation under hydrothermal conditions. The recrystallized chert, chert clasts and quartz cement have overlapping δ30Si values, while the δ30Si values of the quartz amygdules span nearly the entire range of previously published values for quartz precipitates of any age, despite amphibolite facies metamorphism. We suggest that the heterogeneity is derived from kinetic isotope fractionation during quartz precipitation under disequilibrium conditions in a hydrothermal setting, consistent with the pillow breccia origin. On the basis of the present data, we conclude that the geological context of each sample must be carefully evaluated when interpreting δ30Si values of quartz.

  • 20. Budd, D.A.
    et al.
    Troll, V.R.
    Deegan, F.M.
    Jolis, E.M.
    Smith, V.C.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Harris, C.
    Freda, C.
    Hilton, D.R.
    Halldorsson, S.A.
    Bindemann, I.N.
    Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 40624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core−rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  • 21. Cabral, R.A.
    et al.
    Jackson, M.G.
    Koga, K.T.
    Rose-Koga, E.F.
    Hauri, E.H.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Price, A.A:
    Day, J.M.D.
    Shimizu, N.
    Kelley, K.A.
    Volatile cycling of H2O, CO2, F, and Cl in the HIMU mantle: A new window provided by melt inclusions from oceanic hotspot lavas at Mangaia, Cook Islands.2014In: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 15, p. 4445-4467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangaia hosts the most radiogenic Pb-isotopic compositions observed in ocean island basalts and represents the HIMU (high µ = 238U/204Pb) mantle end-member, thought to result from recycled oceanic crust. Complete geochemical characterization of the HIMU mantle end-member has been inhibited due to a lack of deep submarine glass samples from HIMU localities. We homogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions separated from Mangaia lavas and the resulting glassy inclusions made possible the first volatile abundances to be obtained from the HIMU mantle end-member. We also report major and trace element abundances and Pb-isotopic ratios on the inclusions, which have HIMU isotopic fingerprints. We evaluate the samples for processes that could modify the volatile and trace element abundances postmantle melting, including diffusive Fe and H2O loss, degassing, and assimilation. H2O/Ce ratios vary from 119 to 245 in the most pristine Mangaia inclusions; excluding an inclusion that shows evidence for assimilation, the primary magmatic H2O/Ce ratios vary up to ∼200, and are consistent with significant dehydration of oceanic crust during subduction and long-term storage in the mantle. CO2 concentrations range up to 2346 ppm CO2 in the inclusions. Relatively high CO2 in the inclusions, combined with previous observations of carbonate blebs in other Mangaia melt inclusions, highlight the importance of CO2 for the generation of the HIMU mantle. F/Nd ratios in the inclusions (30 ± 9; 2σ standard deviation) are higher than the canonical ratio observed in oceanic lavas, and Cl/K ratios (0.079 ± 0.028) fall in the range of pristine mantle (0.02–0.08).

  • 22.
    Claesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bibikova, Elena V.
    Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, R.A.S., Moscow, Russia.
    Shumlyanskyy, Leonid
    M.P Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Palladina Ave. 34, 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Billström, Kjell
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Can oxygen isotopes in magmatic zircon be modified by metamorphism? A case study from the Eoarchean Dniester-Bug Series, Ukrainian Shield2016In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 273, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Crémière, A.
    et al.
    Lepland, A.
    Chand, S.
    Sahy, D.
    Kirsimäe, K.
    Bau, M.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Noble, S.R.
    Martma, T.
    Thorsnes, T.
    Brunstad, H.
    Fluid source and methane-related diagenetic processes recorded in cold seep carbonates from the Alvheim channel, central North Sea2016In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 432, p. 16-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated petrography, mineralogy, geochronology and geochemistry of cold seep carbonate crusts and free gas from the Alvheim channel elucidate diagenetic carbonate precipitation and related seepage histories in the central North Sea. Free gas isotope characteristics coupled with carbonate δ13C values as low as − 66‰ VPDB, indicate a predominantly microbial methane source with minor thermogenic contribution. We estimate that ~ 70% of the carbon sequestered into carbonate precipitates was derived from local oxidation of methane. The early stage of crust growth is represented by microcrystalline aragonite and Mg-calcite (10 to 40% mol MgCO3) cementing seafloor sediments consisting of clays, quartz, feldspar, and minor detrital low Mg-calcite and dolomite. Typical association of aragonite cement with coarse-grained detritus may reflect elevated fluid flow and flushing of fine particles prior to cementation close to the seafloor. Middle rare earth element enrichment in early generation microcrystalline cements containing framboidal pyrite indicates diagenetic precipitation within the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation contiguous to iron reduction. The later generation diagenetic phase corresponds to less abundant radial fibrous and botryoidal aragonite which lines cavities developed within the crusts. In contrast to early generation cements, late generation cavity infills have rare earth elements and Y patterns with small negative Ce anomalies similar to seawater, consistent with carbonate precipitation in a more open, seawater dominated system. Aragonite U–Th ages indicate carbonate precipitation between 6.09 and 3.46 kyr BP in the northern part of the channel, whereas in the southern part precipitation occurred between 1.94 and 0.81 kyr BP reflecting regional changes in fluid conduit position.

