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  • 1.
    Johansson, Åke
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50 007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Tentative Model for the Origin of A-Type Granitoids2023Ingår i: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 1-12, artikel-id 236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A-type granites are typically formed in stable intra-plate, back-arc or postcollisional settingsand are characterized by highly ferroan and potassic major element compositions, and by strong enrichment in incompatible trace elements. Unlike I-, S- and M-type granites, where the letters denote the dominant source material (igneous, sedimentary or mantle derived), there is no consensus on the source and processes giving rise to A-type magmas. In this contribution, a conceptual model for the origin of A-type granitoids, using the Bornholm A-type granitoid complex in southern Fennoscandia as an example, is presented. In this model, underplated mantle-derived basaltic magma may develop into intermediate and siliceous A-type magma, which is ferroan, potassic and highly enriched in incompatible trace elements, through a combination of fractional crystallization leading to cumulate formation, and partial melting and crustal assimilation, in a process akin to zone refining in metallurgy. The key factor is a relatively stable tectonic environment (postcollisional, anorogenic, or extensional), where there is little or no replenishment of more primitive basaltic magma to the system, allowing it to attain more evolved, enriched and extreme compositions. The A-type granitoids may then be viewed as a more evolved counterpart of subduction-related I-type granitoids.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Comment on Li et al. (2023): A dynamic 2000—540 Ma Earth history: From cratonic amalgamation to the age of supercontinent cycle2023Ingår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 241, s. 1-3, artikel-id 104457Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper “A dynamic 2000—540 Ma Earth history: From cratonic amalgamation to the age of supercontinentcycle” that was recently published in Earth-Science Reviews by Li et al. (2023) is an impressive piece of work, putting together data for the Proterozoic supercontinent cycle into a coherent model including both maps and animations. Nevertheless, as they write themselves, there will no doubt be room for improvements of their model, some of which I hope to contribute with in this comment from my Baltica perspective, in particular when it comes to the relations between Baltica, Amazonia and West Africa.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Bingen, Bernard
    Huhma, Hannu
    Waight, Tod
    Vestergaard, Rikke
    Soesoo, Alvar
    Skridlaite, Grazina
    Krzeminska, Ewa
    Shumlyanskyy, Leonid
    Holland, Mark E.
    Holm-Denoma, Christopher
    Teixeira, Wilson
    Faleiros, Frederico M.
    Ribeiro, Bruno V.
    Jacobs, Joachim
    Wang, Chengcheng
    Thomas, Robert J.
    Macey, Paul H.
    Kirkland, Christopher L.
    Hartnady, Michael I.H.
    Eglington, Bruce M.
    Puetz, Stephen J.
    Condie, Kent C.
    A geochronological review of magmatism along the external margin of Columbia and in the Grenville-age orogens forming the core of Rodinia2022Ingår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 371, s. 1-43, artikel-id 106463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 4344 magmatic U-Pb ages in the range 2300 to 800 Ma have been compiled from the Great Proterozoic Accretionary Orogen along the margin of the Columbia / Nuna supercontinent and from the subsequent Grenvillian collisional orogens forming the core of Rodinia. The age data are derived from Laurentia (North America and Greenland, n = 1212), Baltica (NE Europe, n = 1922), Amazonia (central South America, n = 625), Kalahari (southern Africa and Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica, n = 386), and western Australia (n = 199). Laurentia, Baltica, and Amazonia (and possibly other cratons) most likely formed a ca. 10 000-km-long external active continental margin of Columbia from its assembly at ca. 1800 Ma until its dispersal at ca. 1260 Ma, after which all cratons studied were involved in the Rodinia-forming Grenvillian orogeny. However, the magmatic record is not smooth and even but highly irregular, with marked peaks and troughs, both for individual cratons and the combined data set. Magmatic peaks typically range in duration from a few tens of million years up to around hundred million years, with intervening troughs of comparable length. Some magmatic peaks are observed on multiple cratons, either by coincidence or because of paleogeographic proximity and common tectonic setting, while others are not. The best overall correlation, 0.617, is observed between Baltica and Amazonia, consistent with (but not definitive proof of) their being close neighbours in a SAMBA-like configuration at least in Columbia, and perhaps having shared the same peri-Columbian subduction system for a considerable time. Correlation factors between Laurentia and Baltica, or Laurentia and Amazonia, are below 0.14. Comparison between the Grenville Province in northeastern Laurentia and the Sveconorwegian Province in southwestern Fennoscandia (Baltica) shows some striking similarities, especially in the Mesoproterozoic, but also exhibits differences in the timing of events, especially during the final Grenville-Sveconorwegian collision, when the Sveconorwegian evolution seems to lag behind by some tens of million years. Between the other cratons, the evolution before and during the final Grenvillian collision is also largely diachronous. After 900 Ma, magmatic activity had ceased in all areas investigated, attesting to the position of most of them within the stable interior of Rodinia. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Geochronological review
  • 4.
