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  • 1.
    Julia, Ferm
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Sylvain, Razafimandimbison
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Paracarphalea, a new genus of the coffee family segregated from the Malagasy endemic genus Carphalea (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae, Knoxieae)2016In: Phytotaxa, Vol. 263, no 2, p. 98-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    1University of Michigan Herbarium and EEB Department, 3600 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108, USA.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    New taxonomic combinations in West Indian Ocean Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae)2016In: Phytotaxa, ISSN ISSN 1179-3155, Vol. 282, no 4, p. 267-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Kainulainen, Kent
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Island hopping, long-distance dispersal and species radiation: historical biogeography of the Coffeeae alliance (Rubiaceae)2017In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 44, p. 1966-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The Western Indian Ocean region (WIOR) is home to a very diverse and largely unique flora that has mainly originated via long-distance dispersals. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the origins of the WIOR biodiversity and to understand the dynamics of colonization events between the islands. We investigate spatial and temporal hypotheses of the routes of dispersal, and compare the dispersal patterns of plants of the Coffeeae alliance (Rubiaceae) and their dispersers. Rubiaceae is the second most species-rich plant family in Madagascar, and includes many endemic genera. The neighbouring archipelagos of the Comoros, Mascarenes and Seychelles also harbour several endemic Rubiaceae.

    Location. The islands of the Western Indian Ocean.

    Methods. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times were reconstructed from plastid DNA data of an ingroup sample of 340 species, using Bayesian inference. Ancestral areas and range evolution history were inferred by a maximum likelihood method that takes topological uncertainty into account.

    Results. At least 15 arrivals to Madagascar were inferred, the majority of which have taken place within the last 10 Myr. Most dispersal events were supported as being from mainland Africa, but Catunaregam may have dispersed from Asia. Although most Coffeeae alliance lineages are zoochorous, the general pattern of dispersals from Africa is incongruent with the biogeographic origins of the extant Malagasy volant frugivores. Several out-of-Madagascar dispersals were inferred to the neighbouring islands, as well as back-colonizations of Africa.

    Main conclusions. The African flora has been of foremost importance as source of dispersal to the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. Following the colonization of Madagascar, rapid radiations appear to have taken place in some clades, and Madagascar has also been an important source area for subsequent dispersal to the Comoros, Mascarenes and Seychelles.

  • 4.
    Nylinder, Stephan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Anderberg, Arne Alfred
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    From Namib around the world: biogeography of the Inuleae-Plucheinae (Asteraceae)2016In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 43, p. 1705-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the historical biogeography of the Inuleae–Plucheinae (Asteraceae), a group of arid-adapted plants with partly unresolved generic circumscriptions, in order to understand its origin and spatiotemporal evolutionary history in relation to the Cenozoic climate shifts. Location Global, with highest species diversity in the Southern Hemisphere. The spatiotemporal biogeography of the Plucheinae was estimated by both a discrete method using a set of general distribution areas, and a relaxed random walk based on extant species distributions. The topology was time calibrated using a combination of secondary node ages and secondary derived rates for included loci. Our results indicate the median age of the Plucheinae to be approximately 15.4 Ma. The biogeographical analyses infer an ancestral origin in southern Africa, with the relaxed random walk analysis narrowing the uncertainty down to an area reaching from coastal Namibia to the western Kalahari. Africa was colonized in a (south)western–(north)eastern direction following the spread of arid habitats. Ancestral representatives of the Plucheinae colonized South America on at least three separate occasions (13.0–4.0, 4.3–3.1 and 4.1–3.7 Ma), with one subsequent spread to North America. Australia was colonized three times between 3.6 and 0.4 Ma. Madagascar and the Mascarenes were colonized at least seven times. The origin of the Plucheinae is estimated to the Namib region, with early speciations and radiations concurring with the timing of aridification of southern Africa, following the increase in strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and subsequent formation of the Benguela Upwelling at c. 11.8 Ma. The current biogeographical distribution of the Plucheinae is best explained by several Neogene long-distance dispersal events from tropical Africa.