  • 24. Deegan, F.M.
    et al.
    Troll, V.R.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Jolis, E.M.
    Freda, C.
    Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 30774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to −41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  • 25. Deegan, F.M.
    et al.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Troll, V.R.
    Budd, D.A.
    Harris, C.
    Geiger, H.
    Hålenius, U.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Pyroxene standards for SIMS oxygen isotope analysis and their application to Merapi volcano, Sunda arc, Indonesia2016In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 447, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of oxygen isotope ratios in common silicate minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, garnet, and quartz is increasingly performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). However, certain mineral groups exhibit solid solution series, and the large compositional spectrum of these mineral phases will result in matrix effects during SIMS analysis. These matrix effects must be corrected through repeated analysis of compositionally similar standards to ensure accurate results. In order to widen the current applicability of SIMS to solid solution mineral groups in common igneous rocks, we performed SIMS homogeneity tests on new augite (NRM-AG-1) and enstatite (NRM-EN-2) reference materials sourced from Stromboli, Italy and Webster, North Carolina, respectively. Aliquots of the standard minerals were analysed by laser fluorination (LF) to establish their δ18O values. Repeated SIMS measurements were then performed on randomly oriented fragments of the same pyroxene crystals, which yielded a range in δ18O less than ± 0.42 and ± 0.58‰ (2σ) for NRM-AG-1 and NRM-EN-2, respectively. Homogeneity tests verified that NRM-AG-1 and NRM-EN-2 do not show any crystallographic orientation bias and that they are sufficiently homogeneous on the 20 μm scale to be used as routine mineral standards for SIMS δ18O analysis. We subsequently tested our new standard materials on recently erupted pyroxene crystals from Merapi volcano, Indonesia. The δ18O values for Merapi pyroxene obtained by SIMS (n = 204) agree within error with the LF-derived δ18O values for Merapi pyroxene but differ from bulk mineral and whole-rock data obtained by conventional fluorination. The bulk samples are offset to higher δ18O values as a result of incorporation of mineral and glass inclusions that in part reflects crustal contamination processes. The Merapi pyroxene SIMS data, in turn, display a frequency peak at 5.8‰, which allows us to estimate the δ18O value of the primary mafic magma at Merapi to ~ 6.1‰ when assuming closed system differentiation.

  • 26. Drake, H.
    et al.
    Tullborg, E.L.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Sandberg, B.
    Blomfeldt, T.
    Åström, M.E.
    Extreme fractionation and micro-scale variation of sulphur isotopes during bacterial sulphate reduction in deep groundwater systems.2015In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 161, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, SE Sweden, determines the extent and mechanisms of sulphur-isotope fractionation in permanently reducing groundwater in fractured crystalline rock. Two boreholes >400 m below the ground surface were investigated. In the 17-year-old boreholes, the Al instrumentation pipes had corroded locally (i.e., Al-[oxy]hydroxides had formed) and minerals (i.e., pyrite, iron monosulphide, and calcite) had precipitated on various parts on the equipment. By chemically and isotopically comparing the precipitates on the withdrawn instrumentation and the borehole waters, we gained new insight into the dynamics of sulphate reduction, sulphide precipitation, and sulphur-isotope fractionation in deep-seated crystalline-rock settings. An astonishing feature of the pyrite is its huge variability in δ34S, which can exceed 100‰ in total (i.e., −47.2 to +53.3‰) and 60‰ over 50 μm of growth in a single crystal. The values at the low end of the range are up to 71‰ lower than measured in the dissolved sulphate in the water (20–30‰), which is larger than the maximum difference reported between sulphate and sulphide in pure-culture experiments (66‰) but within the range reported from natural sedimentary settings. Although single-step reduction seems likely, further studies are needed to rule out the effects of possible S disproportionation. The values at the high end of the range (i.e., high δ34Spy) are much higher than could be produced from the measured sulphate under any biogeochemical conditions. This strongly suggests the development of closed-system conditions near the growing pyrite, i.e., the rate of sulphate reduction exceeds the rate of sulphate diffusion in the local fluid near the pyrite, causing the local aqueous phase (and thus the forming pyrite) to become successively enriched in heavy S (34S). Consequently, the δ34S values of the forming pyrite become exceptionally high and strongly decoupled from the δ34S values of the sulphate in the bulk fluid. The Al-(oxy)hydroxide and calcite precipitates are explained by a combination of deposit and galvanic corrosion initiated by Al corrosion by H2S produced by sulphate-reducing microorganisms.

  • 27. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Heim, Christine
    Roberts, N.M.W
    Zack, Tomas
    Tillberg, M
    Broman, Curt
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Åström, M
    Isotopic evidence for microbial production and consumption of methane in the upper continental crust throughout the Phanerozoic eon2017In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 470, p. 108-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Heim, Christine
    Siljeström, Sandra
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Broman, Curt
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Anaerobic consortia of fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria in deep granite fractures2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, no 55, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on Earth. Although most microbiological studies in this system have focused on prokaryotes and neglected microeukaryotes, recent discoveries have revealed existence of fossil and active fungi in marine sediments and sub-seafloor basalts, with proposed importance for the subsurface energy cycle. However, studies of fungi in deep continental crystalline rocks are surprisingly few. Consequently, the characteristics and processes of fungi and fungus-prokaryote interactions in this vast environment remain enigmatic. Here we report the first findings of partly organically preserved and partly mineralized fungi at great depth in fractured crystalline rock (-740 m). Based on environmental parameters and mineralogy the fungi are interpreted as anaerobic. Synchrotron-based techniques and stable isotope microanalysis confirm a coupling between the fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria. The cryptoendolithic fungi have significantly weathered neighboring zeolite crystals and thus have implications for storage of toxic wastes using zeolite barriers.