    Roberts, Nick M.W.
    et al.
    British Geological Survey.
    Salminen, Johanna
    University of Helsinki and Geological Survey of Finland.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Mitchell, Ross N.
    Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Palin, Richard M.
    University of Oxford.
    Condie, Kent C.
    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.
    Spencer, Christopher J.
    Queen's University, Ontario.
    On the enigmatic mid-Proterozoic: Single-lid versus plate tectonics2022Ingår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 594, s. 1-12, artikel-id 117749Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mid-Proterozoic (ca. 1850–850 Ma) is a peculiar period of Earth history in many respects: ophiolites and passive margins of this age are rare, whereas anorthosite and A-type granite suites are abundant; metamorphic rocks typically record high thermobaric (temperature/pressure) ratios, whereas ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks are rare; and the abundance of economic mineral deposits features rare porphyry Cu-Au and abundant Ni-Cu and Fe-oxide Cu-Ag (IOCG) deposit types. These collective observations have been used to propose that a stagnant-lid, or single-lid, tectonic regime operated at this time, between periods of plate tectonics in the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic. In our reappraisal of the mid-Proterozoic geological record, we not only assess the viability of the single-lid hypothesis for each line of evidence, but also that of the plate tectonic alternative. We find that evidence for the single-lid hypothesis is equivocal in all cases, whereas for plate tectonics the evidence is equivocal or supporting.We therefore find no reason to abandon a plate tectonic model for the mid-Proterozoic time period. Instead, we propose that the peculiarities of this enigmatic interval can be reconciled through the combination of two processes working in tandem: secular mantle cooling and the exceptionally long tenure and incomplete breakup of Earth’s first supercontinent, where both of these phenomena had a dramatic effect on lithospheric behaviour and its resulting imprint in the geological record

  • 5.
    Krzeminska, Ewa
    et al.
    Polish Geological Institute.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Krzeminski, Leszek
    Polish Geological Institute.
    Wiszniewska, Janina
    Polish Geological Institute.
    Williams, Ian S.
    Australian National University, Canberra.
    Petecki, Zdzislaw
    Polish Geological Institute.
    Salwa, Sylwester
    Polish Geological Institute.
    Basement correlation across the southernmost Baltic Sea: Geochemical and geochronological evidence from onshore and offshore deep drill cores, northern Poland.2021Ingår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 362, s. 1-20, artikel-id 106300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New zircon U-Pb age measurements, whole rock major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr and Nd isotopicanalyses of samples from fourteen deep drill holes that penetrated the hidden Precambrian basement of the southernmost Baltic Sea and the coastal area of northern Poland (Pomerania), make it possible to identify a two episodes of Proterozoic magmatism in that area. The basement consists of late Palaeoproterozoic deformed calc-alkaline, magnesian, I-type to A-type diorites to granites of volcanic arc affinity. U-Pb zircon geochronology documents their magmatic crystallization ages to be between 1791 ± 8 Ma and 1750 ± 5 Ma, with an episode of syn- to late-magmatic deformation recorded in thin overgrowths on zircons at about 1740 Ma. These rocks from Pomerania and its offshore area broadly correlate with the bedrock of Blekinge in southern Sweden, where most of the crust was formed at 1.77–1.75 Ga. They may thus be part of the same geological domain, extending on both sides of the present-day southern Baltic Sea, formed along a late Palaeoproterozoic active continental margin. A subordinate suite of undeformed, significantly younger A-type granites was emplaced at 1477 ± 6 Ma, 1449 ± 7 Ma and 1450 ± 9 Ma. This time interval is concurrent with emplacement of A-type granitoids on the Danish island of Bornholm as well as in Blekinge and other parts of southern Fennoscandia. However, their geochemical and isotopic data highlight a genetic diversity of these granites.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Cleaning up the record – revised U-Pb zircon ages and new Hf isotope data from southern Sweden2021Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 143, nr 4, s. 328-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten samples of orthogneisses and granitoids from the Eastern Segment of the Sveconorwegian Orogen in southern Sweden, previously dated by ID-TIMS on zircon, have been dated anew using SIMS spot analysis of individual zircon grains, leading to more reliable and in most cases also more precise revised magmatic crystallization ages. A gneissic monzonite within the Protogine Zone south of Alvesta in Småland yields a revised U-Pb age of ca. 1725 Ma, four samples of orthogneiss from Skåne all yield revised ages between 1690 and 1700 Ma, while two samples of coarse-grained granitoid gneiss in the same region yield ages between 1680 and 1690 Ma. These revised ages are between 15 and 250 m.y. older than previously obtained TIMS ages. Two samples of the Gumlösa-Glimåkra granite along the Protogine Zone in northern Skåne and one sample of related syenite