  • 5.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Evolution of sexual systems and growth habit in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae): Insights into the evolutionary pathways of dioecy2018In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 123, p. 113-122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Four new endemic genera of Rubiaceae (Pavetteae) from Madagascar represent multiple radiations into drylands2018In: PhytoKeys, ISSN 1314-2011, E-ISSN 1314-2003, no 99, p. 1-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of six Pavetteae species endemic to Madagascar were tested with a phylogenetic study of the Afro-Madagascan representatives of the tribe Pavetteae based on sequence data from six markers rps16, trnT-F, petD, accD-psa1, PI and ITS. The six species were resolved into four well-supported and morphologically distinct clades which we here formally recognise at generic level. The new genera are the monospecific Exallosperma and Pseudocoptosperma, each with a single species, and Helictosperma and Tulearia, each with two species. Each genus is characterised by one or more autapomorphies or by a unique combination of plesiomorphic characters. Mostly, the distinguishing characters are found in fruit and seed; Exallosperma differs from all other Pavetteae genera by the fruit consisting of two stony pyrenes, each with a single laterally flattened seed with irregularly distributed ridges on the surface; Helictosperma is unique by its single spherical seed rolled-in on itself in the shape of a giant pill-millipede. Pseudocoptosperma is characterised by the combination of three ovules pendulous from a small placenta and triangular stipules with a strongly developed awn, whereas Tulearia is characterised by robust sericeous flowers, small leaves, uni- or pauciflorous inflorescences and fruits with two pyrenes, each with a single ruminate seed. 

    The four new genera show marked adaptations to the dry habitats in which they grow. They represent multiple radiations into drylands and highlight the importance of the dry forest and scrub vegetation in western, southern and northern Madagascar for plant biodiversity. The description of the four new genera shows that the tribe Pavetteae exhibits the same pattern as many plant groups in Madagascar, which are characterised by a high proportion of endemic genera comprising a single or a few species.

  • 7.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Phylogeny, infrageneric classification and species delimitation in the Malagasy Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)2018In: PhytoKeys, ISSN 1314-2011, E-ISSN 1314-2003, Vol. 110, p. 51-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The species-rich genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) is represented in Madagascar by no less than 260 species. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Malagasy Impatiens based on nuclear and plastid data and 52 accessions (representing 33 species) to: 1) reassess the monophyly of the Malagasy Impatiens; 2) assess the monophyly of the sections Preimpatiens (Humblotianae and Vulgare groups) with spurs and Trimorphopetalum without spurs as delimited by Perrier de la Bâthie, as well as that of the subgenera Impatiens and Trimorphopetalum as defined by Fischer and Rahelivololona; 3) infer the current status of some morphologically variable species; and 4) test whether the species of Impatiens from the Marojejy National Park form a monophyletic group. The Malagasy Impatiens are further confirmed to be paraphyletic with respect of the Comorian I. auricoma. The present sectional and subgeneric classifications of the Malagasy Impatiens are partly supported, with strong support for the monophyly of the sect. or subgen. Trimorphopetalum. Section Preimpatiens was not supported as monophyletic and neither the Humblotianae group nor the Vulgare group is monophyletic. Impatiens elatostemmoides, I.“hammarbyoides”, I. inaperta, I. lyallii and I. manaharensis are either para- or polyphyletic and may represent morpho-species. The Impatiens species from the Marojejy National Park do not form a monophyletic group and therefore are suggested to be derived from numerous independent colonisation events from all over Madagascar followed by subsequent diversifications.

  • 8.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Kainulainen, Kent
    Niklas, Wikström
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Historical biogeography and phylogeny of the pantropical Psychotrieae alliance (Rubiaceae), with particular emphasis on the Western Indian Ocean Region2017In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 104, p. 1407-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Western Indian Ocean Region (WIOR) is a biodiversity hotspot providing an ideal setting for exploring the origins of insular biodiversity and dynamics of island colonization. We aimed to investigate the origins of the WIOR Psychotrieae alliance (Rubiaceae) with typically small, probably mainly bird-dispersed drupes, and the timing and direction or sequence of its colonization events in the region.

    METHODS: We used the program BEAST to estimate divergence times and Lagrange for biogeographic reconstruction.

    KEY RESULTS: The alliance has reached the WIOR at least 14 times via dispersals from Africa along with Asia and the Pacifi c mostly during the last 10 My, with at least one back-colonization to Africa. We inferred the earliest dispersal to Madagascar from the Pacifi c or Asia in the Miocene and numerous out-of-Madagascar dispersals to the nearby archipelagos but no dispersal out of those archipelagos. Gynochthodes with multiple fruits reached Madagascar twice from the Pacifi c possibly via ocean drifting. Psychotria with dry fruits (schizocarps) colonized Madagascar from the Pacific or Asia before reaching the Comoros from Madagascar possibly via wind dispersal.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the pivotal role of dispersal in shaping the WIOR biodiversity and as the critical initiating step in the generation of endemic biodiversity on its islands. The WIOR alliance shows strong Asian and Pacifi c affi nities despite the proximity of the region to Africa. Madagascar has served as a stepping-stone for subsequent dispersal to the rest of the region. The Afro-Malagasy-Seychelles genus Craterispermum and the Malagasy Puffia may represent relictual lineages.