  • 29. Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Tillberg, Mikael
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kooijman, Ellen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Ancient Microbial Activity in Deep Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones within the Forsmark Target Area for Geological Nuclear Waste Disposal, Sweden2018In: Geosciences, Vol. 8, no 211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies reveal that organisms from all three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and even Eukarya—can thrive under energy-poor, dark, and anoxic conditions at large depths in the fractured crystalline continental crust. There is a need for an increased understanding of the processes and lifeforms in this vast realm, for example, regarding the spatiotemporal extent and variability of the different processes in the crust. Here, we present a study that set out to detect signs of ancient microbial life in the Forsmark area—the target area for deep geological nuclear waste disposal in Sweden. Stable isotope compositions were determined with high spatial resolution analyses within mineral coatings, and mineralized remains of putative microorganisms were studied in several deep water-conducting fracture zones (down to 663 m depth), from which hydrochemical and gas data exist. Large isotopic variabilities of δ13Ccalcite (−36.2 to +20.2‰ V-PDB) and δ34Spyrite (−11.7 to +37.8‰ V-CDT) disclose discrete periods of methanogenesis, and potentially, anaerobic oxidation of methane and related microbial sulfate reduction at several depth intervals. Dominant calcite–water disequilibrium of δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr precludes abundant recent precipitation. Instead, the mineral coatings largely reflect an ancient archive of episodic microbial processes in the fracture system, which, according to our microscale Rb–Sr dating of co-genetic adularia and calcite, date back to the mid-Paleozoic. Potential Quaternary precipitation exists mainly at ~400 m depth in one of the boreholes, where mineral–water compositions corresponded.

  • 30.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, 39231 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, 39231 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Zack, Thomas
    Department of Earth Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schäfer, Thorsten
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Nick MW, Roberts
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Nottingham NG12 5GG, U.K..
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Broman, Curt
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden.
    Mats E., Åström
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, 39231 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Incorporation of Metals into Calcite in a Deep Anoxic Granite Aquifer2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 293-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding metal scavenging by calcite in deep aquifers in granite is of importance for deciphering and modeling hydrochemical fluctuations and water–rock interaction in the upper crust and for retention mechanisms associated with underground repositories for toxic wastes. Metal scavenging into calcite has generally been established in the laboratory or in natural environments that cannot be unreservedly applied to conditions in deep crystalline rocks, an environment of broad interest for nuclear waste repositories. Here, we report a microanalytical study of calcite precipitated over a period of 17 years from anoxic, low-temperature (14 °C), neutral (pH: 7.4–7.7), and brackish (Cl: 1700–7100 mg/L) groundwater flowing in fractures at >400 m depth in granite rock. This enabled assessment of the trace metal uptake by calcite under these deep-seated conditions. Aquatic speciation modeling was carried out to assess influence of metal complexation on the partitioning into calcite. The resulting environment-specific partition coefficients were for several divalent ions in line with values obtained in controlled laboratory experiments, whereas for several other ions they differed substantially. High absolute uptake of rare earth elements and U(IV) suggests that coprecipitation into calcite can be an important sink for these metals and analogousactinides in the vicinity of geological repositories.

  • 31. Eichner, M.J.
    et al.
    Klawonn, I.
    Wilson, S.T.
    Littmann, S.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Church, M.J.
    Kuypers, M.M.M.M.
    Karl, D.M.
    Ploug, H.
    Chemical microenvironments and single-cell carbon and nitrogen uptake in field-collected colonies of Trichodesmium under different pCO22017In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 11, p. 1305-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradients of oxygen (O2) and pH, as well as small-scale fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and O2 were investigated under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in field-collected colonies of the marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Microsensor measurements indicated that cells within colonies experienced large fluctuations in O2, pH and CO2concentrations over a day–night cycle. O2 concentrations varied with light intensity and time of day, yet colonies exposed to light were supersaturated with O2 (up to ~200%) throughout the light period and anoxia was not detected. Alternating between light and dark conditions caused a variation in pH levels by on average 0.5 units (equivalent to 15 nmol l−1 proton concentration). Single-cell analyses of C and N assimilation using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS; large geometry SIMS and nanoscale SIMS) revealed high variability in metabolic activity of single cells and trichomes of Trichodesmium, and indicated transfer of C and N to colony-associated non-photosynthetic bacteria. Neither O2 fluxes nor C fixation by Trichodesmium were significantly influenced by short-term incubations under different pCO2 levels, whereas N2fixation increased with increasing pCO2. The large range of metabolic rates observed at the single-cell level may reflect a response by colony-forming microbial populations to highly variable microenvironments.

  • 32. El Albani, Abderrazak
    et al.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Canfield, Donald E.
    Riboulleau, Armelle
    Rollion Bard, Claire
    Macchiarelli, Roberto
    Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss
    Hammarlund, Emma
    Meunier, Alain
    Moubiya Mouele, Idalina
    Benzerara, Karim
    Bernard, Sylvain
    Boulvais, Philippe
    Chaussidon, Marc
    Cesari, Christian
    Fontaine, Claude
    Chi-Fru, Ernest
    Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel
    Gauthier-Lafaye, François
    Mazurier, Arnaud
    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine
    Rouxel, Olivier
    Trentesaux, Alain
    Vecoli, Marco
    Versteegh, Gerard J. M.
    White, Lee
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bekker, Andrey
    The 2.1 Ga old Francevillian biota: biogenicity, taphonomy and biodiversity.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6:e99438, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth’s surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ~2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rodshaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.