yield ages around 1220 Ma, similar but more precise compared to the previous ages. The U-Pb zircon data have been complemented by Hf isotope analysis by LA-ICP-MS on the same zircon grains, and previously obtained initial Sr and Nd whole-rock isotope data have been recalculated to the revised crystallization ages. The Sr isotope data scatter, while the revised initial εNd values fall between +1 and +2 for the older granitoids and orthogneisses, and close to 0 for the 1220 Ma intrusives along the Protogine Zone. Initial εHf in magmatic undisturbed zircons shows relatively little spread within each sample, between 2 and 4 Epsilon units, disregarding occasional outliers, with average values for the 1725 - 1680 Ma rocks falling between +3and +5.5, and at ca. +1.5 in the 1220 Ma rocks. In spite of the limited variation, there is a covariation between initial εNd and initial εHf in the older rocks, suggesting either mixing between two isotopically distinct magma sources, or one magma source which is isotopically heterogeneous. The isotopic signatures of the 1220 Ma intrusives along the Protogine Zone is indicative of juvenile mantle input totheir magmas, rather than pure crustal melting.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Cleaning up the record (Submitted version)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Waight, Tod
    University of Copehagen.
    Andersen, Tom
    University of Oslo.
    Comment to “The cause for Nuna breakup in the Early to Middle Mesoproterozoic” by Huang et al. (2021)2021Ingår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 367, s. 1-2, artikel-id 106461Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Khudeir, Ali A
    et al.
    Assiut University, Egypt.
    Paquette, Jean-Louis
    Université Clermont Auvergne, France.
    Nicholson, Kirsten
    Ball-State University, USA.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Rooney, Tyrone O
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Hamid, Sadiq
    Assiut University, Egypt.
    El-Fadly, Mohamed A
    Assiut University, Egypt.
    Corcoran, Loretta
    Notre Dame University, USA.
    Malone, Shawn J
    Ball-State University, USA.
    El-Rus, Mohamed Ali Abu
    Assiut University, Egypt.
    On the cratonization of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Constraints from gneissic granitoids in south Eastern Desert, Egypt.2021Ingår i: Geoscience Frontiers, ISSN 1674-9871, Vol. 12, s. 1-29, artikel-id 101148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Shaitian granite complex (SGC) spans more than 80 Ma of crustal growth in the Arabian–Nubian Shield insoutheast Egypt. It is a voluminous composite intrusion (60 km2) comprising a host tonalite massif intruded by subordinate dyke-like masses of trondhjemite, granodiorite and monzogranite. The host tonalite, in turn, encloses several, fine-grained amphibolite enclaves. U-Pb zircon dating indicates a wide range of crystallization ages within the SGC (800 ± 18Ma for tonalites; 754± 3.9 Ma for trondhjemite; 738± 3.8 Ma for granodiorite;and 717±3.2 Ma for monzogranite), suggesting crystallization of independent magma pulses. The high positive εNdi (+6 to +8) indicate that the melting sources were dominated by juvenile material without any significant input from older crust. Application of zircon saturation geothermometry indicates increasing temperatures during the generation of melts from 745±31 °C for tonalite to 810±25 °C for trondhjemite; 840±10 °C for granodiorite; and 868±10 °C for monzogranite. The pressure of partial melting is loosely constrained to be below the stability of residual garnet (<10 kbar) as inferred from the almost flat HREE pattern ((Gd/Lu)N=0.9–1.1), but >3kbar for the stability of residual amphibole as inferred from the significantly lower NbN and TaN compared with LREEN and the sub-chondrite Nb/Ta ratios exhibited by the granitic phases. The inverse relation between the generation temperatures and the ages estimates of the granitoid lithologies argue against a significant role of fractional crystallization. The major and trace element contents indicate the emplacement of the SGC within a subduction zone setting. It lacks distinctive features for melt derived from a subducted slab (e.g. high Sr/Y and high (La/Yb)N ratios), and the relatively low MgO and Ni contents in all granite phases within the SGC suggest melting within the lower crust of an island arc overlying a mantle wedge. Comparison with melts produced during melting experiments indicates an amphibolite of basaltic composition is the best candidate as source for the tonalite, trondhjemite and granodiorite magmas whereas the monzogranite magma is most consistent with fusion of a tonalite protolith. Given the overlapping Sm-Nd isotope ratios as well as several trace element ratios between monzogranite and tonalite samples, it is reasonable to suggest that the renewed basaltic underplating may have caused partial melting of tonalite and the emplacement of monzogranite melt within the SGC. The emplacement of potassic granite (monzogranite) melts subsequent to the emplacement of Na-rich granites (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) most likely suggests major crustal thickening prior to arc collision and amalgamation into the overthickened proto-crust of the Arabian-Nubian shield. Eventually, after complete consolidation, the whole SGC was subjected to regional deformation, most probably during accretion to the Saharan Metacraton (arc–continent collisions) in late Cryogenian-Ediacaran times (650–542 Ma).

