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  • 1.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Malm, Tobias
    Espeland, Marianne
    Molecular phylogeny of Sericostomatoidea(Trichoptera) with the establishment of three newfamilies2017In: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 42, p. 240-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among 58 genera of Sericostom-atoidea, representing all previously accepted families as well as genera that were notplaced in established families. The analyses were based on ve fragments of the proteincoding genes carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPSase of CAD), isocitrate dehydroge-nase (IDH), Elongation factor 1a (EF-1a), RNA polymerase II (POL II) and cytochromeoxidase I (COI). The data set was analysed using Bayesian methods with a mixedmodel, , and parsimony. The various methods generated slightly different resultsregarding relationships among families, but the shared results comprise support for: (i)a monophyletic Sericostomatoidea; (ii) a paraphyletic Parasericostoma due to inclusionof Myotrichia murina, leading to synonymization of Myotrichia with Parasericostoma;(iii) a polyphyletic Sericostomatidae, which is divided into two families, Sericostom-atidae sensu stricto and Parasericostomatidae fam.n.; (iv) a polyphyletic Helicophidaewhich is divided into Helicophidae sensu stricto and Heloccabucidae fam.n.; ( v) hypoth-esized phylogenetic placement of the former incerta sedis genera Ngoya, Seselpsycheand Karomana; (vi) a paraphyletic Costora (Conoesucidae) that should be divided intoseveral genera after more careful examination of morphological data; (vii) reinstatementof Gyrocarisa as a valid genus within Petrothrincidae. A third family, Ceylanopsychi-dae fam.n., is established based on morphological characters alone. A hypothesis ofthe relationship among 14 of the 15 families in the superfamily is presented. A key tothe families is presented based on adults (males). Taxonomic history, diagnosis, habitatpreference and distribution data for all sericostomatoid families are presented.

  • 2.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Rota, Jadranka
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chazot, Nicolas
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Peña, Carlos
    HipLead, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A simple method for data partitioning based on relative evolutionary rates2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, p. 1-21, article id 6:e5498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Multiple studies have demonstrated that partitioning of molecular datasets is important in model-based phylogenetic analyses. Commonly, partitioning is done a priori based on some known properties of sequence evolution, e.g. differences in rate of evolution among codon positions of a protein-coding gene. Here we propose a new method for data partitioning based on relative evolutionary rates of the sites in the alignment of the dataset being analysed. The rates are inferred using the previously published Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER), and the partitioning is conducted using our novel python script RatePartitions. We conducted simulations to assess the performance of our new method, and we applied it to eight published multi-locus phylogenetic datasets, representing different taxonomic ranks within the insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and one phylogenomic dataset, which included ultra-conserved elements as well as introns.

    Methods. We used TIGER-rates to generate relative evolutionary rates for all sites in the alignments. Then, using RatePartitions, we partitioned the data into partitions based on their relative evolutionary rate. RatePartitions applies a simple formula that ensures a distribution of sites into partitions following the distribution of rates of the characters from the full dataset. This ensures that the invariable sites are placed in a partition with slowly evolving sites, avoiding the pitfalls of previously used methods, such as kmeans. Different partitioning strategies were evaluated using BIC scores as calculated by PartitionFinder.

    Results. Simulations did not highlight any misbehaviour of our partitioning approach, even under difficult parameter conditions or missing data. In all eight phylogenetic datasets, partitioning using TIGER-rates and RatePartitions was significantly better as measured by the BIC scores than other partitioning strategies, such as the commonly used partitioning by gene and codon position. We compared the resulting topologies and node support for these eight datasets as well as for the phylogenomic dataset.

    Discussion. We developed a new method of partitioning phylogenetic datasets without using any prior knowledge (e.g. DNA sequence evolution). This method is entirely based on the properties of the data being analysed and can be applied to DNA sequences (protein-coding, introns, ultra-conserved elements), protein sequences, as well as morphological characters. A likely explanation for why our method performs better than other tested partitioning strategies is that it accounts for the heterogeneity in the data to a much greater extent than when data are simply subdivided based on prior knowledge.

  • 3.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    St Laurent, Ryan
    McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, USA.
    McCabe, Timothy
    Dept. of Entomology, New York State Museum, USA.
    Revision of the genus Aleyda Schaus, 1928 with the description of one new species(Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae)2018In: SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología, ISSN 0300-5267, E-ISSN 2340-4078, Vol. 46, no 181, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Aleyda Schaus, 1928 is revised. The male of the type species of Aleyda, A. accipiter, is redescribed,and the female is figured for the first time. Aleyda heppneri St Laurent, McCabe & Malm, sp. n. from Panamá andFrench Guiana is newly described. Male and female genitalia of both species are figured for the first time.