  • 33. Eyal, Moshe
    et al.
    Be'eri-Shlevin, Yaron
    Eyal, Yehuda
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Litvinovsky, Boris
    Three successive Proterozoic island arcs in the Northern Arabian–Nubian Shield: Evidence from SIMS U–Pb dating of zircon2014In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 25, p. 338-357Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Fassmer, K.
    et al.
    Klonowska, I.
    Walczak, K.
    Froitzheim, N.
    Majka, J.
    Fonseca, R.O.C.
    Münker, C.
    Janák, M.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Middle Ordovician subduction of continental crust in the Scandinavian Caledonides - an example from Tjeliken, Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden.2017In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 172, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is thought to be derived from the distal passive margin of Baltica which collided with Laurentia in the Scandian Phase of the Caledonian Orogeny at 430–400 Ma. Parts of the Seve Nappe Complex were affected by pre-Scandian high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism, in a tectonic framework that is still unclear, partly due to uncertainties about the exact timing. Previous age determinations yielded between ~ 505 and ~ 446 Ma, with a general trend of older ages in the North (Norrbotten) than in the South (Jämtland). New age determinations were performed on eclogite and garnet–phengite gneiss at Tjeliken in northern Jämtland. Thermodynamic modelling yielded peak metamorphic conditions of 25–27 kbar/680–760 °C for the garnet–phengite gneiss, similar to published peak metamorphic conditions of the eclogite (25–26 kbar/650–700 °C). Metamorphic rims of zircons from the garnet–phengite gneiss were dated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and yielded a concordia age of 458.9 ± 2.5 Ma. Lu–Hf garnet-whole rock dating yielded 458 ± 1.0 Ma for the eclogite. Garnet in the eclogite shows prograde major-element zoning and concentration of Lu in the cores, indicating that this age is related to garnet growth during pressure increase, i.e. subduction. The identical ages from both rock types, coinciding with published Sm–Nd ages from the eclogite, confirm subduction of the Seve Nappe Complex in Northern Jämtland during the Middle Ordovician in a fast subduction–exhumation cycle.

  • 35. Fisher, C.M.
    et al.
    Hanchar, J.M.
    Miller, C.M.
    Phillips, S.
    Vervoort, J.D.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Combining Nd isotopes in monazite and Hf isotopes in zircon to understand complex open-system processes in granitic magmas.2017In: Geology, Vol. 45, p. 267-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping the age and trace element and Sm-Nd isotope compositions of monazite grains from a peraluminous Cretaceous granite using laser ablation–split stream analysis reveals a wide range in Nd isotope and rare earth element (REE) compositions within and between single grains. These data corroborate isotopic variability indicated by Hf isotope analysis of zircon in the same granite sample. The REE variations indicate that monazite grew during fractional crystallization. Hf and Nd isotopes indicate that the granitic magma was generated from at least two distinct Proterozoic sources of approximately the same age: one component that had highly radiogenic initial 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd and a second component that was notably less radiogenic. This study highlights the utility of in situ REE and Sm-Nd isotope data in monazite in magmatic systems. Further, it refines the zircon-based constraints on magmatic processes because of sensitivity of light REEs to fractional crystallization, lower probability of complications owing to inheritance, and smaller analytical volumes required.

  • 36. Fleming, E.J.
    et al.
    Flowerdew, Michael
    Smyth, H.R.
    Scott, R.A.
    Morton, A.C.
    Omma, J.E.
    Frei, D.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Provenance of Triassic sandstones on the southwest Barents Shelf and the implication for sediment dispersal patterns in northwest Pangaea.2016In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, ISSN 0264-8172, E-ISSN 1873-4073, Vol. 78, p. 516-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick Triassic siliciclastic units form major reservoir targets for hydrocarbon exploration on the Barents Shelf; however, poor reservoir quality, possibly associated with variation in provenance, remains a key risk factor in the area. In this study, sandstone dispersal patterns on the southwest Barents Shelf are investigated through petrographic and heavy mineral analysis, garnet and rutile geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology. The results show that until the Early Norian Maximum Flooding Surface, two contrasting sand types were present: (i) a Caledonian Sand Type, characterised by a high compositional maturity, a heavy mineral assemblage dominated by garnet and low chrome-spinel:zircon (CZi) values, predominantly metapelitic rutiles and mostly Proterozoic and Archaean detrital zircon ages, interpreted to be sourced from the Caledonides, and (ii) a Uralian Sand Type, characterised by a low compositional maturity, high CZi values, predominantly metamafic rutiles and Carboniferous zircon ages, sourced from the Uralian Orogeny. In addition, disparity in detrital zircon ages of the Uralian Sand Type with contiguous strata on the northern Barents Shelf reveals the presence of a Northern Uraloid Sand Type, interpreted to have been sourced from Taimyr and Severnaya Zemlya. As such, a coincidental system is inferred which delivered sand to the Northern Barents Shelf in the late Carnian/early Norian. Following the Early Norian Maximum Flooding Surface, a significant provenance change occurs. In response to Late Triassic/Early Jurassic hinterland rejuvenation, supply from the Uralian Orogen ceased and the northern Scandinavian (Caledonian) source became dominant, extending northwards out on to the southwest Barents Shelf. The data reveal a link between reservoir quality and sand type and illustrate how provenance played an important role in the development of clastic reservoirs within the Triassic of the Barents Shelf.