  • 9.
    Skridlaite, Grazina
    et al.
    Vilnius University.
    Siliauskas, Laurynas
    Vilnius University.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Rimsa, Andrius
    Loxus Consulting AB.
    On the origin and evolution of the 1.86–1.76 Ga Mid-Baltic Belt in the western East European Craton2021Ingår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 367, s. 1-21, artikel-id 106403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mid-Lithuanian Domain (MLD) was distinguished by Bogdanova et al. (2015) as part of the large Mid-BalticBelt (MBB) in the western East European Craton. Zircon U-Pb dating by SIMS, Sr- and Nd-isotope systematics and a detailed geochemical study have allowed to subdivide the MLD into two parts: NW and SE. The NW magmatic rocks have been emplaced at 1.86 to 1.83 Ga from either an enriched mantle source or from a mantle magma with presence of older crustal material. The SE MLD magmatic rocks originated from a slightly depleted mantle source at 1.87 to 1.82 Ga. At 1.79 Ga, they were intruded by gabbronorites which at 1.76 Ga were crosscut by thin veinlets of microgabbronorite. The SE MLD magmatic series with their oceanic island arc affinity correlate well with the contemporaneous Fröderyd metavolcanics of the Vetlanda-Oskarshamn belt in Sweden, while the NW MLD rocks are similar to the TIB-0 Askersund granitoids in the southern Bergslagen area. The younger (1.81–1.79 Ga) intrusives in both areas are time-equivalents of the TIB-1 magmatism on the Swedish side. Thus, the MLD as well as its counterparts on the Swedish side of the Baltic Sea may belong to the same Mid-Baltic Belt, representing an active, south-facing continental margin established at ca. 1.86 Ga. The shape and outline of the belt was affected by the Fennoscandia-Sarmatia collision at ca. 1.82–1.80 Ga, as well as by later magmatism.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    The “intraorogenic” Svecofennian Herräng mafic dyke swarm in east-central Sweden: age, geochemistry and tectonic significance2020Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 142, nr 1, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Herräng mafic dykes form an E-W-trending dyke swarm within the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit of the Svecofennian orogen in east-central Sweden. They intrude the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks and early-orogenic granitoids, but are themselves cut by late Svecofennian pegmatites, and have undergone Svecofennian amphibolite-facies metamorphism, leading to their classification as ‘intraorogenic’ Svecofennian dykes. They can be assigned an age between 1870 and 1850 Ma, with metamorphism of the dykes dated at 1848 ± 13 Ma by U-Pb in titanite. Their current mineralogy is dominated by metamorphic plagioclase and amphibole, with variable amounts of quartz and biotite, and minor to accessory titanite, apatite, epidote, pyrite, magnetite, ilmenite and zircon. Textures range from massive to strongly foliated.

    Twenty samples of dyke rocks from three subareas in the Roslagen region, including the Herräng type area, range in composition from basaltic to andesitic with 47 to 60 wt% SiO2, broadly similar to the Dannemora dykes and the Avesta-Östhammar gabbros and diorites. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (at 1870 Ma) varies between 0.7026 and 0.7038, corresponding to initial εSr between +5 and +21, and initial εNd between -0.4 and +1.3, suggesting a slightly enriched to mildly depleted mantle source, similar to other Svecofennian mafic rocks.

