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  • 1.
    Atherton, Sarah
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Microstomum (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomorpha, Microstomidae) from the Swedish west coast: two new species and a population description2018In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, no 398, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Atherton, Sarah
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Wide distributions and cryptic diversity within a Microstomum (Platyhelminthes) species complex2018In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 47, p. 486-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstomum lineare is a common species of fresh and brackish waters found world-wide. Three genes (18S, CO1 and ITS) were sequenced from specimens of M. lineare collected from four countries, and the levels of cryptic diversity and genetic structuring were assessed. Results showed M. lineare has very wide haplotype distributions suggesting higher than expected dispersal capabilities. In addition, three new species were described on the basis of molecular taxonomy: Microstomum artoisi sp. nov., Microstomum tchaikovskyi sp. nov. and Microstomum zicklerorum sp. nov.

  • 3.
    Cannon, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Auburn University.
    Vellutini, Bruno
    Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology.
    Smith, Julian
    Winthrop University.
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Hejnol, Andreas
    Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology.
    Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa2016In: Nature, ISSN ISSN: 0028-0836, Vol. 530, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships1. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (= Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes)2,3 or is a clade inside Deuterostomia4. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long- branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa. 

  • 4.
    Haenel, Quiterie
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    sundberg, per
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bourlat, Sarah
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    NGS-based biodiversity and community structure analysis of meiofaunal eukaryotes in shell sand from Hållö island, Smögen, and soft mud from Gullmarn Fjord, Sweden2017In: Biodiversity Data Journal, ISSN 1314-2836, E-ISSN 1314-2828, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Bourlat, Sarah (Contributor)
    Jondelius, Ulf (Contributor)
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The choice of taxonomy assignment approach has strong impact on the efficiency of identification of OTUs in marine nematodes2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, article id 170315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Holovachov, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Haenel, Quiterie
    Bourlat, Sarah
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Taxonomy assignment approach determines the efficiency of identification of OTUs in marine nematodes2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Hyper-cryptic marine meiofauna: species complexes in Nemertodermatida2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e107688Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Bernvi, David C
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Distribution, delimitation and description of species of Archaphanostoma (Acoela)2014In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 44, no 2, article id 218-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Four new species of Acoela from Chile2013In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 3736, no 5, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acoels are with few exceptions marine worms and a common component of the interstitial meiofauna. In this study we present new species to science belonging to Isodiametridae and Solenofilomorphidae. The new species, Isodiametra finkei n. sp., Postaphanostoma nilssoni n. sp., Pseudaphanostoma hyalinorhabdoida n. sp. and Solenofilomorpha pellucida n. sp. were all collected in Chile during March 2012. Nucleotide sequences for the ribosomal genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA as well as COI mtDNA have been determined for the new species and used in a maximum likelihood analysis to further support their classification.

  • 10.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    A phylogenetic approach to species delimitation in freshwater Gastrotricha from Sweden2012In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 683, p. 185-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastrotricha is a cosmopolitan group of aquatic invertebrates. To date, approximately 765 species have been described. This study is the first to deal with species delimitation and cryptic species of freshwater Gastrotricha. Three commonly encountered species, Heterolepidoderma ocellatum, Lepidochaetus zelinkai, and Lepidodermella squamata, are investigated for cryptic speciation. Most of the material is based on Swedish specimens but closely related species from other parts of the world are also included. Taxonomic revisions are supported by phylogenies based on 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and COI mtDNA of freshwater Chaetonotidae from several genera and inferred from Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Heterolepidoderma ocellatum f. sphagnophilum is raised to species level, under the name H. acidophilum n. sp. Moreover, genetic data based on COI indicate large variation between two morphologically very similar groups of Lepidodermella squamata. The extent of cryptic speciation in L. zelinkai appears low. Based on the phylogenetic hypothesis presented in this article, the new species, Lepidodermella intermedia n. sp., from northern Sweden is also described. The phylogenetic hypothesis generated shows that Chaetonotidae is a nonmonophyletic group.

  • 11.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    One new species and records of Ichthydium Ehrenberg, 1830 (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotida) from Sweden with a key to the genus2009In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 2278, p. 26-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The freshwater gastrotrich fauna of Sweden is poorly known. Only seven species of freshwater gastrotrichs have been reported so far. This paper is the first in a series of contributions about the Swedish freshwater gastrotrich fauna. Here we describe one new species, Ichthydium skandicum n. sp., from Jämtland, northern Sweden. The new species falls within the boundary of the subgenus Forficulichthys and is morphologically closest to Ichthydium tanytrichum from which it can be differentiated based on the presence of four pairs of dorsal, keeled scales in the posterior trunk region. Moreover, we provide morphometric data for three additional Ichthydium species: I. diacanthum, I. squamigerum and I. tanytrichum, Italian species all of which are reported for the first time outside Italy. Considering the accompanying fauna, a total of thirteen freshwater Gastrotricha are reported for the first time from Sweden. Finally we present a dichotomous key for Ichthydium along with distributional data of the species considered.