  • 37. Galic, A.
    et al.
    Mason, P.R.D.
    Mogollon, J.M.
    Wolthers, M.
    Vroon, P.Z.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Pyrite in a sulfate-poor Paleoarchean basin was derived predominantly from elemental sulfur: evidence from 3.2 Ga sediments in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, Kaapvaal Craton.2017In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 449, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sulfur isotope variability in Archean sedimentary rocks provides constraints on the composition of the Earth’s earliest atmosphere. The magnitude and sign of mass-independent anomalies reflect not only atmospheric processes, but also transformations due to the Archean marine sulfur cycle prior to preservation into sedimentary pyrite. The processes affecting the Archean marine sulfur cycle and the role of microbial or abiotic redox reactions during pyrite formation remain unclear. Here we combine iron (Fe) and multiple sulfur (S) isotope data in individual pyrite grains with petrographic information and a one-dimensional reactive transport model, to investigate the sources of Fe and S in pyrite formed in a Paleoarchean sedimentary basin. Pyrites were selected from mudstones, sandstones and chert obtained from a drill core in the ca. 3.2 Ga Mapepe and Mendon Formations of the Fig Tree and Onverwacht Groups, respectively, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Pyrite textures and δ56Fe distinguish early-diagenetic pyrite formed with pore-water ferrous iron (disseminated grains with average δ56Fepyrite = 0‰) from late-diagenetic pyrite formed through sulfidation of iron oxide minerals (layered and aggregate forms with average δ56Fepyrite = + 1‰). Mass dependent S isotope variability in pyrite was small (δ34Spyrite ranged from − 1.1 to + 3.3‰) with a correspondingly minor spread in Δ33Spyrite (ranging from + 0.3 to + 2.1‰) and Δ36Spyrite (ranging from − 3.08 to + 0.27‰) that indicates a lack of post-depositional re-working with other distinct sulfur sources. Our combined Fe and S isotope data are most readily explained with pyrite sulfide derived from microbial-reworking of solid elemental S. Iron oxide minerals were necessary to buffer sulfide concentrations and provide favorable conditions for microbial sulfur disproportionation to proceed. The lack of a negative Δ33S signal indicates that pyrite from relatively deep marine diagenetic environments only partially records the products of atmospheric photolysis, consistent with low sulfate concentrations in the Paleoarchean ocean.

  • 38. Gallagher, M.
    et al.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kamber, B.S.
    The Neoarchaean surficial sulphur cycle: an alternative hypothesis based on analogies with 20th century atmospheric lead.2017In: Geobiology, ISSN 1472-4677, E-ISSN 1472-4669, Vol. 15, p. 385-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We revisit the S-isotope systematics of sedimentary pyrite in a shaly limestone from the ca. 2.52 Ga Gamohaan Formation, Upper Campbellrand Subgroup, Transvaal, South Africa. The analysed rock is interpreted to have been deposited in a water depth of ca. 50–100 m, in a restricted sub-basin on a drowning platform. A previous study discovered that the pyrites define a nonzero intercept δ34SV-CDT–Δ33S data array. The present study carried out further quadruple S-isotope analyses of pyrite, confirming and expanding the linear δ34SV-CDT–Δ33S array with an δ34S zero intercept at ∆33S ca. +5. This was previously interpreted to indicate mixing of unrelated S-sources in the sediment environment, involving a combination of recycled sulphur from sulphides that had originally formed by sulphate-reducing bacteria, along with elemental sulphur. Here, we advance an alternative explanation based on the recognition that the Archaean seawater sulphate concentration was likely very low, implying that the Archaean ocean could have been poorly mixed with respect to sulphur. Thus, modern oceanic sulphur systematics provide limited insight into the Archaean sulphur cycle. Instead, we propose that the 20th-century atmospheric lead event may be a useful analogue. Similar to industrial lead, the main oceanic input of Archaean sulphur was through atmospheric raindown, with individual giant point sources capable of temporally dominating atmospheric input. Local atmospheric S-isotope signals, of no global significance, could thus have been transmitted into the localised sediment record. Thus, the nonzero intercept δ34SV-CDT–Δ33S data array may alternatively represent a very localised S-isotope signature in the Neoarchaean surface environment. Fallout from local volcanic eruptions could imprint recycled MIF-S signals into pyrite of restricted depositional environments, thereby avoiding attenuation of the signal in the subdued, averaged global open ocean sulphur pool. Thus, the superposition of extreme local S-isotope signals offers an alternative explanation for the large Neoarchaean MIF-S excursions and asymmetry of the Δ33S rock record.