    The dykes dominantly show a calc-alkaline volcanic arc signature related to subduction. They formed during an extensional episode, possibly related to incipient back-arc spreading or subduction roll-back following the main early-orogenic subduction-related Svecofennian magmatism, but penecontemporaneous with amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the area.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    The Paleoproterozoic Hedesunda granite complex, east‑central Sweden, a composite intrusion.2020Ingår i: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 109, s. 1991-2022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hedesunda granite complex covers a rectangular area of ca 800 km2 within the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit of the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian orogen in east-central Sweden. It is dominated by coarse porphyritic and generally undeformed granitoids whose position within the Svecofennian orogenic evolution has been controversial. New U–Pb SIMS dating of zircon confirms earlier TIMS results, showing that it is a composite intrusion made up of an older phase at ca 1865 Ma, forming the bulk of the massif, and a younger phase at ca 1785 Ma, forming a circular intrusion in the north-central area and an elongated body further west. The two generations have very different geochemistry. The older Hedesunda I intrusion ranges from diorite through tonalite and granodiorite to granite in composition, is dominantly metaluminous, calc-alkaline, magnesian, I-type and volcanic arc-related, and probably formed by melting of juvenile Svecofennian lower crust due to basaltic underplating during an extensional ‘intra-orogenic’ phase shortly after the main subduction-related early-orogenic Svecofennian magmatism. The younger Hedesunda II intrusions are purely granitic, dominantly peraluminous, alkali-calcic, K-rich, and ferroan, with A-type and within-plate-type characteristics, and formed penecontemporaneously with post-collisional shoshonitic intrusions in southern Finland, again presumably by crustal melting due to basaltic underplating in an extensional setting towards the end of the Svecofennian orogeny.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Hedesunda granite paper
  • 12.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    A refined U-Pb age for the Stockholm granite at Frescati, east-central Sweden2019Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 141, nr 1, s. 40-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of fine-grained grey Stockholm granite from the Frescati area just north of central Stockholm, east-central Sweden, earlier dated to 1803 +23/−19 Ma by the U-Pb zircon method using TIMS on multigrain fractions, has been reanalyzed using the Nordsim ion microprobe. The new age obtained, 1792±4 Ma, is more precise, and replaces the earlier highly discordant date. It agrees well with other ages for the formation of the Stockholm-type granites and related pegmatites, indicating an age of around 1.79 Ga for this late-orogenic Svecofennian granite magmatism. The Stockholm granite thus formed toward the end of the 1.83–1.79 Ga late Svecofennian metamorphic phase, and crosscuts earlier formed migmatitic gneiss structures in a brittle manner at the present-day level of exposure.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Hurgammal är Stockholmsgraniten? Vad säger forskningen och vad säger folket?2019Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, nr 101, s. 22-25Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Stockholmsgranitens ålder
  • 14.
    Kara, Jaakko
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Väisänen, Markku
    University of Turku .
    Lahaye, Yann
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
    O'Brien, Hugh
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
    Eklund, Olav
    Åbo Akademi University.
    1.90-1.88 Ga arcmagmatism of central Fennoscandia: geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology, Sm-Nd andLu-Hf isotope systematics of plutonic-volcanic rocks from southern Finland.2018Ingår i: Geologica Acta, ISSN 1695-6133, E-ISSN 1696-5728, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The earliest Svecofennian magmatism in southern Finland has been dated to 1.90-1.88Ga. As an example of this, the Orijärvi (ca. 1.89Ga) and Enklinge (ca. 1.88Ga) volcanic centres comprise bimodal plutonic batholiths surrounded by volcanic rocks of comparable ages and chemical compositions. The rock types range from gabbros to granites and indicate a subduction-related continental margin setting. The zircons from the Orijärvi granodiorite define an age of 1892±4Ma whereas the Enklinge granodiorite yields an age of 1882±6Ma. Several inherited ages of 2.25-1.95Ga as well as younger metamorphic ages of 1.86-1.80Ga were found in the Enklinge granodiorite. The initial εNd values of the mafic rocks from both locations fall in the range +1.1 to +2.9, whereas the felsic rocks exhibit initial εNd values of -0.4 to +1.2. The magmatic zircons from the Orijärvi and Enklinge granodiorites show average initial εHf values of -1.1 (at 1892Ma) and zero (at 1882Ma), respectively, both with a spread of about 7 ε-units. The initial εHf values for the inherited zircons from Enklinge range from +3.5 to +7.6 with increasing age. The Sm-Nd data indicate that the mafic rocks were derived from a “mildly depleted” mantle source while the felsi rocks show some crustal contribution. Also, the variation in ε Hf values indicates minor mixing between mildly depleted mantle-derived magmas and crustal sources. U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for inherited zircons from the Enklinge granodiorite suggest the presence of juvenile Svecofennian “proto-crust” at depth

  • 15. Kornprobst, Jacques
    et al.