  • 12.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Phylogeny of Chaetonotidae and other Paucitubulatina (Gastrotricha: Chaetonotida) and the colonization of aquatic ecosystems2013In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 88-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chaetonotidae is the largest family within Gastrotricha with almost 400 nominal species represented in both freshwater and marine habitats. The group is probably non-monophyletic and suffers from a troubled taxonomy. Current classification is to a great extent based on shape and distribution of cuticular structures, characters that are highly variable. We present the most densely sampled molecular study so far where 17 of the 31 genera belonging to Chaetonotida are represented. Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches based on 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA are used to reconstruct relationships within Chaetonotidae. The use of cuticular structures for supra-specific classification within the group is evaluated and the question of dispersal between marine and freshwater habitats is addressed. Moreover, the subgeneric classification of Chaetonotus is tested in a phylogenetic context. Our results show high support for a clade containing Dasydytidae nested within Chaetonotidae. Within this clade, only three genera are monophyletic following current classification. Genera containing both marine and freshwater species never form monophyletic clades and group with other species according to habitat. Marine members of Aspidiophorus appear to be the sister group of all other Chaetonotidae and Dasydytidae, indicating a marine origin of the clade. Halichaetonotus and marine Heterolepidoderma form a monophyletic group in a sister group relationship to freshwater species, pointing towards a secondary invasion of marine environments of these taxa. Our study highlights the problems of current classification based on cuticular structures, characters that show homoplasy for deeper relationships.

  • 13.
    Leasi, Francesca
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Department of Biology, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga,.
    Sevigny, Joseph
    Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire.
    Laflamme, Eric
    Department of Mathematics, Plymouth State University.
    Artois, Tom
    Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University.
    Curini-Galletti, Marco
    Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, University of Sassari,.
    Navarrete, Alberto
    Departmento de Sistemática y Ecología Acuática, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Chetumal.
    Di Domenico, Maikon
    Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná.
    Goetz, Freya
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
    Hall, Jeffrey
    Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire.
    Hochberg, Rick
    Department of Biological Science, University of Massachusetts Lowell.
    Jörger, Katharina
    Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians–University of Munich.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Todaro, Antonio
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia.
    Wirshing, Herman
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
    Norenburg, Jonathan
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
    Thomas, Kelley
    Hubbard Center for Genome Studies, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire.
    Biodiversity estimates and ecological interpretations of meiofaunal communities are biased by the taxonomic approach2018In: Communications Biology, ISSN ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Martin-Duran, José
    et al.
    University of Bergen.
    Pang, Kevin
    University of Bergen.
    Børve, Aina
    University of Bergen.
    Semmler, Henrike
    Natural History Museum of Denmark.
    Furu, Anlaug
    University of Bergen.
    Cannon, Johanna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Hejnol, Andreas
    University of Bergen.
    Convergent evolution of bilaterian nerve cords2018In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 553, article id 25030Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    et al.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Interrelationships of Nemertodermatida2015In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogeny of Nemertodermatida, a group of microscopic marine worms, was analysed using nucleotide sequences from the ribosomal LSU and SSU genes and the protein coding Histone 3 gene. All currently known species except Ascoparia neglecta and A. secunda were included in the study in addition to several yet undescribed species. Ascopariidae and Nemertodermatidae, are retrieved as separate clades, although not in all analyses as sister groups. Non-monophyly of Nemertodermatida was rejected by the Approximately Unbiased test. Nucleotide sequences deposited in Genbank before 2013 as nemertodermatid were validated against our dataset; some of them are shown to be chimeric implying falsification of prior hypotheses about nemertodermatid phylogeny: other sequences should be assigned new names. We also show that the genus Nemertoderma needs revision. 

  • 16. Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga
    et al.
    Raikova, Olga
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The plastic nervous system of Nemertodermatida2015In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, ISSN 1439-6092, E-ISSN 1618-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nemertodermatida are microscopic marine worms likely to be the sister-group to acoels, forming with them the earliest extant branch of bilaterian animals, although their phylogenetic position is debated. The nervous system of Flagellophora cf. apelti, Sterreria spp. and Nemertoderma cf. westbladi has been investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy using anti-tubulin, anti-5-HT and anti-FMRFamide antibodies. The nervous system of Flagellophora cf. apelti is composed of a large neuropile and a loose brain at the level of the statocysts with several nerve fibres surrounding them and innervating the broom organ. Sterreria spp. shows a commissural-like brain and several neurite bundles going frontad and caudad from this. At the level of the statocysts there is also a thicker aggregation of immunoreactive fibres. The nervous system of N. cf. westbladi consists of a nerve ring lying outside the body wall musculature at the level of the statocyst and a pair of ventro-lateral neurite bundles, from which extend thinner fibres innervating the ventral side of the animal. Numerous bottle-shaped glands were observed, innervated by fibres starting both from the brain and the neurite bundles. The nervous system of the nemertodermatids studied to-date displays no common pattern, instead there is considerable plasticity in the general morphology of the nervous system. 