  • 39. Gardiner, N.J.
    et al.
    Hawkesworth, C.J.
    Robb, L.J.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Roberts, N.M.W.
    Kirkland, C.L.
    Evans, N.J.
    Contrasting Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Record: A Case Study from Myanmar2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granitoid-hosted mineral deposits are major global sources of a number of economically important metals. The fundamental controls on magma metal fertility are tectonic setting, the nature of source rocks, and magma differentiation. A clearer understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been forged through the accessory mineral zircon, which has considerable potential in metallogenic studies. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset from the paired Cu-Au (copper) and Sn-W (tin) magmatic belts in Myanmar. Copper arc zircons have juvenile εHf (+7.6 to +11.5) and mantle-like δ18O (5.2–5.5‰), whereas tin belt zircons have low εHf (−7 to −13) and heavier δ18O (6.2–7.7‰). Variations in zircon Hf and U/Yb reaffirm that tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than copper arc rocks. Links between whole-rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlight that the latter can monitor magma fractionation in these systems. Zircon Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* are sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and here are used to evaluate zircon sensitivity to the metallogenic affinity of their host rock. Critical contents of Sn in granitic magmas, which may be required for the development of economic tin deposits, are marked by zircon Eu/Eu* values of ca. ≤0.08.

  • 40. Gardiner, N.J.
    et al.
    Roberts, N.M.W.
    Morley, C.K.
    Searle, M.P.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep2016In: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 240-243, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U–Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221–210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32–26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83–67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34–24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene–Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene cooling ages, has implications for a model for the onset of extension and subsequent development of the Chiang Mai Basin in the early mid-Miocene.

  • 41. Gardiner, N.J.
    et al.
    Searle, M.P.
    Morley, C.K.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Spencer, C.J.
    Robb, L.J.
    The closure of Palaeo-Tethys in Eastern Myanmar and Northern Thailand: New insights from zircon U–Pb and Hf isotope data.2016In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 39, p. 401-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two of the major granite belts of Southeast Asia are the Main Range and Eastern Province. Together, these are interpreted to represent the magmatic expression of the closure of Palaeo-Tethys during Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic times. Recent geochronological and geochemical work has better delineated these belts within Peninsular Malaysia, thereby providing important constraints on the timing of Palaeo-Tethys suturing. However, the northern extension of this Palaeo-Tethyan suture is less well understood. Here we present new ion microprobe U–Pb zircon age data from northern Thailand and eastern Myanmar. Measured ages of 219 and 220 Ma from the Kyaing Tong granite imply northern extension of the Main Range Province into eastern Myanmar. The Tachileik granite in far eastern Myanmar yields an age of 266 Ma, consistent with published Eastern Province ages, and this therefore constrains the northern extension of the Palaeo-Tethys suture in eastern Myanmar. We further discuss how this suture may extend northwards into Yunnan. A Late Cretaceous age (70 Ma) measured in Thailand represents later magmatic activity, and is similar to published magmatic ages from central Myanmar. This younger magmatism is interpreted to be related to the subduction of Neo-Tethys prior to India–Asia collision. Further, we present new laser ablation zircon Hf isotope data from eastern Myanmar which suggest that Palaeoproterozoic crust underlies both the Main Range and Eastern Province granites. Our εHf model age of ca. 1750 Ma from Sibumasu, the basement underlying eastern Myanmar, lies within the range of other model ages reported thus far for the Baoshan Block north in Yunnan, interpreted by some to be the northern extension of Sibumasu.

  • 42. Gasser, D.
    et al.
    Jeřábek, P.
    Faber, P.
    Stünitz, H.
    Menegon, L.
    Corfu, F.
    Erambert, M.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Behaviour of geochronometers and timing of metamorphic reactions during deformation at lower crustal conditions: phase equilibrium modelling and U–Pb dating of zircon, monazite, rutile and titanite from the Kalak Nappe Complex, northern Norway.2015In: Journal of Metamorphic Geology, ISSN 0263-4929, E-ISSN 1525-1314, Vol. 33, p. 513-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the behaviour of the geochronometers zircon, monazite, rutile and titanite in polyphase lower crustal rocks of the Kalak Nappe Complex, northern Norway. A pressure–temperature–time–deformation path is constructed by combining microstructural observations with P–T conditions derived from phase equilibrium modelling and U–Pb dating. The following tectonometamorphic evolution is deduced: A subvertical S1 fabric formed at ~730–775 °C and ~6.3–9.8 kbar, above the wet solidus in the sillimanite and kyanite stability fields. The event is dated at 702 ± 5 Ma by high-U zircon in a leucosome. Monazite grains that grew in the S1 fabric show surprisingly little variation in chemical composition compared to a large spread in (concordant) U–Pb dates from c. 800 to 600 Ma. This age spread could either represent protracted growth of monazite during high-grade metamorphism, or represent partially reset ages due to high-T diffusion. Both cases imply that elevated temperatures of >600 °C persisted for over c. 200 Ma, indicating relatively static conditions at lower crustal levels for most of the Neoproterozoic. The S1 fabric was overprinted by a subhorizontal S2 fabric, which formed at ~600–660 °C and ~10–12 kbar. Rutile that originally grew during the S1-forming event lost its Zr-in-rutile and U–Pb signatures during the S2-forming event. It records Zr-in-rutile temperatures of 550–660 °C and Caledonian ages of 440–420 Ma. Titanite grew at the expense of rutile at slightly lower temperatures of ~550 °C during ongoing S2 deformation; U–Pb ages of c. 440–430 Ma date its crystallization, giving a minimum estimate for the age of Caledonian metamorphism and the duration of Caledonian shearing. This study shows that (i) monazite can have a large spread in U–Pb dates despite a homogeneous composition; (ii) rutile may lose its Zr-in-rutile and U–Pb signature during an amphibolite facies overprint; and (iii) titanite may record crystallization ages during retrograde shearing. Therefore, in order to correctly interpret U–Pb ages from different geochronometers in a polyphase deformation and reaction history, they are ideally combined with microstructural observations and phase equilibrium modelling to derive a complete P–T–t–d path.