    Abalos, Benito
    Barbey, Pierre
    Boullier, Anne-Marie
    Burg, Jean-Pierre
    Capdevila, Ramon
    Claesson, Stefan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Cordani, Umberto
    Corrigan, David
    Gabrielsen, Roy H
    Gil-Ibarguchi, José I
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Letsch, Dominik
    Le Vigouroux, Phillipe
    Upton, Brian
    Boris Choubert: Unrecognized visionarygeologist, pioneer of the global tectonics.2018Ingår i: BSGF - Earth Science Bulletin, Vol. 189, nr 2, s. 1-15, artikel-id 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is a review of Boris Choubert’s paper (1935), which was published in French under the rather devalorizing title: “Research on the Genesis of Palaeozoic and Precambrian Belts.” Despite its innovative content, this article had no impact either at the time of its publication or even later. It begins with the construction of a remarkable fit of the circum-Atlantic continents. This was based on the 1.000 meters isobath instead of the shoreline. Thirty years before Bullard et al. (1965), it demonstrated in an indisputable way the reality of the continents motion on the surface of the Earth. Therefore, Choubert designated Wegener’s “continental drift” as the main cause of tectonics. Even going beyond Wegener’s theory, he argued that this mechanism was efficient well before the formation of the Triassic Pangæa, during the whole Palaeozoic to result in the building of the Caledonian and Hercynian mountains. Although he was still encumbered by the vocabulary of the time regarding geosynclines, Boris Choubert described tectonics based on the horizontal mobility of the Precambrian continental blocks. Oddly enough, he did not apply this model to the Precambrian structures, which he attributed to the effects of the Earth’s rotation on the continental crust during its solidification. At the time of its publication, this paper was a very important step towards understanding global tectonics. Unfortunately, Choubert’s contemporaries did not generally recognize its significance.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kumpulainen, Risto
    Rantakokko, Nina
    Sveriges största granater?2018Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, nr 99, s. 6-9Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Timing of magmatism and migmatization in the 2.0–1.8 Ga accretionary Svecokarelian orogen, south-central Sweden.2017Ingår i: International journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1437-3254, E-ISSN 1437-3262, Vol. 106, nr 3, s. 783-810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Palaeoproterozoic (2.0–1.8 Ga) Svecokarelian orogen in central Sweden consists of a low-pressure, predominantly medium-grade metamorphic domain (central part of Bergslagen lithotectonic unit), enclosed to the north and south by low-pressure migmatite belts. Two periods of metamorphism (1.87–1.85 and 1.83–1.79 Ga) are known in the migmatite belts. In this study, new U–Th–Pb ion microprobe data on zircon and monazite from twelve samples of locally migmatized gneisses and felsic intrusive bodies determine both protolith and metamorphic ages in four sample areas north of Stockholm, inside or immediately adjacent to the medium-grade metamorphic domain. Two orthogneiss samples from the Rimbo area yield unusually old protolith ages of 1909 ± 4 and 1908 ± 4 Ma, while three orthogneisses from the Skutskär and Forsmark areas yield more typical protolith ages between 1901 ± 3 and 1888 ± 3 Ma. Migmatized paragneiss samples from this and two earlier studies contain a significant detrital component sourced from this 1.9 Ga magmatic suite. They are interpreted to be deposited contemporaneously with or shortly after this magmatism. Migmatization of the paragneiss at Rimbo was followed by intrusion of leucogranite at 1846 ± 3 Ma. Even in the other sample areas to the north (Hedesunda-Tierp, Skutskär and Forsmark), metamorphism including migmatization is constrained to the 1.87–1.85 Ga interval and penetrative ductile deformation is limited by earlier studies in the Forsmark area to 1.87–1.86 Ga. However, apart from a metamorphic monazite age of 1863 ± 1 Ma, precise ages were not possible to obtain due to the presence of only partially reset recrystallized domains in zircon, or highly discordant U-rich metamict and altered metamorphic rims. Migmatization was contemporaneous with magmatic activity at 1.87–1.84 Ga in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit involving a mantle-derived component, and there is a spatial connection between migmatization and this magmatic phase in the Hedesunda-Tierp sample area. The close spatial and temporal interplay between ductile deformation, magmatism and migmatization, the PT metamorphic conditions, and the continuation of similar magmatic activity around and after 1.8 Ga support solely accretionary rather than combined accretionary and collisional orogenic processes as an explanation for the metamorphism. The generally lower metamorphic grade and restricted influence of the younger metamorphic episode, at least at the ground surface level, distinguishes the central part of the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit from the migmatite belts further north and south.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    35:e IGC i Kapstaden. Geologernas egen olympiad.2016Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, nr 92, s. 18-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Comments to ”Detrital zircon signatures of the Baltoscandian margin along the Arctic Circle Caledonides in Sweden: The Sveconorwegian connection” by Gee et al. (2015).: Letter to the Editor2016Ingår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 276, s. 233-235Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Waight, Tod
    University of Copenhagen.