  • 9. Taylor, Charlotte
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Barrabé, Laure
    Jardim, Jomar G.
    Barbosa, Maria Regina V.
    Eumachia expanded, a tropical genus distinct from Psychotria (Rubiaceae, Palicoureeae)2017In: Candollea, ISSN 0373-2967, E-ISSN 2235-3658, Vol. 72, p. 289-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pantropical genus Margaritopsis C. Wright (Rubiaceae, Palicoureeae) was recently separated from Psychotria L. and transferred to a different tribe, Palicoureeae, based on both molecular and morphological data. Margaritopsis has been studied in the Neotropics, and in Africa as Chazaliella E.M.A. Petit & Verdc. ; the species that belong to this group in the Pacific are enumerated for the first time here. Recently Eumachia DC. was found to be an older name for this group, and a few species of Margaritopsis have been transferred nomenclaturally to that genus. Here Eumachia is surveyed comprehensively for the first time, with a list of species and an overview of morphological characteristics. The remaining species of Margaritopsis are nomenclaturally transferred here to Eumachia, along with one species of Hodgkinsonia F. Müll., one species of Mapouria Aubl., and several species of Psychotria from Asia, Australia, New Guinea, and the Pacific region. In this new circumscription Eumachia includes 83 species, and is characterized within Palicoureeae by a yellowish green drying color ; stipules that are persistent or fall by fragmentation and are generally glandular when young and hardened when old ; green to whitened inflorescence axes ; white to cream or yellowish green, often rather small corollas ; orange to red fruits ; pyrenes with marginal pre-formed germination slits and no ethanol-soluble pigments ; and non-ruminate endosperm. Eumachia includes 20 species, 8 subspecies, and 7 varieties in Africa, 27 species in the Neotropics, and 36 species and 6 varieties in Asia, Australasia, and the Pacific region. Here we publish 81 new nomenclatural combinations in Eumachia and two new synonymies for Neotropical names, and 11 names from various regions are lectotypified.

  • 10. Thulin, Mats
    et al.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Bourreria scabra (Boraginaceae), a new species from southern Madagascar2017In: Candollea, ISSN 0373-2967, E-ISSN 2235-3658, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 345-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Bourreria scabra Thulin & Razafim.  (Boraginaceae), a new species from southern Madagascar, is described and illustrated. The plant was previously sometimes treated as conspecific with  Bourreria lyciacea Thulin [[  Hilsenbergia lyciacea (Thulin) J.S. Mill.] in Somalia and Kenya. However,  Bourreria scabra differs markedly from  Bourreria lyciacea by its smaller corolla, finely pubescent outside and with shorter lobes, by its practically unbranched style, by its smaller fruits more or less enclosed by the calyx, and by its smaller pyrenes with several low ridges forming an irregular reticulation on the outside. Bourreria scabra differs from all other species of  Bourreria P. Browne in Madagascar by the very rough upper surface of the leaves. The species is widespread in spiny dry forests in southern Madagascar, with occurrences in the Andohahela and Tsimanampetsotsa National Parks and the Beza Mahafaly Reserve. The new species is assigned the category of “Near Threatened” using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

  • 11.
    Thulin, Mats
    et al.
    Systematic Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, EBC, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Ormocarpopsis anosyana Thulin & Razafim. (Fabaceae), a new species from southern Madagascar and its phylogenetic position2016In: Candollea, ISSN 0373-2967, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 281-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ormocarpopsis anosyana Thulin & Razafim. (Fabaceae), a new species from the Anosy Region of south-eastern Madagascar, is described and illustrated. According to phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences, the new species is, with strong support, sister to Ormocarpopsis mandrarensis Dumaz-le-Grand, another species confined to southeastern Madagascar. Ormocarpopsis anosyana differs markedly from Ormocarpopsis mandrarensis by its generally smaller leaflets with the secondary and tertiary venation drying more or less blackish beneath, by its shorter hypanthium, by its smaller calyx with the lowest tooth about as long as the others, by its wing-petals that are much longer than the keel, by its glabrous ovary, and by its slightly articulated fruits. Ormocarpopsis anosyana is known only from two collections from a single patch of spiny dry forest east of Imonty. It is assigned a preliminary conservation status as “Endangered”.

  • 12.
    Xu, Dong-Xian
    et al.
    College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, People’s Republic of China.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Mycetia griffithii, a new name for Mycetia angustifolia (Hook.f.) Razafim. & B.Bremer (Rubiaceae)2016In: Phytotaxa, ISSN 1179-3155, Vol. 252, no 3, p. 231-232Article in journal (Refereed)
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