  • 43. Ge, Rongfeng
    et al.
    Wilde, Simon
    Nemchin, Alexander
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bellucci, Jeremy
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Erickson, Timmons
    Frew, Adam
    Thern, Eric
    A 4463 Ma apparent zircon age from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) resulting from ancient Pb mobilization2018In: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 303-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hadean (≥4.0 Ga) zircon grains provide the only direct record of the first half-billion years of Earth’s history. Determining accurate and precise crystallization ages of these ancient zircons is a prerequisite for any interpretation of crustal evolution, surface environment, and geodynamics on the early Earth, but this may be compromised by mobilization of radiogenic Pb due to subsequent thermal overprinting. Here we report a detrital zircon from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) with 4486–4425 Ma concordant ion microprobe ages that yield a concordia age of 4463 ± 17 Ma (2σ), the oldest zircon age recorded from Earth. However, scanning ion imaging reveals that this >4.4 Ga apparent age resulted from incorporation of micrometer-scale patches of unsupported radiogenic Pb with extremely high 207Pb/206Pb ratios and >4.5 Ga 207Pb/206Pb ages. Isotopic modeling demonstrates that these patches likely resulted from redistribution of radiogenic Pb in a ca. 4.3 Ga zircon during a ca. 3.8 Ga or older event. This highlights that even a concordia age can be spurious and should be carefully evaluated before being interpreted as the crystallization age of ancient zircon.

  • 44. Heinonen, A.
    et al.
    Andersen, T.
    Rämö, O.T.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    The source of Proterozoic anorthosite and rapakivi granite magmatism: evidence from combined in situ Hf–O isotopes of zircon in the Ahvenisto complex, southeastern Finland.2015In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 172, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The isotope compositions of massif-type anorthosites in Proterozoic anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–granite (AMCG) complexes are commonly dominated by crustal values. Olivine-bearing anorthositic rocks in several AMCG suites have, however, been shown to display juvenile character, suggesting that variably depleted mantle reservoirs were involved in their genesis. A coupled in situ zircon Hf–O isotope dataset from the 1.64 Ga Ahvenisto AMCG complex in the 1.54–1.65 Ga Fennoscandian rapakivi granite–massif-type anorthosite province reveals correlated juvenile isotope signals (δ18Ozrn = 5.4–6.6‰; initial ϵHf = −1.1 to +3.4) in the most primitive gabbroic rock type of the suite suggesting a depleted mantle origin for the anorthositic rocks. This signal is not as prominent in the more evolved co-magmatic anorthositic rocks (δ18Ozrn = 6.3–7.8‰; initial ϵHf = −0.8 to +2.0), most probably owing to contamination of the mantle-derived primary magma by crustal material. A rapakivi granite associated with the anorthositic rocks has different isotope composition (δ18Ozrn = 7.4–8.6‰; initial ϵHf = −2.1 to +0.5) that points to a crustal source.

  • 45.
    Hode Vuorinen, Jaana
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Mansfeld, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet.
    Skelton, Alasdair D. L.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Compositional variations (major and trace elements) of clinopyroxene and Ti-andradite from pyroxenite, ijolite and nepheline syenite, Alnö Island, Sweden2005In: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 81, p. 55-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Jarrar, G.H.
    et al.
    Stern, R.J.
    Theye, T.
    Yaseen, N.
    Pease, V.
    Miller, N.
    Ibrahim, K.M.
    Passchier, C.W.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Neoproterozoic Rosetta Gabbro from northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield, south Jordan: Geochemistry and petrogenesis.2017In: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 284-285, p. 545-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Ediacaran mafic intrusion of south Jordan is a distinctive appinitic igneous rock with a possibly unique texture, characterized by spherical clots up to 40 mm in diameter composed of amphibole cores from which plagioclase euhedra radiate; we call it the Rosetta Gabbro. It is exposed as a small (ca. 750 m2) outcrop in the Neoproterozoic basement of south Jordan. A second outcrop of otherwise similar gabbro is located about 400 m to the north of the Rosetta Gabbro, but it lacks the distinctive texture. The Rosetta Gabbro could represent a magma pipe. It intrudes the Aqaba Complex (~ 600 Ma) granitoids and metasediments of the Janub Metamorphic Complex (633–617 Ma). The gabbro is an Ol- to QZ tholeiite with the following chemical characteristics: SiO2 = 46.2–47.8 wt.%; Al2O3 = 16.4–17.7 wt.%, TiO2 = 1.70–2.82 wt.%, Na2O = 1.27–2.83 wt.%. K2O = 0.82–1.63 wt.%; Mg# 58–63; Σ REE = 70–117 ppm; La/Yb ~ 6 to 8; and Eu/Eu* = 1.05–1.2. The investigated gabbro has the geochemical features of a continental flood tholeiitic basalt emplaced in a within-plate tectonic setting. Two varieties of amphiboles are found: 1) large, 3–5 mm, brown ferri-titanian-tschermakite (K0.09Na0.28)(Na0.20Ca1.80)(Mn0.04Fe3 +1.1Mg2.34Fe2 +0.90Ti0.29Al0.22)(Al1.85Si6.15)O22(OH)1.95 of the calcic amphibole group which is riddled with opaques; and 2) acicular yellowish-light green ferrian-magnesiohornblende (K0.04Na0.153)(Ca1.755Na0.245) (Fe3 +0.66Mn0.01Fe2 +1.01Mg3.03Ti0.06Al0.22)(Al1.03Si6.97)O22(OH)1.95. Scattered flakes of phlogopite also occur. Tabular radiating plagioclase (An64–79) are complexly twinned, with broad lamellae that show no zoning. Laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of amphibole and plagioclase reveal considerable variation in trace element abundance, in spite of more subtle major element variations except for TiO2 in amphibole. The REE in the amphibole shows an order of magnitude variation with a concave-downward pattern and a positive Eu anomaly Eu/Eu* = 0.6–2, though far less pronounced compared to the Eu/Eu* = 5–45 of plagioclase. The 3D dandelion-like texture of the rosettas is broadly similar to “Chrysanthemum Stone”, which is a diagenetic growth in sedimentary rock, but we can find no description of similar textures in igneous rocks. The formation of the rosettas is thought to reflect loss of magmatic water resulting in supersaturation of plagioclase, which grew rapidly around amphibole and may have floated in the magma. This implies magmatic evolution in shallow (10 to 12 km deep) crust where temperatures were nevertheless in the range of ca. 750 to 900 °C.