    In addition, the musculature of Sterreria spp. has been studied by phalloidin staining. It shows diagonal muscles in the anterior quarter of the body and a simple orthogonal grid in the posterior three quarters, being simpler than that of the other nemertodermatids. High-resolution differential interference contrast microscopy permitted to better visualise some morphological characters of the species studied, such as statocysts, sperm and glands and, in combination with anti-tubulin staining, describe in detail the broom organ in Flagellophora cf. apelti. Finally, we note an apparent absence of innervation of the gut in Nemertodermatida similar to the condition in Xenoturbella.

  • 17.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Dal Zotto, Matteo
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Hochberg, Rick
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA.
    Hummon, William D.
    Department of Biological Sciences,Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Rocha, Carlos E. F.
    Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biocieˆncias, Universidade de Sa˜o Paulo, Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil.
    Gastrotricha: A Marine Sister for a Freshwater Puzzle2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, p. e31740-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within an evolutionary framework of Gastrotricha Marinellina flagellata and Redudasys fornerise bear special interest, as they are the only Macrodasyida that inhabit freshwater ecosystems. Notwithstanding, these rare animals are poorly known; found only once (Austria and Brazil), they are currently systematised as incertae sedis. Here we report on the rediscovery of Redudasys fornerise, provide an account on morphological novelties and present a hypothesis on its phylogenetic relationship based on molecular data. Specimens were surveyed using DIC microscopy and SEM, and used to obtain the 18 S rRNA gene sequence; molecular data was analyzed cladistically in conjunction with data from 42 additional species belonging to the near complete Macrodasyida taxonomic spectrum. Morphological analysis, while providing new information on taxonomically relevant traits (adhesive tubes, protonephridia and sensorial bristles), failed to detect elements of the male system, thus stressing the parthenogenetic nature of the Brazilian species. Phylogenetic analysis, carried out with ML, MP and Bayesian approaches, yielded topologies with strong nodal support and highly congruent with each other. Among the supported groups is the previously undocumented clade showing the alliance between Redudasys fornerise and Dactylopodola agadasys; other strongly sustained clades include the densely sampled families Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae and most genera. A reconsideration of the morphological traits of Dactylopodola agadasys in light of the new information on Redudasys fornerise makes the alliance between these two taxa very likely. As a result, we create Anandrodasys gen. nov. to contain members of the previously described D. agadasys and erect Redudasyidae fam. nov. to reflect this novel relationship between Anandrodasys and Redudasys. From an ecological perspective, the derived position of Redudasys, which is deeply nested within the Macrodasyida clade, unequivocally demonstrates that invasion of freshwater by gastrotrichs has taken place at least twice, in contrast with the single event hypothesis recently put forward.

  • 18.
    Todaro, M. Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Kånneby, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Dal Zotto, Matteo
    Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Phylogeny of Thaumastodermatidae (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Sequence Data2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 3, p. e17892-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Phylogenetic relationships within Gastrotricha are poorly known. Attempts to shed light on this subject using morphological traits have led to hypotheses lacking satisfactory statistical support; it seemed therefore that a different approach was needed.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: In this paper we attempt to elucidate the relationships within the taxonomically vast family Thaumastodermatidae (Macrodasyida) using molecular sequence data. The study includes representatives of all the extant genera of the family and for the first time uses a multi-gene approach to infer evolutionary liaisons within Gastrotricha. The final data set comprises sequences of three genes (18S, 28S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 41 species, including 29 thaumastodermatids, 11 non-thaumastodermatid macrodasyidans and a single chaetonotidan. Molecular data was analyzed as a combined set of 3 genes and as individual genes, using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Two different outgroups were used: Xenotrichula intermedia (Chaetonotida) and members of the putative basal Dactylopodola (Macrodasyida). Thaumastodermatidae and all other sampled macrodasyidan families were found monophyletic except for Cephalodasyidae. Within Thaumastodermatidae Diplodasyinae and Thaumastodermatinae are monophyletic and so are most genera. Oregodasys turns out to be the most basal group within Thaumastodermatinae in analyses of the concatenated data set as well as in analyses of the nuclear genes. Thaumastoderma appears as the sister taxon to the remaining species. Surprisingly, Tetranchyroderma is non-monophyletic in our analyses as one group of species clusters with Ptychostomella while another appears as the sister group of Pseudostomella.

    Conclusions/Significance: Results in general agree with the current classification; however, a revision of the more derived thaumastodermatid taxa seems necessary. We also found that the ostensible COI sequences from several species do not conform to the general invertebrate or any other published mitochondrial genetic code; they may be mitochondrially derived nuclear genes (numts), or one or more modifications of the mitochondrial genetic code within Gastrotricha.

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