    Andersen, Tom
    University of Oslo.
    Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm, southern Fennoscandia2016Ingår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 244, s. 94-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Granitoids and gneisses from the Danish island of Bornholm have been investigated using whole rock geochemistry, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and Hf isotopes in zircon. Recent U-Pb dating shows that the rocks were formed during a short time interval at 1.45 to 1.46 Ga, penecontemporaneous with ongoing deformation. The strong similarity in geochemical signatures indicate that they all belong to a single igneous suite composed of alkali-calcic biotite-hornblende quartz monzonites to more evolved biotite granites, albeit with an apparent gap in SiO2 content at around 70 wt%, dividing the suite into an intermediate and a felsic part. These dominantly metaluminous rocks are strongly ferroan and potassic, and with highly elevated concentrations of many trace elements, traits that are typical for A-type granitoids. The presence of magnetite and titanite indicates relatively oxidized compositions, and Nb/Y ratios designate them to the A2 subtype. Initial whole rock eNd values range between +1 and -2 (with one outlier at +4), and initial zircon eHf values between +3 and -4. These values may be explained by melting of relatively juvenile crust similar to that forming the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt alone, but the spread in Hf and Nd isotope compositions to values overlapping with the Svecofennian mantle at 1.45 Ga suggests involvement of a mantle-derived component. This indicates the magmatism was associated with juvenile crustal growth. There are no systematic differences in isotope or trace element characteristics between the orthogneisses and the less deformed granitoids, suggesting similar origins for both rock types, and no systematic changes in isotopic composition with SiO2concentration. 

    Trace element compositions indicate a within-plate setting, similar to other 1.45 Ga granites in southwest Fennoscandia, in spite of the close relation between magmatism and deformation on Bornholm. We therefore suggest intracratonic A-type magmatism within an active continental shear zone as a tentative model for the Mesoproterozoic magmatism on Bornholm. However, a close relationship to the nearby Hallandian tectono-magmatic activity in southern Sweden, attributed to continental margin orogenic processes, is also evident. Intermediate magmas presumably formed by ponding of enriched mantle-derived basic magma at the crust-mantle boundary or within the lower crust, causing extensive partial melting and assimilation of mafic to intermediate crustal rocks related to the Transcandinavian Igneous Belt. The magmas then evolved to granitic compositions by removal of an assemblage similar to that seen petrographically, i.e. plagioclase, amphibole, magnetite, titanite, and late-stage K-feldspar.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    U-Pb SIMS dating of some granitoids from eastern Blekinge, southern Sweden2016Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 138, nr 3, s. 430-444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zircons from seven granitoids in eastern Blekinge have been dated using secondary ion mass spectrometry. The analyzed rocks include one Småland granitoid from north of the Småland-Blekinge Deformation Zone (SBDZ), two samples of megacrystic “Filipstad-type” granite from south of that zone, and one sample each of the “Småland-type” Rödeby, Almö, Tjurkö and Jämjö granites. The results yield a crystallization age of 1776 ± 6 Ma for the Småland granitoid, and crystallization ages between 1770 ± 4 and 1758 ± 6 Ma for the other granitoids, in most cases substantially older than previous TIMS ages. These data show that the “Småland-type” granitoids in eastern Blekinge are similar in age to the surrounding Tving granitoids, and the more felsic of them may represent late-stage differentiates belonging to the same magmatic suite. As the Tving granitoids show differences both in degree of deformation, in geochemistry and possibly in age, when compared with the Småland granitoids north of the SBDZ, it is suggested that these represent two separate but closely related igneous suites, which could both be included within a TIB-1 supersuite.

    The investigated zircons showed very limited signs of metamorphic overgrowths, and no metamorphic ages could be determined. However, the combined evidence from field observations combined with earlier U-Pb geochronology would suggest the presence of two separate metamorphic episodes in Blekinge, one in close connection with the formation of these rocks at 1.76 – 1.75 Ga, and one connected to the intrusion of the Karlshamn granitoid suite at around 1.45 Ga.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Vegahallen, ett monument över svensk stenindustri2016Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, nr 92, s. 24-28Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Dokumentera underjorden innan det är för sent.2015Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, Vol. 22, nr 85, s. 31-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 24. Armands, Gösta
    et al.
    Claesson, Stefan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Lundqvist, Thomas
    En pionjär inom svensk isotopgeologi. In memoriam, Eric Welin, 1923-20142015Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, Vol. 22, nr 85, s. 26-27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 25.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Andersen, Tom
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Simonsen, Siri L.
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Hafnium isotope characteristics of late Palaeoproterozoic magmatic rocks from Blekinge, southeast Sweden: possible correlation of small-scale Hf and Nd isotope variations in zircon and whole-rocks.2015Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 137, nr 1, s. 74-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Kilauea – besvikelse och överraskning2015Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, Vol. 22, nr 87, s. 14-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Berättelsen om ett jordeliv2014Ingår i: Geologiskt forum, ISSN 1104-4721, Vol. 21, nr 84, s. 31-31Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    From Rodinia to Gondwana with the ‘SAMBA’ model—A distant viewfrom Baltica towards Amazonia and beyond2014Ingår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 244, s. 226-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A refined model of the late Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia is presented, with Baltica, Amazonia and West Africa attached to eastern Laurentia as in the SAMBA model (Johansson, 2009), East Antarctica, Australia and India to western Laurentia in a SWEAT configuration (Moores, 1991), and northern Siberia attached to northern Laurentia as proposed by Condie and Rosen (1994). In such a model, the Proto-Andean margin of South America would form the conjugate margin of Laurentia’s Grenville margin. With the Kalahari craton attached to SW Laurentia and East Antarctica, as proposed by Loewy et al. (2011), followed by the Congo and Tanzania cratons in Africa and the Sao Fransisco and Rio de la Plata cratons in South America, all these cratons would be part of Rodinia, but would still be separated from Amazonia by a wide Brasiliano (Clymene) ocean embayment. By rotating the African and eastern South American cratons ca 90° counterclockwise around a pole located close to the Laurentia – Kalahari junction, and East Antarctica, Australia and India ca 120° counterclockwise around a pole located inside the Kalahari craton, all relative to a fixed Laurentia, these cratons will move from a Rodinia to a Gondwana configuration. These rotations will open up the Proto-Pacific ocean, close the Brasiliano (Clymene) ocean, and both open and close the intervening Adamastor and Mozambque oceans, creating the various Brasiliano and Pan-African fold belts in the ensuing collisions. The maximum plate velocity, ca 7.5 cm/year (15 000 km in 200 m.y.), will occur along the outer periphery of this rotation, thereby explaining the formation of large amounts of juvenile Neoproterozoic continental crust within the oceanic Arabian – Nubian sector of the Pan-African Orogen. Rather than being an example of ‘introversion’ or ‘extroversion’, the change from Rodinia to Gondwana in this model would be more like the 90º ‘orthoversion’ model proposed by Mitchell et al. (2012).

  • 29.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Johansson, Åke
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ulf Bertil
    LKAB.
    Source character, mixing, fractionation and alkali metasomatism in Palaeoproterozoic greenstone dykes, Dannemora area, NE Bergslagen region, Sweden2014Ingår i: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 151, nr 4, s. 573-590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The geochemical and isotopic characteristics of metamorphosed Svecofennian mafic dykes from the Dannemora area in the NE part of the Bergslagen region in central Sweden were investigated and compared to mafic intrusive rocks in their vicinity. The dykes, with an inferred age of c. 1860–1870 Ma, are calc-alkaline, sub-alkaline and basaltic in composition and have a mixed subduction and within-plate geochemical affinity. They are the result of mixing of at least three mantle source components with similar basaltic major element composition, but different concentrations of incompatible trace elements. Magma M1 is strongly enriched both in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and High-Field-Strength Elements (HFSE); magma M2 is highly enriched in Large-Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE, except Sr) with only moderate enrichment in HFSE and REE (particularly low in Heavy Rare Earth Elements); and magma M3 is enriched in Sr and has a flat REE profile. Magma M3 also has a somewhat more positive (depleted) initial εNd value of +1.8, compared to +0.4 to +0.5 for magmas M1 and M2. The magma evolution was controlled by a mixture of fractionation (mainly affecting the compatible elements) and mixing, best seen in the incompatible element concentrations and the Nd isotope data. The basaltic overall composition indicates little or no wholesale contamination by upper continental crust, but the dykes have undergone later metasomatic changes mainly affecting the alkali elements.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Palaeoproterozoic mafic intrusions along the Avesta-Östhammar belt, east-central Sweden: mineralogy, geochemistry and magmatic evolution2013Ingår i: International Geology Review, ISSN 0020-6814, E-ISSN 1938-2839, Vol. 55, s. 131-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Johansson, Åke
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för geovetenskap.
    Petrogenesis and geotectonic setting of early Svecofennian arc cumulates in the Roslagen area, east-central Sweden2012Ingår i: Geological Journal, ISSN 0072-1050, E-ISSN 1099-1034, Vol. 47, s. 557-593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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