  • 4.
    Prous, Marko
    et al.
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Blank, Stephan M.
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Goulet, Henri
    Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada.
    Heibo, Erik
    Ento Consulting, Lierskogen, Norway.
    Liston, Andrew
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Malm, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Nyman, Tommi
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Schmidt, Stefan
    Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany.
    Smith, Dave
    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, United States of America.
    Vårdal, Hege
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Viitasaari, Matti
    Unaffiliated, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vikberg, Veli
    Unaffiliated, Turenki, Finland.
    Taeger, Andreas
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)2014In: Journal of Hymenoptera Research, ISSN 1314-2607, Vol. 40, p. 1-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent phylogenetic studies on Nematinae based on DNA sequences have shown extensive incongruencies with current nomenclature of genus-group taxa. Here, we expand previous DNA sequence datasets based on three genes (CoI, Cytb, and EF-1α), to include a fourth (NaK) and more genera. The analyses largely confirm the previous findings, particularly the existence of two well-supported large clades, Euura and Pristiphora, together comprising more than 75% of the species of Nematinae. Basal relationships within these two clades remain poorly resolved, mirroring the difficulties in delimiting genera based on morphology. In addition, a moderately supported small clade, Nematus, is found. The relationships between the Euura, Pristiphora, and Nematus clades are uncertain. Therefore, to stabilize the nomenclature we treat these clades as genera. This taxonomic treatment results in numerous new combinations of species names. The following synonymies are proposed for the available genus-group names. Synonyms of Euura Newman, 1837: Cryptocampus Hartig, 1837, Euura Agassiz, 1848, Pontania Costa, 1852, syn. n., Epitactus Förster, 1854, syn. n., Amauronematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocneme Konow, 1890, syn. n., Pachynematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocnema Schulz, 1906, syn. n., Holcocnemis Konow, 1907, syn. n., Pteronidea Rohwer, 1911, syn. n., Pontopristia Malaise, 1921, syn. n., Brachycoluma Strand, 1929, syn. n., Decanematus Malaise, 1931, syn. n., Pikonema Ross, 1937, syn. n., Phyllocolpa Benson, 1960, syn. n., Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966, syn. n., Gemmura E.L. Smith, 1968, Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985, syn. n., Larinematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Polynematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Bacconematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Alpinematus Lacourt, 1996, syn. n., Epicenematus Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Kontuniemiana Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Lindqvistia Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Luea Wei and Nie, 1998, syn. n., and Tubpontania Vikberg, 2010, syn. n. Synonyms of Nematus Panzer, 1801: Craesus Leach, 1817, Hypolaepus W.F. Kirby, 1882, and Paranematus Zinovjev, 1978. Synonyms of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810: Diphadnus Hartig, 1837, Lygaeonematus Konow, 1890, Micronematus Konow, 1890, Gymnonychus Marlatt, 1896, Neopareophora MacGillivray, 1908, syn. n., Neotomostethus MacGillivray, 1908, Dineuridea Rohwer, 1912, Sala Ross, 1937, Pristola Ross, 1945, syn. n., Nepionema Benson, 1960, syn. n., Melastola Wong, 1968, syn. n., Sharliphora Wong, 1969, Oligonematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, Lygaeotus Liston, 1993, Lygaeophora Liston, 1993, and Pristicampus Zinovjev, 1993, syn. n. Varna Ross, 1937, syn. n. is treated as a synonym of Dineura Dahlbom 1835. Stauronematus Benson, 1953 is treated as a separate genus from Pristiphora. Names of 20 species-group taxa are junior secondary homonyms when combined with Euura. Replacement names are proposed for these. To facilitate the identification of Nematinae genera, we provide an illustrated key to the 31 extant genera of world Nematinae.

  • 5.
    Schmidt, Stefan
    et al.
    SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.
    Taeger, Andreas
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Morinière, Jérôme
    SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.
    Liston, Andrew
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Blank, Stephan
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Kramp, Katja
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Kraus, Manfred
    Nürnberg, Germany.
    Schmidt, Olga
    SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.
    Heibo, Erik
    Lierskogen, Norway.
    Prous, Marko
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Nyman, Tommi
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Malm, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Stahlhut, Julie
    Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Identification of sawflies and horntails (Hymenoptera, ‘Symphyta’) through DNA barcodes: successes and caveats2017In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 17, p. 670-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘Symphyta’ is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5360 specimens of ‘Symphyta’, mainly adults, and 4362 sequences covering 1037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin. The utility of barcoding for species identification and taxonomy of ‘Symphyta’ is discussed on the basis of examples from each of the included families. A significant level of cryptic species diversity was apparent in many groups. Other attractive applications include the identification of immature stages without the need to rear them, community analyses based on metabarcoding of bulk samples and association of the sexes of adults.

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