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  • 1.
    Bermúdez, Hermann
    et al.
    Grupo de Investigación Paleoexplorer.
    Arenillas, Ignacio
    Universidad de Zaragoza.
    Arz, José Antonio
    Universidad de Zaragoza.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Renne, Paul
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Gilabert, Vicente
    Universidad de Zaragoza.
    Rodríguez, José Vicente
    Grupo de Investigación Paleoexplorer.
    The Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary Deposits on Gorgonilla Island2019Ingår i: The Geology of Colombia, Volume 3 Paleogene – Neogene / [ed] Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D., Bogota: Servi­cio Geológico Colombiano , 2019, 1, s. 1-19Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A ca. 20 mm thick spherule bed representing Chicxulub impact ejecta deposits and marking the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary was recently discovered on Gorgonilla Island (Gorgona National Natural Park, Pacific of Colombia). This discovery represents the first confirmed record of the K/Pg event in Colombia, South America and the eastern Pacific Ocean. The deposit consists of extraordinarily well–preserved glass spherules (microtektites and microkrystites) reaching 1.1 mm in diameter. Importantly, the Gorgonilla spherule bed is unique relative to other K/Pg boundary sites in that up to 90% of the spherules are intact and not devitrified, and the bed is virtually devoid of lithic fragments and microfossils. The spherules were deposited in a deep marine environment, possibly below the calcite compensation depth. The preservation, normal size–gradation, presence of fine textures within the spherules, and absence of bioturbation or traction transport indicate that the Gorgonilla spherules settled within a water column with minimal disturbance. The spherule bed may represent one of the first parautochthonous primary deposits of the Chicxulub impact known to date. 40Ar/39Ar dating and micropaleontological analysis reveal that the Gorgonilla spherule bed resulted from the Chicxulub impact. Intense soft–sediment deformation and bed disruption in Maastrichtian sediments of the Gorgonilla Island K/Pg section provide evidence for seismic activity triggered by the Chicxulub bolide impact, 66 million years ago. It is also notable that the basal deposits of the Danian in the Colombian locality present the first evidence of a recovery vegetation, characterized by ferns from a tropical habitat, shortly following the end–Cretaceous event.

  • 2. BERMÚDEZ,, Hermann Darío
    et al.
    ARENILLAS, Ignacio
    ARZ, José Antonio
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    RENNE, Paul R.
    GILABERT, Vicente
    RODRÍGUEZ, José Vicente
    The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary deposits on Gorgonilla Island2018Ingår i: The Geology of Colombia: Volume  3   Paleogene – Neogene / [ed] Tapias, J.G. et al., Bogota: Servicio Geológico Colombiano , 2018, s. 1-34Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A ~20 mm thick spherule bed representing Chicxulub impact ejecta deposits and marking the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary was recently discovered on Gorgonilla Island (Gorgona National Natural Park, Pacific of Colombia). This discovery represents the first confirmed record of the K/Pg event in Colombia, South America and the eastern Pacific Ocean. The deposit consists of extraordinarily well–preserved glass spherules (microtektites and microkrystites) reaching 1.1 mm in diameter. Importantly, the Gorgonilla spherule bed is unique relative to other K/Pg boundary sites in that up to 90% of the spherules are intact and not devitrified, and the bed is virtually devoid of lithic fragments and microfossils. The spherules were deposited in a deep marine environment, possibly below the calcite compensation depth. The preservation, normal size–gradation, presence of fine textures within the spherules, and absence of bioturbation or traction transport indicate that the Gorgonilla spherules settled within a water column with minimal disturbance. Thus, the spherule bed may represent one of the first parautochthonous primary deposits of the Chicxulub impact known to date. 40Ar/39Ar dating and micropaleontological analysis reveal that the Gorgonilla spherule bed resulted from the Chicxulub impact. Intense soft–sediment deformation and bed disruption in Maastrichtian sediments of the Gorgonilla Island K/Pg section provide evidence for seismic activity triggered by the Chicxulub bolide impact, 66 million years ago. It is also notable that the basal deposits of the Danian in the Colombian locality present the first evidence of a recovery vegetation, characterized by ferns from a tropical habitat, shortly following the end–Cretaceous event.

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    summary
  • 3.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Lund University.
    Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 millionyears of genomic stasis in Royal Ferns2014Ingår i: Science, ISSN ISSN 0036-8075, Vol. 343, s. 1376-1377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly permineralized fossils can provide exceptional insights into the evolution of life over geological time. Here, we present an exquisitely preserved, calcified stem of a royal fern (Osmundaceae) from Early Jurassic lahar deposits of Sweden in which authigenic mineral precipitation from hydrothermal brines occurred so rapidly that it preserved cytoplasm, cytosol granules, nuclei, and even chromosomes in various stages of cell division. Morphometric parameters of interphase nuclei match those of extant Osmundaceae, indicating that the genome size of these reputed “living fossils” has remained unchanged over at least 180 million years—a paramount example of evolutionary stasis.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Osmundaceae nuclei MS
  • 4.
    Bralower, T
    et al.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Cosmidis, J
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Fantle, M.S.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Lowery, C.M.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Passey, B.H.
    University of Michigan.
    Gulick, S.P.S.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Morgan, J.V.
    Imperial College London.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Whalen, M.T.
    University of Alaska Fairbanks.
    Wittmann, A.
    Arizona State University,.
    Artemieva, N.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Farley, K.
    California Institute of Technology.
    Goderis, S.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Hajek, E.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Heaney, P.J.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Kring, D.A.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Lyons, S.L.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Rasmussen, C.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Sibert, E.
    Yale University.
    Rodríguez Tovar, F.J.
    Universidad de Granada.
    Turner-Walker, G.
    National Yunlin University of Science and Technology.
    Zachos, J.C.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Carte, J.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Chen, S.A.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Cockell, C.
    University of Edinburgh.
    Coolen, M.
    Curtin University.
    Freeman, K.H.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Garber, J.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Gonzalez, M.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Gray, J.L.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Grice, K.
    Curtin University.
    Jones, H.L.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Schaefer, B.
    Curtin University.
    Smit, J.
    VU Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Tikoo, S.M.
    Stanford University.
    The Habitat of the Nascent Chicxulub Crater2020Ingår i: AGU Advances, Vol. 1, artikel-id e2020AV000208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An expanded sedimentary section provides an opportunity to elucidate conditions in the nascent Chicxulub crater during the hours to millennia after the Cretaceous‐Paleogene (K‐Pg) boundary impact. The sediments were deposited by tsunami followed by seiche waves as energy in the crater declined, culminating in a thin hemipelagic marlstone unit that contains atmospheric fallout. Seiche deposits are predominantly composed of calcite formed by decarbonation of the target limestone during impact followed by carbonation in the water column. Temperatures recorded by clumped isotopes of these carbonates are in excess of 70°C, with heat likely derived from the central impact melt pool. Yet, despite the turbidity and heat, waters within the nascent crater basin soon became a viable habitat for a remarkably diverse cross section of the food chain. The earliest seiche layers deposited with days or weeks of the impact contain earliest Danian nannoplankton and dinocyst survivors. The hemipelagic marlstone representing the subsequent years to a few millennia contains a nearly monogeneric calcareous dinoflagellate resting cyst assemblage suggesting deteriorating environmental conditions, with one interpretation involving low light levels in the impact aftermath. At the same horizon, microbial fossils indicate a thriving bacterial community and unique phosphatic fossils including appendages of pelagic crustaceans, coprolites andbacteria‐tunneled fish bone, suggesting that this rapid recovery of the base of the food chain may have supported the survival of larger, higher trophic‐level organisms. The extraordinarily diverse fossil assemblage indicates that the crater was a unique habitat in the immediate impact aftermath, possibly as aresult of heat and nutrients supplied by hydrothermal activity.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Bralower, Timothy
    et al.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Cosmidis, Julie
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Heaney, Peter
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Kump, Lee
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Morgan, Joanna
    Imperial College London.
    Haroer, Dustin
    University of Kansas.
    Lyons, Shelby
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Freeman, Katherine
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Grice, Kliti
    Curtin University.
    Wendler, Jens
    Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    Zachos, James
    University of California Santa Cruz.
    Artemieva, Natalia
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Chen, Si Athena
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Gulick, Sean
    University of Texas.
    House, Christopher
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Jones, Heather
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Lowery, Christopher
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Nims, Christine
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Schaefer, Bettina
    Curtin University.
    Thomas, Ellen
    Yale University.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Origin of a global carbonate layer deposited in the aftermath of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary impact2020Ingår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 548, artikel-id 116476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcrystalline calcite (micrite) dominates the sedimentary record of the aftermath of the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) impact at 31 sites globally, with records ranging from the deep ocean to the Chicxulub impact crater, over intervals ranging from a few centimeters to more than seventeen meters. This micrite-rich layer provides important information about the chemistry and biology of the oceans after the impact. Detailed high-resolution scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the layer contains abundant calcite crystals in the micron size range with a variety of forms. Crystals are often constructed of delicate, oriented agglomerates of sub-micrometer mesocrystals indicative of rapid precipitation. We compare the form of crystals with natural and experimental calcite to shed light on their origin. Close to the crater, a significant part of the micrite may derive from the initial backreaction of CaO vaporized during impact. In more distal sites, simple interlocking rhombohedral crystals resemble calcite precipitated from solution. Globally, we found unique calcite crystals associated with fossilized extracellular materials that strikingly resemble calcite precipitated by various types of bacteria in natural and laboratory settings. The micrite-rich layer contains abundant bacterial and eukaryotic algal biomarkers and most likely represents global microbial blooms initiated within millennia of the K–Pg mass extinction. Cyanobacteria and non-haptophyte microalgae likely proliferated as dominant primary producers in cold immediate post-impact environments. As surface-water saturation state rose over the following millennia due to the loss of eukaryotic carbonate producers and continuing river input of alkalinity, “whitings” induced by cyanobacteria replaced calcareous nannoplankton as major carbonate producers. We postulate that the blooms grew in supersaturated surface waters as evidenced by crystals that resemble calcite precipitates from solution. The microbial biomass may have served as a food source enabling survival of a portion of the marine biota, ultimately including life on the deep seafloor. Although the dominance of cyanobacterial and algal photosynthesis would have weakened the biological pump, it still would have removed sufficient nutrients from surface waters thus conditioning the ocean for the recovery of biota at highertrophic levels.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Cavalcante, Larissa Lopes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Barbolini, Natasha
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bacsik, Zoltán
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Analysis of fossil plant cuticles using vibrational spectroscopy: A new preparation protocol2023Ingår i: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 316, artikel-id 104944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses for organic “fingerprints” on fossilized plant cuticles and pollen hold valuable chemotaxonomic and palaeoclimatic information, and are thus becoming more utilized by palaeobotanists. Plant cuticle and pollen composition are generally analyzed after standard treatments with several chemical reagents for mineral and mesophyll removal. However, the potential alterations on the fossil composition caused by the different cleaning reagents used are still poorly understood. We tested the effects of commonly used palaeobotanical processing methods on the spectra of fossilized cuticles from successions of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic age, including the gymnosperms Lepidopteris, Ginkgoites, Podozamites, Ptilozamites and Pterophyllum astartense. Our study shows that standard chemical processing caused chemical alterations that might lead to erroneous interpretation of the infrared (IR) spectra. The difference in pH caused by HCl induces changes in the proportion between the two bands at ~1720 and 1600 cm 1 (carboxylate and C-C stretch of aromatic compounds) indicating that the band at ~1610 cm 1 at least partially corresponds to carboxylate instead of C-C stretch of aromatic compounds. Interestingly, despite being used in high concentration, HF did not cause changes in the chemical composition of the cuticles. The most alarming changes were caused by the use of Schulze ’s solution, which resulted in the addition of both NO2 and (O)NO2 compounds in the cuticle. Consequently, a new protocol using H2CO3, HF, and H2O2 for preparing fossil plant cuticles aimed for chemical analyses is proposed, which provides an effective substitute to the conventional methods. In particular, a less aggressive and more sustainable alternative to Schulze’s solution is shown to be hydrogen peroxide, which causes only minor alteration of the fossil cuticle ’s chemical composition. Future work should carefully follow protocols, having in mind the impacts of different solutions used to treat leaves and other palaeobotanical material such as palynomorphs with aims to enable the direct comparison of spectra obtained in different studies.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Cavalcante et al_2023_Analysis of fossil plant cuticles using vibrational spectroscopy
  • 7.
    Cui, Ying
    et al.
    Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.
    Bercovici, Antoine
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Yu, Jianxin
    State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), People's Republic of China.
    Kump, Lee R.
    Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.
    Freeman, Katherine
    Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.
    Su, Shangguo
    School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), People's Republic of China.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Carbon cycle perturbation expressed in terrestrial Permian–Triassic boundary sections in South China2017Ingår i: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 148, s. 272-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable isotopes of inorganic and organic carbon are commonly used in chemostratigraphy to correlatemarine andterrestrial sedimentary sequences based on the assumption that the carbon isotopic signature of the exogenic carbon pool dominates other sources of variability. Here, sediment samples fromfour Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) sections ofwesternGuizhou and eastern Yunnan provinces in South China, representing a terrestrial tomarine transitional setting,were analyzed for δ13C of organic matter (δ13Corg). These valueswere subsequently compared to published δ13C values of carbonates (δ13Ccarb) from the Global Stratotype Section and Point at Meishan and many other marine and terrestrial sections. A similar isotopic trend evident through all four sections is characterized by a negative shift of 2–3‰ at the top of the Xuanwei Formation, where we tentatively place the PTB. This negative shift also corresponds to a turnover in the vegetation and the occurrence of fungal spores, which is generally interpreted as a proliferation of decomposers and collapse of complex ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction event. Moreover, the absolute values of δ13Corg are more extreme in the more distal (marine) deposits. The δ13Corg values for the studied sediments aremore variable compared to coeval δ13Ccarb records from marine records especially in the interval below the extinction horizon. We contend that the depositional environment influenced the δ13Corg values, but that the persisting geographic δ13Corg pattern through the extinction event across the four independent sections is an indication that the atmospheric δ13C signal left an indelible imprint on the geologic record related to the profound ecosystem change during the end-Permian extinction event.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Danise, Silvia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Twitchett, Richard J.
    cDepartment of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, UK.
    Land-sea ecological connectivity during a Jurassic warming event2022Ingår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 578, s. 117290-117290, artikel-id 117290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on how climate change affects land-sea ecological connectivity in deep time is scarce. To fill this knowledge gap we have assembled a unique dataset through a Jurassic (early Toarcian) warming event that includes quantitative abundance data from pollen and spores, organic-walled marine plankton and benthic macro-invertebrates, in association with geochemical data derived from the same sampled horizons, from the Cleveland Basin, UK. Using this dataset we: (i) reconstruct the timing of degradation and recovery of land-plants, marine primary producers and benthic fauna in response to this event, and (ii) test for connectivity between changes in land and marine ecosystems. We find a discrepancy between the timing of the response of land-plant and marine ecosystems to the event. Land-plants were the first to be affected by initial warming, but also recovered relatively quickly after the peak of warmth to return to pre-event levels of richness and diversity. Plankton and benthic fauna instead experienced a delayed response to initial warming, but as warming peaked, they suffered a rapid and extreme turnover. Recovery in the shelf sea was also delayed (particularly for the benthos) compared to the vegetation. Ecological connectivity analyses show a strong link between changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The loss of large trees on land contributed to changes in marine plankton, from dinoflagellate-to prasinophyte algal-dominated communities, by enhancing erosion, runoff and nutrient-supply into shallow seas. Eutrophication and changes in primary productivity contributed to the decrease of dissolved oxygen in the water column and in bottom waters, which in turn affected benthic communities. Such cause-effect mechanisms observed in the Cleveland Basin are likely to have occurred in other basins of the Boreal Realm, and in part also in basins of the Sub-Boreal and Tethyan realms. Although palaeolatitudinal and palaeoceanographic gradients may have controlled local and regional changes in land-plants and marine ecosystems during the Early Jurassic, the main climatic and environmental changes linked to rapid global warming, enhanced weathering and high primary productivity, are shared among all the examined realms.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Danise, Silvia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Twitchett, Richard J.
    Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, UK.
    Land-sea ecological connectivity during a Jurassic warming event2021Ingår i: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, s. 117290-117290, artikel-id 117290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on how climate change affects land-sea ecological connectivity in deep time is scarce. To fill this knowledge gap we have assembled a unique dataset through a Jurassic (early Toarcian) warming event that includes quantitative abundance data from pollen and spores, organic-walled marine plankton and benthic macro-invertebrates, in association with geochemical data derived from the same sampled horizons, from the Cleveland Basin, UK. Using this dataset we: (i) reconstruct the timing of degradation and recovery of land-plants, marine primary producers and benthic fauna in response to this event, and (ii) test for connectivity between changes in land and marine ecosystems. We find a discrepancy between the timing of the response of land-plant and marine ecosystems to the event. Land-plants were the first to be affected by initial warming, but also recovered relatively quickly after the peak of warmth to return to pre-event levels of richness and diversity. Plankton and benthic fauna instead experienced a delayed response to initial warming, but as warming peaked, they suffered a rapid and extreme turnover. Recovery in the shelf sea was also delayed (particularly for the benthos) compared to the vegetation. Ecological connectivity analyses show a strong link between changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The loss of large trees on land contributed to changes in marine plankton, from dinoflagellate- to prasinophyte algal-dominated communities, by enhancing erosion, runoff and nutrient-supply into shallow seas. Eutrophication and changes in primary productivity contributed to the decrease of dissolved oxygen in the water column and in bottom waters, which in turn affected benthic communities. Such cause-effect mechanisms observed in the Cleveland Basin are likely to have occurred in other basins of the Boreal Realm, and in part also in basins of the Sub-Boreal and Tethyan realms. Although palaeolatitudinal and palaeoceanographic gradients may have controlled local and regional changes in land-plants and marine ecosystems during the Early Jurassic, the main climatic and environmental changes linked to rapid global warming, enhanced weathering and high primary productivity, are shared among all the examined realms.

    Ladda ner (pdf)
    attachment
  • 10.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Department of Geology, Lund University.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    First evidence of the Cretaceous decapod crustacean Protocallianassa from Sweden2016Ingår i: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, ISSN ISSN 0305-8719, Vol. 434, s. 241-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An assemblage of the burrowing ghost shrimp, Protocallianassa faujasi, is described, providing the first evidence of this decapod species from Sweden. The fossils occur in successions of the informal earliest late Campanian Belemnellocamax balsvikensis Zone at Åsen and the latest early Campanian B. mammillatus zone at Ivö Klack, both in the Kristianstad Basin of NE Skåne. Numerous, heavily calcified chelipeds were found within a restricted bed at Åsen that was rich in carbonate-cemented nodules. Based on the burrowing lifestyle of modern mud shrimps, we interpret these nodules as infilled burrow chambers. The low abundance of molluscs within the Protocallianassa beds is also consistent with analogous extant communities, indicating that a similar ecologically exclusive relationship ruled within the Late Cretaceous shallow marine ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Field, Daniel J
    et al.
    Milner Centre for Evolution, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.
    Bercovici, Antoine
    2Department of Paleobiology MRC-121, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 10th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20560-0121, USA.
    Berv, Jacob S
    Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, 215 Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
    Dunn, Regan
    Integrated Research Center, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA.
    Fastovsky, David E
    Department of Geosciences, University of Rhode Island, 9 East Alumni Avenue, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.
    Lyson, Tyler R
    6Department of Earth Sciences, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, 2001 Colorado Boulevard, Denver, CO 80205, USA.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gauthier, Jacques A
    Department of Geology & Geophysics, Yale University 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
    Early Evolution of Modern Birds Structured by Global Forest Collapse at the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction2018Ingår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, s. 1825-1831Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fossil record and recent molecular phylogenies support an extraordinary early-Cenozoic radiation of crown birds (Neornithes) after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction [1–3 ]. However, questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the survival of the deepest lineages within crown birds across the K-Pg boundary, particularly since this global catastrophe eliminated even the closest stem-group relatives of Neornithes [4 ]. Here, ancestral state reconstructions of neornithine ecology reveal a strong bias toward taxa exhibiting predominantly non-arboreal lifestyles across the K-Pg, with multiple convergent transitions toward predominantly arboreal ecologies later in the Paleocene and Eocene. By contrast, ecomorphological inferences indicate predominantly arboreal lifestyles among enantiornithines, the most diverse and widespread Mesozoic avialans [5–7 ]. Global paleobotanical and palynological data show that the K-Pg Chicxulub impact triggered widespread destruction of forests [8, 9 ]. We suggest that ecological filtering due to the temporary loss of significant plant cover across the K-Pg boundary selected against any flying dinosaurs (Avialae [10 ]) committed to arboreal ecologies, resulting in a predominantly non-arboreal postextinction neornithine avifauna composed of totalclade Palaeognathae, Galloanserae, and terrestrial total-clade Neoaves that rapidly diversified into the broad range of avian ecologies familiar today. The explanation proposed here provides a unifying hypothesis for the K-Pg-associated mass extinction of arboreal stem birds, as well as for the post-K-Pg radiation of arboreal crown birds. It also provides a baseline hypothesis to be further refined pending the discovery of additional neornithine fossils from the Latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene.

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  • 12.
    Fielding, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Nebraska.
    Frank, Tracy
    University of Nebraska.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Mays, Chris
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Tevyaw, Allen
    University of Nebraska.
    Winguth, Arne
    University of Texas at Arlington.
    Winguth, Cornelia
    University of Texas at Arlington.
    Nicoll, Robert
    Geoscience Australia.
    Bocking, Malcolm
    Bocking Associates.
    Crowley, James
    Boise State University.
    Age and pattern of the southern high-latitude continental end-Permian extinction constrained by multiproxy analysis2019Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, nr 385, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Past studies of the end-Permian extinction (EPE), the largest biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic, have not resolved the timing of events in southern high-latitudes. Here we use palynology coupled with high-precision CA-ID-TIMS dating of euhedral zircons from continental sequences of the Sydney Basin, Australia, to show that the collapse of the austral Permian Glossopteris flora occurred prior to 252.3 Ma (~370 kyrs before the main marine extinction). Weathering proxies indicate that floristic changes occurred during a brief climate perturbation in a regional alluvial landscape that otherwise experienced insubstantial change in fluvial style, insignificant reorganization of the depositional surface, and no abrupt aridification. Palaeoclimate modelling suggests a moderate shift to warmer summer temperatures and amplified seasonality in temperature across the EPE, and warmer and wetter conditions for all seasons into the Early Triassic. The terrestrial EPE and a succeeding peak in Ni concentration in the Sydney Basin correlate, respectively, to the onset of the primary extrusive and intrusive phases of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province.

  • 13.
    Fielding, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Nebraska.
    Frank, Tracy
    University of Nebraska.
    Tevyaw, Allen
    University of Nebraska.
    Savatic, Katarina
    University of Nebraska.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Mays, Chris
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Nicoll, Robert
    Geoscience Australia.
    Bocking, Malcolm
    Bocking Associates.
    Crowley, James
    Boise State University.
    Sedimentology of the continental end-Permian extinction eventin the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia2021Ingår i: Sedimentology, ISSN 0037-0746, E-ISSN 1365-3091, Vol. 68, s. 30-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper Permian to Lower Triassic coastal plain successions of the Sydney Basin in eastern Australia have been investigated in outcrop and continuous drillcores. The purpose of the investigation is to provide an assessment of palaeoenvironmental change at high southern palaeolatitudes in a continental margin context for the late Permian (Lopingian), across the end‐Permian Extinction interval, and into the Early Triassic. These basins were affected by explosive volcanic eruptions during the late Permian and, to a much lesser extent, during the Early Triassic, allowing high‐resolution age determination on the numerous tuff horizons. Palaeobotanical and radiogenic isotope data indicate that the end‐Permian Extinction occurs at the top of the uppermost coal bed, and the Permo‐Triassic boundary either within an immediately overlying mudrock succession or within a succeeding channel sandstone body, depending on locality due to lateral variation. Late Permian depositional environments were initially (during the Wuchiapingian) shallow marine and deltaic, but coastal plain fluvial environments with extensive coal‐forming mires became progressively established during the early late Permian, reflected in numerous preserved coal seams. The fluvial style of coastal plain channel deposits varies geographically. However, apart from the loss of peat‐forming mires, no significant long‐term change in depositional style (grain size, sediment‐body architecture, or sediment dispersal direction) was noted across the end‐Permian Extinction (pinpointed by turnover of the palaeoflora). There is no evidence for immediate aridification across the boundary despite a loss of coal from these successions. Rather, the end‐Permian Extinction marks the base of a long‐term, progressive trend towards better‐drained alluvial conditions into the Early Triassic. Indeed, the floral turnover was immediately followed by a flooding event in basinal depocentres, following which fluvial systems similar to those active prior to the end‐Permian Extinction were re‐established. The age of the floral extinction is constrained to 252.54 ± 0.08 to 252.10 ± 0.06 Ma by a suite of new Chemical Abrasion Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry U‐Pb ages on zircon grains. Another new age indicates that the return to fluvial sedimentation similar to that before the end‐Permian Extinction occurred in the basal Triassic (prior to 251.51 ± 0.14 Ma). The character of the surface separating coal‐bearing pre‐end‐Permian Extinction from coal‐barren post‐end‐Permian Extinction strata varies across the basins. In basin‐central locations, the contact varies from disconformable, where a fluvial channel body has cut down to the level of the top coal, to conformable where the top coal is overlain by mudrocks and interbedded sandstone–siltstone facies. In basin‐marginal locations, however, the contact is a pronounced erosional disconformity with coarse‐grained alluvial facies overlying older Permian rocks. There is no evidence that the contact is everywhere a disconformity or unconformity.

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  • 14.
    Fielding, Christopher R.
    et al.
    Department of Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Beach Hall, 354 Mansfield Road (Unit 1045), Storrs, CT 06269, USA.
    Frank, Tracy D.
    Department of Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Beach Hall, 354 Mansfield Road (Unit 1045), Storrs, CT 06269, USA.
    Savatic, Katarina
    Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
    Mays, Chris
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Distillery Field, North Mall, Cork T23 N73K, Ireland.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicoll, Robert
    Geoscience Australia.
    Environmental change in the late Permian of Queensland, NE Australia: The warmup to the end-Permian Extinction2022Ingår i: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 594, s. 110936-110936, artikel-id 110936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The upper part of the upper Permian succession in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, NE Australia, was investigated to ascertain the timeline and character of environmental changes in this high southern palaeolatitudinal setting leading up to the End-Permian Extinction (EPE). The study focused on (in ascending order) the Peawaddy Formation, Black Alley Shale, and Bandanna Formation, and laterally correlative units. In the western Bowen Basin, the base of the Peawaddy Formation (257 Ma) records the onset of thrust loading and volcanic activity associated with the Hunter-Bowen contractional orogeny. The Peawaddy Formation comprises a series of coarsening-upward, terrigenous clastic intervals interpreted as the product of repeated progradation of deltas into shallow, open marine environments. The overlying Black Alley Shale also comprises multiple deltaic coarsening-upward cycles, which accumulated in stressed, restricted marine environments. The uppermost Bandanna Formation and equivalents formed in extensive coastal plain to estuarine environments. All three formations accumulated under the influence of explosive volcanic activity from the emerging continental volcanicarc to the east of the foreland basin. Volcanism peaked during deposition of the Black Alley Shale around the Wuchiapingian–Changhsingian transition. Abundant dispersed gravel and glendonites (calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite) indicate that the Peawaddy Formation formed under the influence of cold conditions and possible glacial ice (P4 Glaciation; Wuchiapingian Stage). Direct evidence of cold conditions ends at the top of the Peawaddy Formation (254.5 Ma); however, Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) data suggest that surface conditions remained cold through the accumulation of the Black Alley Shale, and the lower Bandanna until c. 253 Ma, before gradually rising through the upper Bandanna Formation. The end of P4 glaciation is also characterized by a major spike in the abundance of marine acritarchs (Micrhystridium evansii Acme Zone), reflecting the development of a regional restricted basin of elevated nutrient concentrations but reduced salinity. In contrast to this short interval of stressed marine conditions, the fossil floras indicate remarkably consistent terrestrial ecosystems throughout the late Lopingian until the EPE. The terrestrial EPE is recorded by adistinctive, laminated mudrock bed (‘Marker Mudstone’) that records a palynological ‘dead zone’ above the uppermost coal seam or equivalent root-penetrated horizon followed by spikes in non-marine algal abundance. Overall, the time interval 257–252 Ma represented by the studied succession does not record a simple monotonic change in palaeoenvironmental conditions, but rather a series of intermittent stepwise changes towards warmer, and more environmentally stressed conditions leading up to the EPE in eastern Australia.

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  • 15.
    Frank, T.D.
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 126 Bessey Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0340, USA.
    Fielding, C.R.
    Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 126 Bessey Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0340, USA.
    Winguth, A.M.E.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Arlington, 107 Geoscience Building, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA.
    Savatic, K.
    Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 126 Bessey Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0340, USA.
    Tevyaw, A.
    Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 126 Bessey Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0340, USA.
    Winguth, C.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Arlington, 107 Geoscience Building, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Mays, Chris
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nicoll, R.
    72 Ellendon Street, Bungendore, NSW 2621, Australia.
    Bocking, M.
    Bocking Associates, 8 Tahlee Close, Castle Hill, NSW 2154, Australia.
    Crowley, J.L.
    Isotope Geology Laboratory, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, Idaho 83725-1535, USA.
    Pace, magnitude, and nature of terrestrial climate change through the end-Permian extinction in southeastern Gondwana2021Ingår i: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 49, nr 9, s. 1089-1095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid climate change was a major contributor to the end-Permian extinction (EPE). Although well constrained for the marine realm, relatively few records document the pace, nature, and magnitude of climate change across the EPE in terrestrial environments. We generated proxy records for chemical weathering and land surface temperature from continental margin deposits of the high-latitude southeastern margin of Gondwana. Regional climate simulations provide additional context. Results show that Glossopteris forest-mire ecosystems collapsed during a pulse of intense chemical weathering and peak warmth, which capped ∼1 m.y. of gradual warming and intensification of seasonality. Erosion resulting from loss of vegetation was short lived in the low-relief landscape. Earliest Triassic climate was∼10–14 °C warmer than the late Lopingian and landscapes were no longer persistently wet. Aridification, commonly linked to the EPE, developed gradually, facilitating the persistence of refugia for moisture-loving terrestrial groups.

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  • 16.
    Gee, Carole T.
    et al.
    University of Bonn.
    Anderson, Heidi M.
    Witwatersrand University.
    Anderson, John M.
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Ash, Sidney R.
    University of New Mexico.
    Cantrill, David J.
    Melbourne Botanic Gardens.
    van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H.A.
    Utrecht University.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Postcards from the Mesozoic: ForestLandscapes with Giant Flowering Trees,Enigmatic Seed Ferns, and OtherNaked-Seed Plants2020Ingår i: Nature Through Time: Virtual Field Trips Through the Nature of the Past / [ed] Edoardo Martinetto, Emanuel Tschopp, Robert A. Gastaldo, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020, s. 159-185Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth’s vegetation during the 186 million years of the Mesozoic, from the Paleogene–Cretaceous boundary at 66 million years ago back to the Triassic–Permian boundary at 252 million years ago, was filled with forests. Like today, the forest was the dominant terrestrial ecosystem. The trees that created the forest habitat, along with the other woody plants and ferns in the understory and groundcover, were the primary producers that powered Earth’s ecosystems by converting sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis. Yet, the forests that flourished during the Mesozoic differed from those found on Earth today. The Mesozoic climate was generally warmer, with milder seasons, a highersea level, and no polar ice. This resulted in evergreen forests that may have looked superficially similar to gymnosperm dominated forests of today, but were made up of very different kinds of plants. This is because major evolutionary changes took place in the plant world during this time interval. The Cretaceous witnessed the emergence and diversification of the flowering plants, which define our global flora now. In contrast, the Jurassic and Triassic floras were dominated by gymnosperms such as conifers and cycads, as well as by other, enigmatic, naked-seed plants including seedferns and bennettitaleans that are now extinct. Continental drift tore landmasses apart, separating Northern Hemisphere floras with ginkgoes from the Gondwana flora in the south, which also is now extinct. Geological time, biotic evolution, and plate tectonics all contributed to the making of paleobotanically unique forests in different parts of the world. In this chapter, we present a series of written postcards from the Mesozoic, each one describing a forested landscape, as we travel back in time together on a virtual plant safari.

  • 17.
    Gulick, Sean, P.S.
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Bralower, Timothy J.
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Ormö, Jens
    Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial-Spanish National Research Council.
    Hall, Brendon
    Enthought, Inc..
    Grice, Kliti
    Curtin University.
    Schaefer, Bettina
    Curtin University.
    Lyons, Shelby
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Freeman, Katherine
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Morgan, Joahha
    Imperial College London.
    Artemieva, Natalia
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Kaskes, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    de Graaff, Sietze
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Whalen, Michael T.
    University of Alaska Fairbanks.
    Collins, Gareth S.
    Imperial College London.
    Tikoo, Sonia M.
    Rutgers University.
    Verhagen, Christina
    Rutgers University.
    Christeson, Gail L.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Claeys, Philippe
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Coolen, Marco J. L.
    Curtin University.
    Goderis, Steven
    Imperial College London.
    Goto, Kazuhisa
    Tohoku University.
    Grieve, Richard A. F.
    University of Western Ontario.
    McCall, Naoma
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Osinski, Gordon R.
    University of Western Ontario.
    Rae, Auriol S. P.
    Imperial College London.
    Riller, Ulrich
    Universität Hamburg.
    Smit, Jan
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wittmann, Axel
    Arizona State University.
    The first day of the Cenozoic2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, s. 19342-19351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly expanded Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary section from the Chicxulub peak ring, recovered by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) –International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364, provides an unprecedented window into the immediate aftermath of the impact. Site M0077 includes ∼130 m of impact melt rock and suevite deposited the first day of the Cenozoic covered by <1 m of micrite-rich carbonate deposite over subsequent weeks to years. We present an interpreted series of events based on analyses of these drill cores. Within minutes of the impact, centrally uplifted basement rock collapsed outward to forma peak ring capped in melt rock. Within tens of minutes, the peak ring was covered in ∼40 m of brecciated impact melt rock and coarsegrained suevite, including clasts possibly generated by melt–water interactions during ocean resurge. Within an hour, resurge crested the peak ring, depositing a 10-m-thick layer of suevite with increased particle roundness and sorting. Within hours, the full resurge deposit formed through settling and seiches, resulting in an 80-m-thick fining-upward, sorted suevite in the flooded crater. Within a day, the reflected rim-wave tsunami reached the crater, depositing a cross-bedded sand-to-fine gravel layer enriched in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons overlain by charcoal fragments. Generation of a deep crater open to the ocean allowed rapid flooding and sediment accumulation rates among the highest known in the geologic record. The high-resolution section provides insight into the impact environmental effects, including charcoal as evidence for impactinduced wildfires and a paucity of sulfur-rich evaporites from the target supporting rapid global cooling and darkness as extinction mechanisms.

  • 18.
    Halamski, Adam
    Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Late Cretaceous (Campanian) leaf and palynoflora from southern Sweden2016Ingår i: Geological Society of London Special Publications, ISSN 0305-8719, Vol. 434, s. 207-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Late Cretaceous (Campanian) leaf megaflora from the Vomb Trough in southern Skåne, Sweden, has been investigated on the basis of collections held at the Swedish Museum of Natural History. The main plant-bearing locality is Köpinge, but single specimens originate from Högestad, Ingelstorp, Rödmölla, Svenstorps mölla and Tosterup. The fossil flora is dominated by the angiosperm (eudicot) Debeya (Dewalquea) haldemiana (Debey ex de Saporta & Marion) Halamski. Other dicots are cf. Dryophyllum sp., Ettingshausenia sp., Rarytkinia? sp., Dicotylophyllum friesii (Nilsson) comb. nov. and Salicites wahlbergii (Nilsson) Hisinger. Conifers are represented by cf. Aachenia sp. (cone scales), Pagiophyllum sp. and Cyparissidium sp. (leaves). Single poorly preserved specimens of ferns and monocots have also been identified. The terrestrial palynomorphs (the focus herein) clearly link to the megaflora, although with different relative abundances. The fern spore Cyathidites dominates along with the conifer pollen Perinopollenites elatoides and Classopollis. Angiosperm pollen comprise up to 15% of the assemblage, represented by monocolpate, tricolpate and periporate pollen and the extinct Normapolles group. The spores in the kerogen residue show a thermal alteration index (TAI) of 2+. The flora probably represents mainly a coastal lowland Debeya/conifer forest, and is similar to approximately coeval assemblages from analogous palaeo-communities described from eastern Poland, western Ukraine and Westphalia.

  • 19.
    Jarochowska, Emilia
    et al.
    GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Fachgruppe Paläoumwelt, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Bremer, Oskar
    Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yiu, Alexandra
    GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Fachgruppe Paläoumwelt, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Märss, Tiiu
    Department of Geology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Blom, Henning
    Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Revision of thelodonts, acanthodians, conodonts, and the depositional environments in the Burgen outlier (Ludlow, Silurian) of Gotland, Sweden2021Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 143, nr 2-3, s. 168-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ludfordian strata exposed in the Burgen outlier in eastern Gotland, Sweden record a time of initial faunal recovery after a global environmental perturbation manifested in the Ludfordian Carbon Isotope Excursion (LCIE). Vertebrate microfossils in the collection of the late Lennart Jeppsson, hosted at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, hold the key to reconstruct the dynamics of faunal immigration and diversification during the decline of the LCIE, but the stratigraphic relationships of the strata have been debated. Historically, they had been placed in the Burgsvik Formation, which included the Burgsvik Sandstone and the Burgsvik Oolite members. We revise the fauna in the Jeppsson collection and characterize key outcrops of Burgen and Kapellet. The former Burgsvik Oolite Member is here revised as the Burgen Oolite Formation. In the Burgenoutlier, back-shoal facies of this formation are represented and their position in the Ozarkodina snajdri Biozone is supported. The shallow-marine position compared to the coeval strata in southern Gotland isreflected in the higher δ13C carb values, reaching +9.2‰. The back-shoal succession includes high-diversity metazoan reefs, which indicate a complete recovery of the carbonate producers as the LCIE declined. The impoverishment of conodonts associated with the LCIE in southern Gotland might be a product of facies preferences, as the diverse environments in the outlier yielded all 21 species known from the formation. Fish diversity also returned to normal levels as the LCIE declined, with a minimum of nine species. In line with previous reports, thelodont scales appear to dominate samples from the Burgen outlier.

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  • 20.
    Kear, Benjamin
    et al.
    Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Department of Geology, Lund University.
    Jörn Hurum, Jörn
    Natural History Museum, University of Oslo.
    Milan, Jesper
    Geomuseum Faxe/Østsjællands Museum.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    An introduction to the Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic territories2016Ingår i: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, ISSN ISSN 0305-8719, Vol. 434, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia have been studied for nearly two centuries. However, the last 15 years have witnessed an explosive advance in research, most notably on the richly fossiliferous Triassic (Olenekian–Carnian) and Jurassic (Tithonian) Lagersta¨tten of the Norwegian Arctic Svalbard archipelago, Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Kristianstad Basin and Vomb Trough of Skåne in southern Sweden, and the UNESCO heritage site at Stevns Klint in Denmark – the latter constituting one of the most complete Cretaceous–Palaeogene (Maastrichtian–Danian) boundary sections known globally. Other internationally significant deposits include earliest (Induan) and latest Triassic (Norian–Rhaetian) strata from the Danish autonomous territory of Greenland, and the Early Jurassic (Sinemurian–Pliensbachian) to Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) rocks of southern Sweden and the Danish Baltic island of Bornholm, respectively. Marine palaeocommunities are especially well documented, and comprise prolific benthic macroinvertebrates, together with pelagic cephalopods, chondrichthyans, actinopterygians and aquatic amniotes (ichthyopterygians, sauropterygians and mosasauroids). Terrestrial plant remains (lycophytes, sphenophytes, ferns, pteridosperms, cycadophytes, bennettitaleans and ginkgoes), including exceptionally well-preserved carbonized flowers, are also world famous, and are occasionally associated with faunal traces such as temnospondyl amphibian bones and dinosaurian footprints. While this collective documented record is substantial, much still awaits discovery. Thus, Scandinavia and its Arctic territories represent some of the most exciting prospects for future insights into the spectacular history of Mesozoic life and environments.

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  • 21.
    Krüger, Ashley
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    3D imaging of shark egg cases (Palaeoxyris) from Sweden with new insights into Early Jurassic shark ecology2021Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 143, nr 2-3, s. 229-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several shark species produce egg cases as protective casings in which their embryos develop. These casings are composed of multiple layers of collagen and are extremely durable, making them prone to fossilisation. Here we document Palaeoxyris (Spirangium) ‒ fossil shark egg cases from Lower Jurassic successions of southern Sweden. We present high-resolution 3D images of Palaeoxyris based on microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) of seven specimens, including fossils that were embedded within a sandstone matrix. Our examination of the internal structure of the egg cases revealed the possible remnants of a yolk and foetus in one specimen. The cases were most likely produced by hybodont sharks, as outlined in previous studies, and the occurrence of hybodont teeth from Lower Jurassic successions of Sweden support this. Palynological analysis of the matrix from one of the specimens hosting Palaeoxyris, indicates an early Hettangian age. The high percentage of spores (c. 60%) reveals that the egg cases were laid during the Transitional Spore Spike Interval following the end-Triassic mass extinction. The egg cases are found in conjunction with fossil horsetails; with the broader palynological and sedimentological evidence, this suggests an estuarine depositional setting, and potentially indicates that newborn sharks were living in habitats comparable to modern mangroves, as is often the case today.

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  • 22.
    Kustatscher, Evelyn
    et al.
    Museum of Nature South Tyrol, Bindergasse 1, 39100 Bozen/Bolzano, Italy.
    Ash, Sidney
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northrop Hall, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.
    Karasev, Eugeny
    Borissiak Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117647, Russia.
    Pott, Christian
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Yu, Jianxin
    State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, P.O.Box 430074, P.R. China.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Flora of The Late Triassic2017Ingår i: The Late Triassic World: Earth in a Time of Transition / [ed] Tanner, L.H., New York: Springer International Publishing , 2017, 1, s. 545-622Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Triassic was a crucial period of botanical evolutionary innovations and plant diversification. Key plant groups (Bennettitales, Czekanowskiales, Gnetales and several modern fern and conifer families) originated during this span of time, together with some taxa putatively related to angiosperms. The composition of the various plant assemblages shows a more homogeneous flora globally than during the Permian. Nonetheless two major floristic provinces are distinguishable during the Late Triassic (Gondwana and Laurussia) together with several subprovinces (two within Gondwana, nine within Laurussia), based on palyno- and macro-floras.The latter are differentiated by contrasting taxonomic composition and group abundances related to different climatic and regional environmental conditions. Many plant families and genera are widely distributed in the Late Triassic, at least in the respective hemispheres. Based on the array of preserved damage types on leaves and wood, insect faunas appear to have recovered from the end-Permian mass extinction by the Late Triassic, with a major expansion of herbivory in Gondwana. All modern functional feeding groups (FFG) were present by the Triassic, including external foliage feeding, piercing-and-sucking, galling, leaf mining and seed predation, with some evidence for the development of very specialized feeding traits and egg-laying strategies.

  • 23.
    Li, Liqin
    et al.
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Wang, Yongdong
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Kurschner, Wolfram
    University of Oslo.
    Ruhl, Micha
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate changes across the Triassic–Jurassictransition in the Sichuan Basin, China2020Ingår i: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 556, artikel-id 109891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Triassic–Jurassic transition interval is marked by enhanced biotic turnover rates in both marine and terrestrial realms. However, limited data from Asia hampers the understanding of global ecosystem response to the end-Triassic mass extinction event. Here, we present significant vegetation and climate changes across the Triassic–Jurassic transition in the eastern Tethys region (southern China). A detailed palynological study was performed from the Qilixia section of the Sichuan Basin, China, spanning the Upper Triassic (Norian–Rhaetian) (Xujiahe Formation) to the Lower Jurassic (Hettangian–Sinemurian) (lower Zhenzhuchong Formation). Five palynological assemblages reveal significant ecosystem fluctuations across the Triassic–Jurassic transition. Our study indicates a lowland fern flora and a warm and humid climate in the Late Triassic (Norian to Rhaetian), interrupted by a cooler interval at the Norian–Rhaetian transition, and followed by a mixed mid-storey forest under cooler and drier condition in the latest Rhaetian. This is followed by a fern-dominated lowland vegetation and a warmer and drier climate during the Triassic–Jurassic transition, and a flora with abundant cheirolepid conifers in the Hettangian–Sinemurian. These long term changes in vegetation and inferred climatic conditions are comparable with records from the western Tethyan realm, and possibly reflect global terrestrial environmental changes associated with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province volcanism during the Triassic–Jurassic transition.

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  • 24.
    Li, Li-Qin
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Wang, Yong-Dong
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Palynofacies analysis for interpreting paleoenvironment and hydrocarbon potential of Triassic–Jurassic strata in the Sichuan Basin, China2021Ingår i: Palaeoworld, ISSN 1871-174X, E-ISSN 1875-5887, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 126-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sichuan Basin is one of the largest petroliferous basins in China. The continental fluvial‒lacustrine sediments of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation and the Lower Jurassic Zhenzhuchong Formation yield diverse fossil organisms and host one of the most important gas reservoirs in thebasin. However, paleontological implication for the paleoenvironment and hydrocarbon source is less documented. Here, we report, for the first time for this basin, results from palynofacies analyses combined with thermal alteration data in the Early Mesozoic deposit of the Qilixia section, northeastern Sichuan Basin. The results show that, organic matters in sediments are dominated by phytoclasts, with less abundant palynomorphs and a few amorphous organic matters (AOMs). Four palynofacies assemblages were identified, reflecting depositional settings in a general proximal and oxicfluvial‒deltaic environment, with two distal-proximal sedimentary cycles. The prominent dominance of opaque phytoclasts within the lower Zhenzhuchong Formation may be related to frequent wildfires across the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Palynofacies data (especially the relative abundanceof opaque phytoclasts) may reflect 405 kyr eccentricity cyclicity pattern. The palynofacies and thermal alteration index (TAI), combined with geochemical data indicate the presence of type III kerogen in mature to post-mature phases, suggesting gas potential of the Xujiahe and Zhenzhuchong formations in the northeastern Sichuan Basin. This study provides significant implications for better understanding the paleoenvironment variationsduring the Triassic-Jurassic transition and the future gas exploration in this area.

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  • 25.
    Li, Liqin
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Wang, Yongdong
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Liu, Zhaosheng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China2018Ingår i: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, s. 1793-1810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Late Triassic deposits of the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China are significant for hosting abundant and diverse fossil assemblages including plants (containing spores and pollen), bivalves and insects. However, the Late Triassic palaeoecological variations are still poorly documented in this region. Here we present results from a palynological study from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Hechuan of Chongqing, southern Sichuan Basin. The palynological analysis revealed a well-preserved terrestrial palynoflora of high diversity, comprising 184 species in 75 genera of spores and pollen. Three palynological assemblages were recognized, reflecting terrestrial successions throughout the entire interval with significant changes in the vegetation. Cycads/bennettites/ginkgophytes and conifers show an increasing trend into younger deposits, while ferns and lycopsids decrease in relative abundance. The Late Triassic vegetation underwent changes from lowland fern forest to a mixed forest with more canopy trees. We applied the Spore-pollen Morphological Group (SMG) method and Sporomorph EcoGroup (SEG) model to interpret the palaeoclimate features. The results reveal that the lower part of the Xujiahe Formation was deposited under relatively warm and humid conditions with an overall cooling and drying trend from latest Norian to Rhaetian time, accompanied by a general decrease of ferns and simultaneous increase of gymnosperms, and a decline in diversity of miospores. This study presents data on variations within the terrestrial ecosystem prior to the end-Triassic extinction event in the Sichuan Basin, and therefore provides important information for understanding the changes in the vegetation preceding the end-Triassic event.

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  • 26.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Frank, Tracy D.
    Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
    Fielding, Christopher R.
    Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lethal microbial blooms delayed freshwater ecosystem recovery following the end-Permian extinction2021Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 5511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful algal and bacterial blooms linked to deforestation, soil loss and global warming are increasingly frequent in lakes and rivers. We demonstrate that climate changes and deforestation can drive recurrent microbial blooms, inhibiting the recovery of freshwater ecosystems for hundreds of millennia. From the stratigraphic successions of the Sydney Basin, Australia, our fossil, sedimentary and geochemical data reveal bloom events following forest ecosystem collapse during the most severe mass extinction in Earth’s history, the end-Permian event (EPE; c. 252.2 Ma). Microbial communities proliferated in lowland fresh and brackish waterbodies, with algal concentrations typical of modern blooms. These initiated before any trace of post-extinction recovery vegetation but recurred episodically for >100 kyrs. During the following 3 Myrs, algae and bacteria thrived within short-lived, poorly-oxygenated, and likely toxic lakes and rivers. Comparisons to global deep-time records indicate that microbial blooms are persistent freshwater ecological stressors during warming driven extinction events.

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  • 27.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Frank, Tracy
    University of Nebraska.
    Fielding, Christopher
    University of Nebraska.
    Nicoll, Robert
    Geoscience Australia.
    Tevyaw, Allen
    University of Nebraska.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Refined Permian-Triassic floristic timeline reveals early collapse and delayed recovery of south polar terrestrial ecosystems2020Ingår i: Geological Society of America Bulletin, ISSN 0016-7606, E-ISSN 1943-2674, Vol. 132, s. 1489-1513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The collapse of late Permian (Lopingian) Gondwanan floras, characterized by the extinction of glossopterid gymnosperms, heralded the end of one of the most enduring and extensive biomes in Earth’s history. The Sydney Basin, Australia, hosts a near continuous, age-constrained succession of high southern paleolatitude (∼65–75°S) terrestrial strata spanning the end-Permian extinction (EPE) interval. Sedimentological, stable carbon isotopic, palynological, and macrofloral data were collected from two cored coal-exploration wells and correlated. Six palynostratigraphic zones, supported by ordination analyses, were identified within the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic succession, corresponding to discrete vegetation stages before, during, and after the EPE interval. Collapse of the glossopterid biome marked the onset of the terrestrial EPE and may have significantly predated the marine mass extinctions and conodont-defined Permian–Triassic Boundary. Apart from extinction of the dominant Permian plant taxa, the EPE was characterized by a reduction in primary productivity, and the immediate aftermath was marked by high abundances of opportunistic fungi, algae, and ferns. This transition is coeval with the onset of a gradual global decrease in δ13Corg and the primary extrusive phase of Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province magmatism. The dominant gymnosperm groups of the Gondwanan Mesozoic (peltasperms, conifers, and corystosperms) all appeared soon after the collapse but remained rare throughout the immediate post-EPE succession. Faltering recovery was due to a succession of rapid and severe climatic stressors until at least the late Early Triassic. Immediately prior to the Smithian–Spathian boundary (ca. 249 Ma), indices of increased weathering, thick redbeds, and abundant pleuromeian lycophytes likely signify marked climate change and intensification of the Gondwanan monsoon climate system. This is the first record of the Smithian–Spathian floral overturn event in high southern latitudes.

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  • 28.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Permian–Triassic non-marine algae of Gondwana—distributions, natural affinities and ecological implications2021Ingår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 212, s. 1-29, artikel-id 103382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance, diversity and extinction of non-marine algae are controlled by changes in the physical and chemical environment and community structure of continental ecosystems. We review a range of non-marine algae commonly found within the Permian and Triassic strata of Gondwana and highlight and discuss the non-marine algal abundance anomalies recorded in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian extinction interval (EPE; 252 Ma). We further review and contrast the marine and continental algal records of the global biotic crises within the Permian–Triassic interval. Specifically, we provide a case study of 17 species (in 13 genera) from the succession spanning the EPE in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. The affinities and ecological implications of these fossil-genera are summarised, and their global Permian–Triassic palaeogeographic and stratigraphic distributions are collated. Most of these fossil taxa have close extant algal relatives that are most common in freshwater, brackish or terrestrial conditions, and all have recognizable affinities to groups known to produce chemically stable biopolymers that favour their preservation over long geological intervals. However, these compounds (e.g., sporopollenin and algaenan) are not universal, so the fossil record is sparse for most algal groups, which hinders our understanding of their evolutionary histories. Owing partly to the high preservational potential of Zygnematophyceae, a clade of freshwater charophyte algae and sister group to land plants, this group has a particularly diverse and abundant Permian–Triassic fossil record in Gondwana. Finally, we review and contrast the marine and continental algal records of the global biotic crises within the Permian–Triassic interval. In continental settings, Permian algal assemblages were broadly uniform across most of southern and eastern Gondwana until the EPE; here, we propose the Peltacystia Microalgal Province to collectively describe these distinct and prolonged freshwater algal assemblages. In the immediate aftermath of the EPE, relative increases in non-marine algae have been consistently recorded, but the distributions of prominent taxa of Permian freshwater algae became severely contracted across Gondwana by the Early Triassic. We highlight the paucity of quantitative, high-resolution fossil evidence for this key group of primary producers during all biotic crises of the Permian and Triassic periods. This review provides a solid platform for further work interpreting abundance and diversity changes in non-marine algae across this pivotal interval in evolutionary history.

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  • 29.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Rise of the Toxic Slime: During the world’s worst mass extinction, bacteria and algaedevastated rivers and lakes—a warning for today2022Ingår i: Scientific American, ISSN 0036-8733, E-ISSN 1946-7087, Vol. 327, s. 56-63Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Life on Earth has experienced some terrifyingly close calls in the past four billion years—cataclysmic events in which the species driven to extinction outnumbered the survivors. The worst crisis occurred 252 million years ago, at the end of the Permian Period. Conditions back then were the bleakest that animals ever faced. Wildfires and drought scoured the land; oceans became intolerably hot and suffocating. Very few creatures could survive in this hellscape. Ultimately more than 70 percent of land species and upward of 80 percent of ocean species went extinct, leading some paleontologists to call this dismal episode the Great Dying.

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  • 30.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    University College Cork.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Réchauffement climatique : quand la vase toxique asphyxieles eaux douces2023Ingår i: Pour la Science, ISSN 1625-9963, Vol. 546, s. 58-65Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [fr]

    > De nombreux affleurements rocheux sur la planète portent la trace d’uncataclysme biologique, survenu il y a 252 millions d’années. Alors que lesfossiles y étaient nombreux auparavant, ils se fi rent alors très rares, toutcomme les pollens et les spores.

    > Au-dessus de ces couches presque stériles, la roche a enregistré uneprolifération d’algues d’eau douce et de bactéries photosynthétiques. Ladisparition massive d’espèces et des efflorescences microbiennestoxiques dans les eaux douces marquent la crise de la fi n du Permien,provoquée par un réchauffement très important de l’atmosphère.

    > La prolifération microbienne toxique dans les lacs et rivières estd’autant plus importante que la température est élevée, hier commeaujourd’hui. L’étude de la crise du Permien laisse entrevoir lesconséquences du réchauffement contemporain sur les écosystèmes d’eaudouce.

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  • 31.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Mays, Chris (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Death and destruction in the Sydney Basin2021Ingår i: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Journal, Vol. 8, s. 37-47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 32.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Lund University.
    A phenomenal fossil fern, forgotten for forty years2014Ingår i: Deposits Magazine, ISSN 17749588, Vol. 40, s. 16-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    On some occasions, it is the hard sweat and toil of palaeontologists labouring in the field at carefully planned excavation sites that yields the prize specimen on which careers are built. On other occasions, it is the chance discovery by an amateur collector that may yield that special fossil. We present an account of one such remarkable fossil discovery by an eccentric farmer in southern Sweden. However, more remarkable is that this exceptional fossil remained unstudied and largely unnoticed in a major museum for almost 40 years, before its true significance was realised.

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  • 33.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Jansson, Ida-Maria
    Lund University.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Lund University.
    Megaspore and microfossil assemblages reveal diverse herbaceous lycophytes in the Australian Early Jurassic flora2014Ingår i: Grana, ISSN 0017-3134, Vol. 53, s. 22-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we describe and illustrate by transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy the first Australian Jurassic megaspore assemblages. The megaspores and other mesofossils were isolated from terrestrial deposits of the Marburg Subgroup (late Pliensbachian) at Inverleigh Quarry, Clarence-Moreton Basin, eastern Australia. Nine megaspore taxa are identified including one new species: Paxillitriletes rainei. Miospore assemblages recovered from the same samples at Inverleigh reveal a slightly higher diversity of lycophyte microspores. The collective megaspore suite from Inverleigh shares several genera with mid-Mesozoic assemblages from widely distributed parts of the world, but most of the Inverleigh species have subtle morphological differences from congeneric forms elsewhere. The megaspores accumulated in fluvial floodplain facies and are associated with mostly dissociated isoetalean leaf debris. Other mesofossils in the sampled interval include annelid egg cases, dispersed seeds and charcoal. Invertebrate burrows and possible vertebrate tracks also occur in this succession. Lycophyte macrofossils are otherwise known from only two other Australian Jurassic deposits. The richness of the megaspore and microspore suites attest to a significant diversity of lycophytes in the Australian Jurassic floras not hitherto appreciated from described macrofloras

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    Moreton Basin Jurassic megasores
  • 34.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Mays, Chris
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bocking, Malcolm
    Bocking Associates.
    Frank, Tracy
    University of Nebraska.
    Fielding, Christopher
    University of Nebraska.
    Dwelling in the dead zone—vertebrate burrows immediately succeeding the end-Permian extinction event in Australia2020Ingår i: Palaios, ISSN 0883-1351, E-ISSN 1938-5323, Vol. 35, s. 342-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A distinctive burrow form, Reniformichnus australis n. isp., is described from strata immediately overlying and transecting the end-Permian extinction (EPE) horizon in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. Although a unique excavator cannot be identified, these burrows were probably produced by small cynodonts based on comparisons with burrows elsewhere that contain body fossils of the tracemakers. The primary host strata are devoid of plant remains apart from wood and charcoal fragments, sparse fungal spores, and rare invertebrate traces indicative of a very simplified terrestrial ecosystem characterizing a ‘dead zone’ in the aftermath of the EPE. The high-paleolatitude (~ 65–75deg S) setting of the Sydney Basin, together with its higher paleoprecipitation levels and less favorable preservational potential, is reflected by a lower diversity of vertebrate fossil burrows and body fossils compared with coeval continental interior deposits of the mid-paleolatitude Karoo Basin, South Africa. Nevertheless, these burrows reveal the survivorship of small tetrapods in considerable numbers in the Sydney Basin immediately following the EPE. A fossorial lifestyle appears to have provided a selective advantage for tetrapods enduring the harsh environmental conditions that arose during the EPE. Moreover, high-paleolatitude and maritime settings may have provided important refugia for terrestrial vertebrates at a time of lethal temperatures at low-latitudes and aridification of continental interiors.

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  • 35.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Nicoll, Robert
    Geoscience Australia.
    Crowley, James
    Boise State University.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Mays, Chris
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Fielding, Christopher
    University of Nebraska.
    Frank, Tracy
    University of Nebraska.
    Wheeler, Alexander
    University of Queensland.
    Bocking, Malcolm
    Bocking Associates.
    Age and paleoenvironmental significance of the Frazer Beach Member—A new lithostratigraphic unit overlying the end-Permian extinction horizon in the Sydney Basin, Australia2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Earth Science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 8, s. 1-31, artikel-id 600976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The newly defined Frazer Beach Member of the Moon Island Beach Formation is identified widely across the Sydney Basin in both outcrop and exploration wells. This thin unit was deposited immediately after extinction of the Glossopteris flora (defining the terrestrial end-Permian extinction event). The unit rests conformably on the uppermost Permian coal seam in most places. A distinctive granule-microbreccia bed is locally represented at the base of the member. The unit otherwise consists of dark gray to black siltstone, shale, mudstone and, locally, thin lenses of fine-grained sandstone and tuff. The member represents the topmost unit of the Newcastle Coal Measures and is overlain gradationally by the Dooralong Shale or with a scoured (disconformable) contact by coarse-grained sandstones to conglomerates of the Coal Cliff Sandstone, Munmorah Conglomerate and laterally equivalent units. The member is characterized by a palynological “dead zone” represented by a high proportion of degraded wood fragments, charcoal, amorphous organic matter and fungal spores. Abundant freshwater algal remains and the initial stages of a terrestrial vascular plant recovery flora are represented by low-diversity spore-pollen suites in the upper part of the unit in some areas. These assemblages are referable to the Playfordiaspora crenulata Palynozone interpreted as latest Permian in age on the basis of high precision Chemical Abrasion Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-IDTIMS) dating of thin volcanic ash beds within and stratigraphically bracketing the unit. Plant macrofossils recovered from the upper Frazer Beach Member and immediately succeeding strata are dominated by Lepidopteris (Peltaspermaceae) and Voltziopsis (Voltziales) with subsidiary pleuromeian lycopsids, sphenophytes, and ferns. Sparse vertebrate and invertebrate ichnofossils are also represented in the Frazer Beach Member or in beds immediately overlying this unit. The Frazer Beach Member is correlative, in part, with a thin interval of organic-rich mudrocks, commonly known as the “marker mudstone” capping the Permian succession further to the north in the Bowen, Galilee and Cooper basins. The broad geographic distribution of this generally <5-m-thick mudrock unit highlights the development in eastern Gondwana of extensive, short-lived, shallow lacustrine systems with impoverished biotas in alluvial plain settings in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian biotic crisis.

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  • 36.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Palaeobotanical collections and facilities at the Swedish Museum of Natural History2022Ingår i: 11th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference Abstracts, Program and Proceedings / [ed] Stephen McLoughlin, Stockholm: Swedish Museum of Natural History , 2022, s. 35-43Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Museum of Natural History (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet: NRM), under the authority of the Swedish Ministry of Culture, is the largest museum in Sweden in terms of research and collections. Although officially founded in 1819 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, some collections held at the museum date back to donations received by the academy following its foundation in 1739. The museum includes six research departments (Palaeobiology, Zoology, Botany, Geology, Bioinformatics, and Environmental Science) along with separate divisions for exhibitions and education. Palaeobotanical research is currently carried out within the Department of Palaeobiology (PAL). The department’s homepage can be found at: https://www.nrm.se/ en/forskningochsamlingar/paleobiologi.9000584.html. The department hosts about two million palaeontological specimens; around 400,000 of these are fossil plants, algae and fungi—making this one of the world’s largest palaeobotanical resources. The department currently hosts 24 palaeontologists, of which seven are full-time permanent employees (Vajda & Skovsted, 2021). The remainder are emeriti, students, postdoctoral researchers and additional researchers funded through scholarships, fellowships and other grants.

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  • 37.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The range of palaeobotanical studies in Sweden and future opportunities for research2022Ingår i: 11th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference Abstracts, Program and Proceedings / [ed] Stephen McLoughlin, Stockholm: Swedish Museum of Natural History , 2022, s. 45-56Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although its geology is dominated by pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks, Sweden’s palaeobotanical research output is substantial. Over 150 years of dedicated research has yielded several hundred papers on Sweden’s palaeobotanical and palynological heritage spanning much of the geological column. Studies have targeted all categories of plant and protist remains from Proterozoic microfossils to Quaternary woods, and marine microplankton to animal-plant interactions, and fossil microbes of the deep biosphere. Sweden is particularly renowned for its research on Proterozoic–Cambrian carbonaceous microfossils, Triassic-Jurassic floras, Santonian–Campanian (Late Cretaceous) charcoalified, mummified, adpression and permineralized angiosperms and gymnosperms, and Quaternary high-latitude spore-pollen records. Although a vast body of work has been carried out on these floras, there is great potential for further work on all these assemblages with regard to fossil plant systematics, biostratigraphy, biogeography, plant-animal-fungal interactions, and palaeoclimate/palaeoenvironmental research.

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  • 38.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Topper, Timothy
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Crowley, James L.
    Isotope Geology Laboratory, Boise State University, Boise, ID, USA.
    Liu, Fan
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden;State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environments and Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an, China.
    Johansson, Ove
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Trace fossils, algae, invertebrate remains and new U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the lower Cambrian Torneträsk Formation, northern Sweden2021Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 143, nr 2-3, s. 103-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nineteen ichnotaxa, together with algal and invertebrate remains, and various pseudo-traces and sedimentary structures are described from the Torneträsk Formation exposed near Lake Torneträsk, Lapland, Sweden, representing a marked increase in the diversity of biotic traces recorded from this unit. The “lower siltstone” interval of the Torneträsk Formation contains mostly simple pascichnia, fodinichnia and domichnia burrows and trails of low-energy shoreface to intertidal settings. The assemblage has very few forms characteristic of high-energy, soft-sediment, foreshore or upper shoreface environments (representative of the Skolithos ichnofacies).

    Uranium-lead (U-Pb) LA-ICPMS analysis of zircon from a thin claystone layer within the “lower siltstone” interval yielded a maximum depositional age of 584 ± 13 Ma, mid-Ediacaran. Most of the zircon is represented by rounded detrital grains that yield dates between 3.3 and 1.0 Ga. Although the age of the basal sandstone-dominated interval of the Torneträsk Formation remains elusive owing to the absence of fossils, the ichnofossil suite from the overlying “lower siltstone” interval lacks deep arthropod trackways, such as Rusophycus and Cruziana, and is suggestive of a very early (Terreneuvian, possibly Fortunian) Cambrian age. The ichnofauna is otherwise similar to early Cambrian trace fossil assemblages from other parts of Baltica, regions further south in modern Europe, and from Greenland.

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  • 39.
    Mendes, Mário Miguel
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Largo Marqu^es de Pombal, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Cunha, Pedro Proença
    University of Coimbra, MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, Rua Sílvio Lima, Polo II, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Dinis, Pedro
    University of Coimbra, MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, Rua Sílvio Lima, Polo II, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Svobodová, Marcela
    Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology, Department of Paleobiology and Paleoecology, Rozvojova 269, 165 00 Praha 6, Czech Republic; National Museum Prague, Vaclavske namestí 68, 115 79 Praha 1, Czech Republic.
    Doyle, James A.
    Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    A Lower Cretaceous palynoflora from Carregueira (Lusitanian Basin, westernmost Iberia): taxonomic, stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental implications2022Ingår i: Cretaceous research (Print), ISSN 0195-6671, E-ISSN 1095-998X, ISSN 0195-6671, Vol. 130, s. 105036-105036, artikel-id 105036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe a new Lower Cretaceous palynoflora from the Lusitanian Basin, located in the westernmost sector of the Iberian Peninsula. The spore-pollen assemblage was extracted from samples collected in the Carregueira clay pit complex, located near the village of Juncal, western Portugal, from sedimentary deposits belonging to the Figueira da Foz Formation. A rich and well-preserved palynoflora, typical of non-marine fluvial environments, was recovered. Fifty-eight species and morphological groups of palynomorphs in 43 genera were recognized. The palynoflora is dominated by fern spores and conifer pollen. Angiosperm pollen is scarce and mainly represented by Afropollis, Clavatipollenites, Stellatopollis and Senectotetradites. Comparisons with described marine sections in Portugal suggest that the fossil horizon is lower Albian, corresponding to a hiatus between Zone I and Zone II in the Potomac Group of the eastern USA. The same beds contain a mesofossil flora dominated by angiosperm seeds, fruits and flowers. A similar contrast in the relative abundance of angiosperm mesofossils and pollen is seen at other Portuguese localities but is not evident in the Potomac Group. The palynoflora and the sedimentological data suggest deposition in wet lowland environments in a moderately humid regional setting.

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  • 40.
    Olsen, Paul E.
    et al.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.
    Sha, Jingeng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, East Beijing Road 39, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Fang, Yanan
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, East Beijing Road 39, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Chang, Clara
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.
    Kent, Dennis V.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA;Earth &amp; Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Whiteside, Jessica
    Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA.
    Kinney, Sean
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.
    Lampert, Alissa
    Malk Partners, 16 W. 22nd St., New York, NY 10010.
    MacLennan, Scott
    School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Empirical record, geochronology and theoretical determinates of Mesozoic climate in the Junggar Basin, northwest China in relation to other basins in northeast China2024Ingår i: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 538, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesozoic continental basins of northern China, including the Junggar Basin, provide some of the most spectacular and important fossil assemblages in the world, but their climatic and environmental contexts have been shrouded in uncertainty. Here we examine the main factors that determine those contexts: palaeolatitude; the effects of changing atmospheric gases on the radiative balance; and orbitally paced variations in insolation. Empirical evidence on these factors is accumulating rapidly and promises to upend many long standing paradigms. We focus primarily on the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang northwest China with the renowned Shishugou Biota and the basins in Liaoning, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia with their famous Jehol and Yanliao Biotas. Accurate geochronology is necessary for disentangling these various factors and we review the Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous U-Pb ages for these areas and supply one new LA-ICP-MS age for the otherwise un-dated Sangonghe Formation of Early Jurassic age. We review climatic-sensitive facies patterns in North China and show that the climatic context changed synchronously in northwestern and northeastern China consistent with a previously proposed huge Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous True Polar Wander (TPW) event with all the major plates of East Asia docked with Siberia and moving together since at least the Triassic, when the north China Basins were at Arctic latitudes. We conclude that this TPW shift is was responsible for the coals and ice rafted debris being produced at high latitudes and the red beds and eolian strata being deposited at low latitudes, within the same basin. The climatic and taphonomic context in which the famous Shishugou, Yanlaio and Jehol biotas preserved was thus a function of TPW as opposed to local tectonics or climate change.

  • 41.
    Olsen, Paul
    et al.
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA..
    Sha, Jingeng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China..
    Fang, Yanan
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China..
    Chang, Clara
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA..
    Whiteside, Jessica H.
    School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK..
    Kinney, Sean
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA..
    Sues, Hans-Dieter
    Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA..
    Kent, Dennis
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10968, USA.;Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA..
    Schaller, Morgan
    Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA..
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arctic ice and the ecological rise of the dinosaurs2022Ingår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 8, nr 26, s. 1-9, artikel-id eabo6342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant lake ice-rafted debris in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic strata of the Junggar Basin of northwestern China (paleolatitude ~71°N) indicates that freezing winter temperatures typified the forested Arctic, despite apersistence of extremely high levels of atmospheric Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2). Phylogenetic bracket analysis shows that non-avian dinosaurs were primitively insulated, enabling them to access rich deciduous and evergreen Arctic vegetation, even under freezing winter conditions. Transient but intense volcanic winters associated withmassive eruptions and lowered light levels led to the end-Triassic mass extinction (201.6 Ma) on land, decimating all medium- to large-sized nondinosaurian, noninsulated continental reptiles. In contrast, insulated dinosaurs were already well adapted to cold temperatures, and not only survived but also underwent a rapid adaptive radiation and ecological expansion in the Jurassic, taking over regions formerly dominated by large noninsulated reptiles.

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  • 42.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Li, Jianguo
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Li, Wenben
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Zhu, Huaicheng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    The Triassic to Early Jurassic palynological record of the Tarim Basin, China2018Ingår i: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, E-ISSN 1867-1608, Vol. 98, s. 7-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tarim Basin, located in northwestern China, is an important oil-bearing region, and the extensive non-marine Mesozoic successions make this a key location for understanding environmental changes through the Triassic and Jurassic. Palynological analyses on samples from Lunnan-1 and Tazhong-1 drill cores from the northern and central part of the Tarim Basin reveal wellpreserved spore–pollen assemblages. Five palynological assemblages, i.e. Tarim Triassic 1 (TT1)–Tarim Triassic 4 (TT4) and Tarim Jurassic 1 (TJ1), spanning the Early Triassic to Early Jurassic were identified based on compositional changes, which are supported by ordination of samples using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The Early Triassic assemblages possess abundant bryophytes and Densoisporites spp.-producers, which potentially represent a recovery succession following the end-Permian event. The Late Triassic spore–pollen assemblages are more similar to those of the North China Palynofloral Province compared to the South China Province. Based on our phytogeographic analysis, we propose that the western section of the boundary between the North and South China palynofloras should be placed at the southern margin of the Tarim Basin.

  • 43.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Li, Jianguo
    Key Laboratory of Economic Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Li, Wenben
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Zhu, Huaicheng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Triassic palynostratigraphy and palynofloral provinces: evidence from southern Xizang (Tibet), China2018Ingår i: Alcheringa, ISSN 0311-5518, E-ISSN 1752-0754, Vol. 42, s. 67-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palynological analysis was carried out on Middle to Upper Triassic strata from Tulong, Nyalam County, southern Xizang (Tibet), China. Well-preserved miospore (pollen and spore) assemblages and sparse acritarch occurrences were identified. We recognized four formal and one informal biozones based on stratigraphically important taxa and compositional changes through the succession, in ascending order: the Triplexisporites Interval Zone (Anisian), the Staurosaccites quadrifidus Taxon-range Zone (upper Anisian to lower Norian), the Striatella Interval Zone (lower Norian), the Craterisporites rotundus Taxon-range Zone (middle to upper Norian) and the informal ‘Dictyophyllidites harrisii zone’ (Rhaetian). The zonation was supported by marine fossils (e.g., ammonoids and conodonts), and compositional similarity between the zones was examined using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Correlation with other representative palynological sequences across Gondwana was also conducted. The presence of miospore taxa not previously recovered from the Late Triassic North and South China palynofloral provinces (e.g., Ashmoripollis reducta, Craterisporites rotundus, Enzonalasporites vigens, Minutosaccus crenulatus, Samaropollenites speciosus and Staurosaccites quadrifidus) calls for a new province in southwestern China, i.e., the Southern Xizang Province. It is proposed here that the modern expression of the northern boundary runs along the Yarlung Zangbo Suture, the remnant of the Tethys that separated the Indian Plate (southern Xizang) and the Lhasa Block during the Late Triassic. This new palynofloral province comprises typical elements of the Onslow Microflora, indicating the need for an extension of this microflora in southern Xizang, China.

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  • 44.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Li, Jianguo
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Zhang, Qianqi
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Zhu, Huaicheng
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Triassic vegetation and climate evolution on the northern margin of Gondwana: a palynological study from Tulong, southern Xizang (Tibet), China2019Ingår i: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, ISSN 1367-9120, E-ISSN 1878-5786, Vol. 175, s. 74-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present vegetation reconstructions based on an almost complete succession through the Triassic of Tulong, Nyalam County, southern Xizang (Tibet), China. The Permian and earliest Triassic samples were barren of palynomorphs, however, in overlying strata we identified well-preserved and diverse miospore assemblages. Seven pollen and spore zones spanning the Olenekian to the Rhaetian were recognized. These palynological zones were amalgamated into three floral stages that comprise distinct vegetation types: (1) an early Olenekian lycophyte dominated flora with common pteridosperms, indicative of a warm and dry climate; (2) a late Olenekian transitional flora composed of abundant conifers with low abundances of lycophytes, signifying a decrease in temperature and increase in humidity; (3) a Middle to Late Triassic mature conifer-dominated flora with diverse sphenophytes, ferns and cycadophytes, indicative of a stable, temperate and humid climate. The changes in vegetation and climate tentatively correlate with the rifting of northern Gondwana, suggesting that regional tectonics was a contributive driving factor to local floral community change.

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  • 45.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    New species of Kuqaia from the Lower Jurassic of Sweden indicates a possible water flea (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) affinity2023Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, nr 6, artikel-id e0282247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The enigmatic acid-resistant mesofossil genus Kuqaia isemended, anew species (Kuqaia scanicus) isinstituted, and three established species are described from the Lower Jurassic (lower Pliensbachian) ofthe Ka ̈ vlinge BH-928 core, insouthern Sweden. Kuqaia has adistribution across the middle northern latitudes ofPangaea and isrestricted toLower tolower Middle Jurassic strata. Morphological characters support Kuqaia being the ephippia (resting egg/embryo cases) ofCladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), and aprobable early stemgroup taxon ofthe Daphnia lineage. The paleoecology ofthe small planktonic crustaceans indicate purely fresh-water environments, such as lakes orponds, all occurrences being in continental deposits, and the Kuqaia specimens possibly represent dry-season resting eggs. Chemical analyses ofthese and similar fossils, and ofextant invertebrate eggs and egg cases are recommended toimprove resolution ofthe biological affiliations ofsuch mesofossil groups.

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    Peng et al_2023_New species of Kuqaia from the Lower Jurassic of Sweden indicates a possible
  • 46.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China;Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Late Triassic vegetation record from the Huangshanjie Formation, Junggar Basin, China: possible evidence for the Carnian Pluvial Episode2022Ingår i: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 521, nr 1, s. 95-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE; c. 234–232 million years ago) is characterized by an accelerated hydrological cycle, global warming and a period of elevated biotic turnover. Using spores and pollen, we reconstruct vegetation and climate changes through a Carnian–Norian (Upper Triassic) interval of the Huangshanjie Formation from the Junggar Basin, China. Four palynofloras were identified, representing distinct vegetation communities. Among these palynofloras, we observed a prominent shift from a conifer-dominated climax forest community, with common ginkgophytes and bennettites, to a fern-dominated community, suggestive of an environmental perturbation. We interpret this change as a regional shift in vegetation, likely caused by increased humidity, consistent with the CPE. Our records represent the first indication of a possible CPE-induced vegetation response in the Junggar Basin and highlight how this event likely affected floral communities of inland Laurasia.

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  • 47.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. aState Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    A review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical implications2021Ingår i: Grana, ISSN 0017-3134, E-ISSN 1651-2049, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 407-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Staurosaccites, a highly distinctive pollen genus, ranges from the late Anisian (Pelsonian; Middle Triassic) to the Norian, at low tomid latitudes, globally. Here we review the systematic taxonomy and spatial and temporal ranges of Staurosaccites. We provide anemendation to S. tharipatharensis, synonymise S. minutus with the type species S. quadrifidus, and retain the species S. quadrifidus, S. tharipatharensis, S. densus and S. marginalis. Following comparison with morphologically similar pollen and environmental reconstructions of the habitat of its parent plant, we hypothesise that Staurosaccites was produced by a conifer that was likely adapted to warm and humid conditions. Based on occurrences of diagnostic taxa for the Onslow and Ipswich microfloral provinces in the Southern Hemisphere (Staurosaccites, Camerosporites, Enzonalasporites, Infernopollenites and Ovalipollis), we show that these palynofloras were established in the Middle Triassic. Our findings further suggest that, based on the presence of diagnostic taxa in western Laurasia and their absence in eastern Laurasia, western and eastern Laurasia represent different palynofloral provinces in the Middle Triassic.

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  • 48.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China;Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Slater, Sam M.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    A review of the Triassic pollen Staurosaccites: systematic and phytogeographical implications2021Ingår i: Grana, ISSN 0017-3134, E-ISSN 1651-2049, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 407-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    attachment
  • 49.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Centre for Excellence in Life and Palaeoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China;Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Slater, Sam M.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Floral and faunal biostratigraphy of the Middle–Upper Triassic Karamay and Huangshanjie formations from the southern Junggar Basin, China2024Ingår i: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 538, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Junggar Basin, northwestern China, the biostratigraphy and vegetation patterns of the Middle–Late Triassic sediments are comparatively poorly resolved. Here we investigate Middle–Late Triassic successions of the Dalongkou Section in the southern Junggar Basin for palynostratigraphy and vegetation patterns. Three palynological abundance zones are proposed here: the Aratrisporites Abundance Zone (Middle Triassic), the Dictyophyllidites–Aratrisporites Abundance Zone (latest Middle to early Late Triassic) and the Lycopodiacidites–Stereisporites informal abundance zone (Late Triassic). A review of previous records of the Fukangichthys Fauna indicates that this vertebrate fossil assemblage is stratigraphically located within the uppermost part of the Karamay Formation and is Middle Triassic in age. The revised dating of this and other faunas are further used to constrain the palynological zones in the Junggar Basin. Although the palynoflora is consistently dominated by non-striate bisaccate pollen (produced by seed ferns and/or conifers) in the studied section, spores record a distinctive abundance increase during the late Middle Triassic. Spore taxon abundance changes indicate a vegetational shift from a Middle Triassic–early Late Triassic community characterized by abundant lycophytes (likely Annalepis and Pleuromeia) to a Late Triassic ecosystem with abundant dipteridaceous ferns (e.g. Dictyophyllum) in the Junggar Basin and across North China. This study updates the Triassic biostratigraphy in the Junggar Basin, and sheds light on temporal floral changes in this basin and elsewhere in North China during the Middle to Late Triassic.

  • 50.
    Peng, Jungang
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. aState Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing.
    Slater, Sam M
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Megaspores from the Late Triassic‒Early Jurassic of southern Scandinavia: taxonomic and biostratigraphic implications2021Ingår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 143, nr 2-3, s. 202-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we investigate megaspores from 10 Triassic‒Jurassic localities of southern Sweden and Bornholm, Denmark, based on collections housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History. We identify and describe 19 megaspore taxa belonging to three stratigraphically constrained assemblages, representing the Rhaetian, Hettangian and Pliensbachian, respectively. Megaspores are abundant and diverse (12 taxa) in the Rhaetian assemblage. Diversity markedly decreases across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary (TJB), with species richness reducing from 12 to two taxa. The Hettangian assemblage is well-preserved but depauperate, and is overwhelmingly dominated by Nathorstisporites hopliticus. A subsequent recovery of lycopsid diversity followed, recorded by an increase in richness to six taxa in the Pliensbachian assemblage. The disappearance of the hygrophilous and diverse heterosporous lycophyte communities acrossthe TJB, suggests a shift to drier conditions in the earliest Jurassic. This is supported by lithological changes from coal-forming environments in the Rhaetian to sandstone-dominated fluvial-estuarine facies in the Hettangian. Throughout this study, we analysed the megaspores using fluorescence microscopy, which revealed detailed morphological features on specimens that were otherwise opaque under visible light. This non-destructive technique is particularly useful for examining opaque megaspores embedded in permanent mounting media, such as epoxy resin, and may provide new insights into historical megaspore collections elsewhere.

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