  • 47. Jeon, H.
    et al.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    A Critical Evaluation of U–Pb Calibration Schemes Used in SIMS Zircon Geochronology.2015In: Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, ISSN 1639-4488, E-ISSN 1751-908X, Vol. 39, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precision and accuracy in SIMS zircon geochronology strongly depend on the method of determination of the interelement ion ratios (e.g., 206Pb/238U) from the measured secondary ion ratios (206Pb+/238U+). Six possible U–Pb calibrations (Pb/U–UO2/U, Pb/U–UO/U, Pb/U–UO2/UO, Pb/UO–UO2/U, Pb/UO–UO/U, Pb/UO–UO2/UO) based on simple power law relationships, and Pb/UO2-related one- and two- (a power law) dimensional ones were compared using data acquired on the 91500 zircon reference material from one hundred measurement sessions, to determine the most statistically reliable scheme. Taking advantage of U oxide species (UO and UO2) over atomic U, due to their similar energy distribution to Pb and higher intensities, the data calibrated with Pb/UO–UO2/UO showed the smallest mean uncertainties and dispersions, and provided the best-fit calibration curve consistently. Although it was demonstrated with Temora 2 that the unknown zircon age was not changed significantly by different calibrations, its precision could be improved using the Pb/UO–UO2/UO calibration in zircon geochronology.

  • 48. Jeon, Heejin
    et al.
    Whitehouse, Martin J
    A critical evaluation of U–Pb calibration schemes used in SIMS zircon geochronology2015In: Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Jordan, T.A.
    et al.
    Neale, R.F.
    Leat, P.T.
    Vaughan, A.P.M.
    Flowerdew, M.J,
    Riley, T.R.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Ferraccioli, F.
    Structure and evolution of Cenozoic arc magmatism on the Antarctic Peninsula; a high resolution aeromagnetic perspective2014In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 198, p. 1758-1774Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Kenny, Gavin G.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Petrus, Joseph A.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Daly, J. Stephen
    Kamber, Balz S.
    Hf isotope evidence for effective impact melt homogenisation at the Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada2017In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 215, p. 317-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first zircon hafnium-oxygen isotope and trace element study of a transect through one of the largest terrestrial impact melt sheets. The differentiated melt sheet at the 1.85 Ga, originally ca. 200 km in diameter Sudbury impact crater, Ontario, Canada, yields a tight range of uniform zircon Hf isotope compositions (εHf(1850) of ca. −9 to −12). This is consistent with its well-established crustal origin and indicates differentiation from a single melt that was initially efficiently homogenised. We propose that the heterogeneity in other isotopic systems, such as Pb, in early-emplaced impact melt at Sudbury is associated with volatility-related depletion during the impact cratering process. This depletion leaves the isotopic systems of more volatile elements more susceptible to contamination during post-impact assimilation of country rock, whereas the systems of more refractory elements preserve initial homogeneities. Zircon oxygen isotope compositions in the melt sheet are also restricted in range relative to those in the impacted target rocks. However, they display a marked offset approximately one-third up the melt sheet stratigraphy that is interpreted to be a result of post-impact assimilation of 18O-enirched rocks into the base of the cooling impact melt.

    Given that impact cratering was a more dominant process in the early history of the inner Solar System than it is today, and the possibility that impact melt sheets were sources of ex situ Hadean zircon grains, these findings may have significance for the interpretation of the early zircon Hf record. We speculate that apparent εHf-time arrays observed in the oldest terrestrial and lunar zircon datasets may be related to impact melting homogenising previously more diverse crust.

    We also show that spatially restricted partial melting of rocks buried beneath the superheated impact melt at Sudbury provided a zircon crystallising environment distinct to the impact melt sheet itself.

123 1 - 50 of 127
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf