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  • 201.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The utility of CAD in recovering Gondwanan vicariance events and the evolutionary history of Aciliini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).2014In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Aciliini presently includes 69 species of medium-sized water beetles distributed on all continents except Antarctica. The pattern of distribution with several genera confined to different continents of the Southern Hemisphere raises the yet untested hypothesis of a Gondwana vicariance origin. The monophyly of Aciliini has been questioned with regard to Eretini, and there are competing hypotheses about the intergeneric relationship in the tribe. This study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis focused on the tribe Aciliini and it is based on eight gene fragments. The aims of the present study are: 1) to test the monophyly of Aciliini and clarify the position of the tribe Eretini and to resolve the relationship among genera within Aciliini, 2) to calibrate the divergence times within Aciliini and test different biogeographical scenarios, and 3) to evaluate the utility of the gene CAD for phylogenetic analysis in Dytiscidae.

    Results

    Our analyses confirm monophyly of Aciliini with Eretini as its sister group. Each of six genera which have multiple species are also supported as monophyletic. The origin of the tribe is firmly based in the Southern Hemisphere with the arrangement of Neotropical and Afrotropical taxa as the most basal clades suggesting a Gondwana vicariance origin. However, the uncertainty as to whether a fossil can be used as a stem-or crowngroup calibration point for Acilius influenced the result: as crowngroup calibration, the 95% HPD interval for the basal nodes included the geological age estimate for the Gondwana break-up, but as a stem group calibration the basal nodes were too young. Our study suggests CAD to be the most informative marker between 15 and 50 Ma. Notably, the 2000 bp CAD fragment analyzed alone fully resolved the tree with high support.

    Conclusions

    1) Molecular data confirmed Aciliini as a monophyletic group. 2) Bayesian optimizations of the biogeographical history are consistent with an influence of Gondwana break-up history, but were dependent on the calibration method. 3) The evaluation using a method of phylogenetic signal per base pair indicated Wnt and CAD as the most informative of our sampled genes.

  • 202. BUONO, Monica
    et al.
    FERNANDEZ, Martha
    REGUERO, Marcelo
    MARENSSI, Sergio
    SANTILLANA, Sergio
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Eocene basilosaurid whales from the La Meseta Formation, Marambio (Seymour) Island, Antarctica2016In: Ameghiniana, ISSN 0002-7014, E-ISSN 1851-8044, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 296-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basal fully aquatic whales, the basilosaurids are worldwide known from Bartonian–Priabonian localities, indicating that this group was widely distributed during the late middle Eocene. In the Northern Hemisphere, fossils of basilosaurids are abundant, while records in the Southern Hemisphere are scarce and, in some cases (i.e., Antarctica), doubtful. The presence of basilosaurids in Antarctica was, until now, uncertain because most of the records are based on fragmentary materials that preclude an accurate assignment to known archaeocete taxa. Here we report the findings of mandibles, teeth, and innominate bone remains of basilosaurids recovered from the La Meseta Formation (TELM 4 Lutetian–Bartonian and; TELM 7 Priabonian), in Marambio (Seymour) Island (James Ross Basin, Antarctic Peninsula). These findings confirm the presence of Basilosauridae in the marine realm of Antarctica, increasing our knowledge of the paleobiogeographic distribution of basilosaurids during the middle–late Eocene. In addition, one of these records is among the oldest occurrences of basilosaurids worldwide, indicating a rapid radiation and dispersal of this group since at least the early middle Eocene.

  • 203. Butler, Aodhán
    et al.
    Cunningham, John
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Budd, Graham
    Donoghue, Philip
    Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, p. 20150476-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary

    history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the

    decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record,

    though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation.

    To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the

    brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity,

    oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that

    endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following

    gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread

    into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of

    mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures

    such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns

    observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts

    are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy

    is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the

    preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between

    exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and

    microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through

    gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil

    preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity

    of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut.

  • 204.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Moraeus, Charlotta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Karlsson, Olle
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Härkönen, Tero
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Sälpopulationer och sälhälsa2016In: HAVET 2015/2016: Om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden / [ed] Havsmiljöinstitutet, Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2016, p. 116-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Moraeus, Charlotta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Stenström, Malin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Neimanis, Aleksija
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring. SVA.
    Undersökning av insamlade sälar från Östersjön 2013/20142015Report (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Moraeus, Charlotta
    Härkönen, Tero
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Karlsson, Olle
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Undersökning av sälar insamlade 20152017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1970s, grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) have been collected and necropsied at the Swedish Museum of Natural History. Mostly have grey seals been examined. The effect of hunting during 19th century and reproductive failure during the latter half of the century decreased Baltic seal populations. In the 1970s and 1980s, pathological changes found mostly in grey seals was called the Baltic Seal Disease Complex and was thought to be related to high levels of PCB and DDT. Since then several pathological changes have decreased in prevalence as well as levels of PCB and DDT. Since then in grey seals, the prevalence of intestinal ulcers has increased and then decreased, blubber thickness has decreased and the prevalence of a zoonotic biliary trematode infection increased.

    In 2015, whole bodies and samples from 137 grey seals, 44 harbour seals and 27 ringed seals were examined at the museum. The public reported 196 seals found dead along the Swedish coast. At present, the Baltic grey seal population increases with 8% each year and 85% of the examined females 6-24 years old were pregnant during the pregnant period (August-February) in 2015. The harbour seal populations presently increase with 7-9 % per year, although the numbers of examined harbour seals are much lower than the number of grey seals, the proportion of examined pregnant harbour seals in corresponding age group was only 57%. The ringed seal population in the Gulf of Bothnia presently increase with 4,5% per year. One mature female examined from the period of pregnancy was pregnant. Of the examined 27 ringed seals, 20 of them were younger than 4 years. Two two-year old females showed malformations as diaphragmatic hiatus in one of them and the other female lacked one of the uterine horns.

     

    In conclusion, the health situation for examined Baltic grey seals is better and the increase in the population during the last 15 years is stable. The number of examined harbour seals and ringed seals is small for presenting trends but harbour seals showed a tendency to low pregnancy rate that needs further studies. The populations of harbour seals on the Swedish west coast were affected by epidemics in 1988, 2002 and 2014 and the development rate of these populations have decreased since 2002. The development of the harbour seal population on the Swedish east coast has a steady increase since the 1970s. The population of ringed seals has a low increase in the Gulf of Bothnia

  • 207. Büdel, B.
    et al.
    Colesie, C.
    Green, T.G.A.
    Grube, Martin
    Lázaro Suau, R.
    Loewen-Schneider, K.
    Maier, S.
    Peer, T.
    Pintado, A.
    Raggio, J.
    Ruprecht, U.
    Sancho, L. G.
    Schroeter, B.
    Türk, R.
    Weber, B.
    Wedin, Mats
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Westberg, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Williams, L.
    Zheng, L.
    Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe – the Soil Crust International project (SCIN)2014In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 23, p. 1639-1658Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 208. Cabral, R.A.
    et al.
    Jackson, M.G.
    Koga, K.T.
    Rose-Koga, E.F.
    Hauri, E.H.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Price, A.A:
    Day, J.M.D.
    Shimizu, N.
    Kelley, K.A.
    Volatile cycling of H2O, CO2, F, and Cl in the HIMU mantle: A new window provided by melt inclusions from oceanic hotspot lavas at Mangaia, Cook Islands.2014In: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 15, p. 4445-4467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangaia hosts the most radiogenic Pb-isotopic compositions observed in ocean island basalts and represents the HIMU (high µ = 238U/204Pb) mantle end-member, thought to result from recycled oceanic crust. Complete geochemical characterization of the HIMU mantle end-member has been inhibited due to a lack of deep submarine glass samples from HIMU localities. We homogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions separated from Mangaia lavas and the resulting glassy inclusions made possible the first volatile abundances to be obtained from the HIMU mantle end-member. We also report major and trace element abundances and Pb-isotopic ratios on the inclusions, which have HIMU isotopic fingerprints. We evaluate the samples for processes that could modify the volatile and trace element abundances postmantle melting, including diffusive Fe and H2O loss, degassing, and assimilation. H2O/Ce ratios vary from 119 to 245 in the most pristine Mangaia inclusions; excluding an inclusion that shows evidence for assimilation, the primary magmatic H2O/Ce ratios vary up to ∼200, and are consistent with significant dehydration of oceanic crust during subduction and long-term storage in the mantle. CO2 concentrations range up to 2346 ppm CO2 in the inclusions. Relatively high CO2 in the inclusions, combined with previous observations of carbonate blebs in other Mangaia melt inclusions, highlight the importance of CO2 for the generation of the HIMU mantle. F/Nd ratios in the inclusions (30 ± 9; 2σ standard deviation) are higher than the canonical ratio observed in oceanic lavas, and Cl/K ratios (0.079 ± 0.028) fall in the range of pristine mantle (0.02–0.08).

  • 209. Cahill, James A
    et al.
    Stirling, Ian
    Kistler, Logan
    Salamzade, Rauf
    Ersmark, Erik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics. Stockholms Universitet.
    Fulton, Tara L
    Stiller, Mathias
    Green, Richard E
    Shapiro, Beth
    Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.2015In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof Islands (ABC Islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC Islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC Islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 210. Callac, Nolwenn
    et al.
    Posth, Nicole
    Rattray, Jane
    Yamoah, Kweiku
    Wiech, Alan
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Hemmingsson, Christoffer
    Kilias, Stephanos
    Argyraki, Ariadne
    Broman, Curt
    Skogby, Henrik
    Smittenberg, Rienk
    Chi Fru, Ernest
    Modes of carbon fixation in an arsenic and CO2-rich shallow hydrothermal ecosystem2017In: Scientific ReportsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Canfield, Donald E.
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss
    Hammarlund, Emma
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Chaussidon, Marc
    Gauthier Lafaye, François
    Meunier, Alain
    Riboulleau, Armelle
    Rollion Bard, Claire
    Rouxel, Olivier
    Asael, Dan
    Wickmann, Anne Catherine
    El Albani, Abderrazak
    Oxygen dynamics in the aftermath of the Great Oxidation of the Earth’s atmosphere.2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 110, no 42, p. 16736-16741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere has varied greatly through time, progressing from exceptionally low levels before about 2.3 billion years ago, to much higher levels afterward. In the absence of better information, we usually view the progress in Earth’s oxygenation as a series of steps followed by periods of relative stasis. In contrast to this view, and as reported here, a dynamic evolution of Earth’s oxygenation is recorded in ancient sediments from the Republic of Gabon from between about 2,150 and 2,080 million years ago. The oldest sediments in this sequence were deposited in well-oxygenated deep waters whereas the youngest were deposited in euxinic waters, which were globally extensive. These fluctuations in oxygenation were likely driven by the comings and goings of the Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion, the longest–lived positive ?13C excursion in Earth history, generating a huge oxygen source to the atmosphere. As the Lomagundi event waned, the oxygen source became a net oxygen sink as Lomagundi organic matter became oxidized, driving oxygen to low levels; this state may have persisted for 200 million years.

  • 212.
    Cannon, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Auburn University.
    Kocot, Kevin
    University of Alabama.
    Phylogenomic approaches using transcriptome data.2016In: Marine Genomics: Methods and Protocols / [ed] Sarah Bourlat, New York: Humana Press, 2016, p. 65-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Cannon, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Auburn University.
    Kocot, Kevin
    University of Queensland.
    Waits, Damien
    Auburn University.
    Weese, David
    Georgia College and State University.
    Swalla, Billie
    University of Washington.
    Santos, Scott
    Auburn University.
    Halanych, Kenneth
    Auburn University.
    Phylogenomic Resolution of the Hemichordate and Echinoderm Clade2014In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, p. 2827-2832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambulacraria, comprising Hemichordata and Echinodermata, is closely related to Chordata, making it integral to understanding chordate origins and polarizing chordate molecular and morphological characters. Unfortunately, relationships within Hemichordata and Echinoder- mata have remained unresolved, compromising our ability to extrapolate findings from the most closely related molecular and developmental models outside of Chordata (e.g., the acorn worms Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Ptychodera flava and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). To resolve long-standing phylogenetic issues within Ambulacraria, we sequenced transcriptomes for 14 hemichordates as well as 8 echinoderms and complemented these with existing data for a total of 33 ambulacrarian operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Examination of leaf stability values revealed rhabdopleurid pterobranchs and the enteropneust Stereobalanus canadensis were unstable in placement; therefore, analyses were also run without these taxa. Analyses of 185 genes resulted in reciprocal monophyly of Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia, placed the deep-sea family Torquaratoridae within Ptychoderidae, and confirmed the position of ophiuroid brittle stars as sister to asteroid sea stars (the Asterozoa hypothesis). These results are consistent with earlier perspectives concerning plesiomorphies of Ambulacraria, including pharyngeal gill slits, a single axocoel, and paired hydrocoels and somatocoels. The resolved ambulacrarian phylogeny will help clarify the early evolution of chordate characteristics and has implications for our understanding of major fossil groups, including graptolites and somasteroideans. 

  • 214.
    Cannon, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. Auburn University.
    Vellutini, Bruno
    Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology.
    Smith, Julian
    Winthrop University.
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Hejnol, Andreas
    Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology.
    Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa2016In: Nature, ISSN ISSN: 0028-0836, Vol. 530, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships1. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (= Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes)2,3 or is a clade inside Deuterostomia4. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long- branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa. 

  • 215. Cappellini, Enrico
    et al.
    Gentry, Anthea
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    Ishida, Yasuko
    Cram, David
    Roos, Anna-Marie
    Watson, Mick
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Fernholm, Bo
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Agnelli, Paolo
    Barbagli, Fausto
    Littlewood, D. Tim. J.
    Kelstrup, Christian D.
    Olsen, Jesper V.
    Lister, Adrian M.
    Roca, Alfred L.
    Dalén, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)2014In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 170, p. 222-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Carlström, Julia
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    ASCOBANS Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises: Jastarnia Plan (2016 Revision)2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the ASCOBANS species action plan for what is called Baltic harbour porpoise population primarily inhabiting the Baltic Proper. The population’s abundance has recently been estimated at only 497 individuals (95% CI 80 –1091) and it has a wide overall distribution range. During the winter season, it stretches from the Åland and Archipelago Seas in the north, to the Southern Baltic Proper in the southwest, and perhaps even further west thereof. In the summer season, however, when calving and mating take place, the majority of the population aggregates at and around the Hoburg’s and Northern and Southern Mid-sea banks in the Baltic Proper. Thus, this area should be considered essential and probably the main breeding area for the Baltic harbour porpoise population. The population’s current status calls for immediate conservation actions. Bycatch in gillnet fisheries has been recognized as the primary threat for the survival of the Baltic harbour porpoise population, although high contaminant levels are also of serious concern. Continuous and impulsive underwater noise and possibly also reduced prey quality are further contributing factors.

    The Jastarnia Plan serves as a framework for international collaboration towards achieving ASCOBANS’ interim goal of restoring the population to at least 80per cent of carrying capacity, and, ultimately, a favourable conservation status for Baltic harbour porpoises. The plan lists a number of actions, of which the following should be carried out as a matter of urgency:

    1.Involve stakeholders, use alternative fishing gear, apply available technology such as pingers, and reduce or eliminate fishing effort to reduce the number of bycaught harbour porpoises in the Baltic towards zero.

    2.Designate marine protected areas for harbour porpoises together with management plans and monitoring schemes for efficient contribution to the protection and monitoring of the population.

    3.Minimize the impact of anthropogenic underwater noise through the use of available mitigation measures and implementation of internationally harmonized national threshold limits and guidelines.

    The outline of the Plan is as follows:

    1.Introduction: An outline of the scope, context and policy setting of the Plan, including information on previous conservation management actions, as well as overall objectives.

    2.Legal frameworks: A list of relevant legal frameworks, including international conventions and agreements, European and national legislation and management arrangements.

    3.Governance: An outline of the management structure identifying the roles, responsibilities and interactions between the key stakeholders, as well as the timeline from the development stage through the implementation and review stages.

    4.Scientific background: Information on biology, status, environmental parameters, critical habitats, and attributes of the population to be monitored.

    5.Threats, mitigation measures and monitoring: A summary of the known or suspected threats together with a discussion of their evidence of impact, and the mitigation measures for the key threats and how they will be monitored.

    6.Actions: Descriptions of actions including information such as concise objective, rationale, activity or method, timeline, actors and priority.

  • 217. Carlén, Ida
    et al.
    Thomas, Len
    Carlström, Julia
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Amundin, Mats
    Teilmann, Jonas
    Tregenza, Nick
    Tougaard, Jakob
    Koblitz, Jens C
    Sveegaard, Signe
    Wennerberg, Daniel
    Loisa, Olli
    Dähne, Michael
    Brundiers, Katharina
    Kosecka, Monika
    Kyhn, Line A
    Tiberi Ljungqvist, Cinthia
    Pawliczka, Iwona
    Koza, Radomil
    Arciszewski, Bartlomiej
    Galatius, Anders
    Jabbusch, Martin
    Laaksonlaita, Jussi
    Niemi, Jussi
    Lyytinen, Sami
    Gallus, Anja
    Benke, Harald
    Blankett, Penina
    Skóra, Krzysztof E
    Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro
    Basin-scale distribution of harbour porpoises in the Baltic Sea provides basisfor effective conservation actions2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 226, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 218.
    CARPENTER, RAYMOND
    et al.
    University of Tasmania.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    HILL, ROBERT
    University of Adelaide.
    McNAMARA, KENNETH
    University of Cambridge.
    JORDAN, GREGORY
    University of Tasmania.
    EARLY EVIDENCE OF XEROMORPHY IN ANGIOSPERMS: STOMATAL ENCRYPTION IN A NEW EOCENE SPECIES OF BANKSIA (PROTEACEAE) FROM WESTERN AUSTRALIA2014In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 101, no 9, p. 1486-1497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of the study: Globally, the origins of xeromorphic traits in modern angiosperm lineages are obscure but are thought to be linked to the early Neogene onset of seasonally arid climates. Stomatal encryption is a xeromorphic trait that is prominent in Banksia , an archetypal genus centered in one of the world’s most diverse ecosystems, the ancient infertile landscape of Mediterranean-climate southwestern Australia.

    Methods: We describe Banksia paleocrypta , a sclerophyllous species with encrypted stomata from silcretes of the Walebing and Kojonup regions of southwestern Australia dated as Late Eocene.

    Key results: Banksia paleocrypta shows evidence of foliar xeromorphy ~20 Ma before the widely accepted timing for the onset of aridity in Australia. Species of Banksia subgenus Banksia with very similar leaves are extant in southwestern Australia. The conditions required for silcrete formation infer fl uctuating water tables and climatic seasonality in southwestern Australia in the Eocene, and seasonality is supported by the paucity of angiosperm closed-forest elements among the fossil taxa preserved with B. paleocrypta. However, climates in the region during the Eocene are unlikely to have experienced seasons as hot and dry as present-day summers.

    Conclusions: The presence of B. paleocrypta within the center of diversity of subgenus Banksia in edaphically ancient southwestern Australia is consistent with the continuous presence of this lineage in the region for ≥ 40 Ma, a testament to the success of increasingly xeromorphic traits in Banksia over an interval in which numerous other lineages became extinct.

  • 219. Chaline, J.
    et al.
    Werdelin, LarsSwedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Modes and Tempos of Evolution of Quaternary Mammals1993Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 220. Chang, Dan
    et al.
    Knapp, Michael
    Enk, Jacob
    Lippold, Sebastian
    Kircher, Martin
    Lister, Adrian
    MacPhee, Ross D. E.
    Widga, Christopher
    Czechowski, Paul
    Sommer, Robert
    Hodges, Emily
    Stuempel, Nikolaus
    Barnes, Ian
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Derevianko, Anatoly
    Germonpre, Mietje
    Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra
    Constantin, Silviu
    Kuznetsova, Tatyana
    Mol, Dick
    Rathgeber, Thomas
    Rosendahl, Wilfried
    Tikhonov, Alexey N.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Hannon, Greg
    Lalueza-Fox, Carles
    Joger, Ulrich
    Poinar, Hendrik
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Shapiro, Beth
    The evolutionary and phylogeographic history of woolly mammoths: a comprehensive mitogenomic analysis2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44585Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Charette, M
    et al.
    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA.
    Lam, P.J.
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Lohan, M.C.
    University of Southhampton, UK.
    Kwon, E.Y.
    Seoul National University,Korea.
    Hatje, V
    Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil.
    Jeandel, C
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Shiller, A.M.
    University of Southern Mississippi, USA.
    Cutter, G.A.
    Old Dominion University, USA.
    Thomas, A
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Boyd, P.W.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Homoky, W.B.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Milne, A.
    Plymoth University, UK.
    Thomas, H.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Andersson, P.S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Porcelli, D.
    University of Oxford,Uk.
    Tanaka, T
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Geibert, W
    Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany.
    Dehairs, F.
    Vrije Universiteit, Belgium.
    Garcia-Orellana, J.
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Coastal ocean and shelf-sea biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and isotopes: lessons learned from GEOTRACES2016In: Philosopical Transactions of the Royal Society A, ISSN 1364–503X, Vol. 374, no 2081Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continental shelves and shelf seas play a central role in the global carbon cycle. However,

    their importance with respect to trace element and isotope (TEI) inputs to ocean basins

    is less well understood. Here, we present major findings on shelf TEI biogeochemistry

    from the GEOTRACES programme as well as a proof of concept for a new method to

    estimate shelf TEI fluxes. The case studies focus on advances in our understanding of TEI

    cycling in the Arctic, transformations within a major river estuary (Amazon), shelf sediment

    micronutrient fluxes and basin-scale estimates of submarine groundwater discharge. The

    proposed shelf flux tracer is 228-radium (T1/2 =5.75 yr), which is continuously supplied to

    the shelf from coastal aquifers, sediment porewater exchange and rivers. Model-derived shelf

    228Ra fluxes are combined with TEI/ 228Ra ratios to quantify ocean TEI fluxes from the

    western North Atlantic margin. The results from this new approach agree well with previous

    estimates for shelf Co, Fe, Mn and Zn inputs and exceed published estimates of atmospheric

    deposition by factors of approximately 3–23. Lastly, recommendations are made for additional

    GEOTRACES process studies and coastal margin-focused section cruises that will help refine

    the model and provide better insight on the mechanisms driving shelf-derived TEI fluxes

    to the ocean.

    This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element

    chemistry’.

  • 222. Chenery, S.
    et al.
    Williams, C. T.
    Elliott, T. A.
    Forey, P. L.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Determination of rare earth elements in biological and mineral apatite by EPMA and LAMP-ICP-MS1996In: Mikrochimica Acta, ISSN 0026-3672, E-ISSN 1436-5073, Vol. 13, no suppl., p. 259-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 223. Chenhall, R
    et al.
    Martinelli, L
    McLaughlin, J
    Paulsen, B S
    Senior, K
    Svalastog, A L
    Tunon, H
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Culture, science and bioethics - Interdisciplinary understandings of and practices in science, culture and ethics2014In: New Zealand Online Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224. Chi Fru, E.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, M.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Kilias, S. P.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hemmingsson, C.
    Broman, C.
    Bengtson, S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Chatzitheodoridis, E.
    Biogenicity of an Early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece2015In: Geobiology, ISSN 1472-4677, E-ISSN 1472-4669, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 225-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ~2.0-million-year-old shallow-submarine sedimentary deposit on Milos Island, Greece, harbours an unmetamorphosed fossiliferous iron formation (IF) comparable to Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs). This Milos IF holds the potential to provide clues to the origin of Precambrian BIFs, relative to biotic and abiotic processes. Here, we combine field stratigraphic observations, stable isotopes of C, S and Si, rock petrography and microfossil evidence from a ~5-m-thick outcrop to track potential biogeochemical processes that may have contributed to the formation of the BIF-type rocks and the abrupt transition to an overlying conglomerate-hosted IF (CIF). Bulk δ13C isotopic compositions lower than -25‰ provide evidence for biological contribution by the Calvin and reductive acetyl–CoA carbon fixation cycles to the origin of both the BIF-type and CIF strata. Low S levels of ~0.04 wt.% combined with δ34S estimates of up to ~18‰ point to a non-sulphidic depository. Positive δ30Si records of up to +0.53‰ in the finely laminated BIF-type rocks indicate chemical deposition on the seafloor during weak periods of arc magmatism. Negative δ30Si data are consistent with geological observations suggesting a sudden change to intense arc volcanism potentially terminated the deposition of the BIF-type layer. The typical Precambrian rhythmic rocks of alternating Fe- and Si-rich bands are associated with abundant and spatially distinct microbial fossil assemblages. Together with previously proposed anoxygenic photoferrotrophic iron cycling and low sedimentary N and C potentially connected to diagenetic denitrification, the Milos IF is a biogenic submarine volcano-sedimentary IF showing depositional conditions analogous to Archaean Algoma-type BIFs.

  • 225. Chi Fru, Ernest
    et al.
    Callac, Nolwenn
    Posth, Nicole
    Argyaki, Ariadne
    Ling, Y.-C.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Broman, Curt
    Kilias, Stephanos
    Arsenic and high affinity phosphate uptake gene distribution in shallow submarine hydrothermal sediments2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 226. Chi Fru, Ernest
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Kilias, Stephanos
    Christoffer, Hemmingson
    Broman, Curt
    Bengtson, Stefan
    C, Chatzitheodoridis
    Biogenicity of an early Quaternary iron formation, Milos Island, Greece2015In: Geobiology, ISSN 1472-4677, E-ISSN 1472-4669, Vol. 13, p. 225-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 227. Chi Fru, Ernest
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Kilias, Stephanos P
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Marone, Federica
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Fortin, Danielle
    Broman, Curt
    Stampanoni, Marco
    ETH Zürich.
    Fossilized iron bacteria reveal pathway to biological origin of banded iron formation.2013In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4, no 2050, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates on the formation of banded iron formations in ancient ferruginous oceans are dominated by a dichotomy between abiotic and biotic iron cycling. This is fuelled by difficulties in unravelling the exact processes involved in their formation. Here we provide fossil environmental evidence for anoxygenic photoferrotrophic deposition of analogue banded iron rocks in shallow marine waters associated with an Early Quaternary hydrothermal vent field on Milos Island, Greece. Trace metal, major and rare earth elemental compositions suggest that the deposited rocks closely resemble banded iron formations of Precambrian origin. Well-preserved microbial fossils in combination with chemical data imply that band formation was linked to periodic massive encrustation of anoxygenic phototrophic biofilms by iron oxyhydroxide alternating with abiotic silica precipitation. The data implicate cyclic anoxygenic photoferrotrophy and their fossilization mechanisms in the construction of microskeletal fabrics that result in the formation of characteristic banded iron formation bands of varying silica and iron oxide ratios.

  • 228. Chi Fru, Ernest
    et al.
    Kilias, Stephanos
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Rattray, Jane
    Gkika, Katerina
    McDonald, Iain
    He, Qian
    Broman, Curt
    Sedimentary mechanisms of a modern banded ironformation on Milos Island, GreeceIn: Solid earthArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Chi Fru, Ernest
    et al.
    Department of Geological Sciences, 10691, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK.
    Kilias, Stephanos
    Department of Economic Geology and Geochemistry, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zographou, 15784, Athens, Greece.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Department of Geological Sciences, 10691, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gkika, Katerina
    Department of Economic Geology and Geochemistry, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zographou, 15784, Athens, Greece.
    McDonald, Iain
    School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK.
    He, Qian
    School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK.
    Broman, Curt
    Department of Geological Sciences, 10691, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sedimentary mechanisms of a modern banded iron formation on MIlos Island, Greece2018In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 9, p. 573-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An early Quaternary shallow submarine hydrothermal iron formation (IF) in the Cape Vani sedimentary basin (CVSB) on Milos Island, Greece, displays banded rhythmicity similar to Precambrian banded iron formation (BIF). Field-wide stratigraphic and biogeochemical reconstructions show two temporal and spatially isolated iron deposits in the CVSB with distinct sedimentological character. Petrographic screening suggests the presence of a photoferrotrophic-like microfossil-rich IF (MFIF), accumulated on a basement consisting of andesites in a ∼ 150m wide basin in the SW margin of the basin. A banded nonfossiliferous IF (NFIF) sits on top of the Mn-rich sandstones at the transition to the renowned Mn-rich formation, capping the NFIF unit. Geochemical data relate the origin of the NFIF to periodic submarine volcanism and water column oxidation of released Fe(II) in conditions predominated by anoxia, similar to the MFIF. Raman spectroscopy pairs hematite-rich grains in the NFIF with relics of a carbonaceous material carrying an average δ13Corg signature of ∼ −25‰. A similar δ13Corg signature in the MFIF could not be directly coupled to hematite by mineralogy. The NFIF, which postdates large-scale Mn deposition in the CVSB, is composed primarily of amorphous Si (opal-SiO2 ⋅ nH2O) while crystalline quartz (SiO2) predominates the MFIF. An intricate interaction between tectonic processes, changing redox, biological activity, and abiotic Si precipitation are proposed to have collectively formed the unmetamorphosed BIF-type deposits in a shallow submarine volcanic center. Despite the differences in Precambrian ocean–atmosphere chemistry and the present geologic time, these formation mechanisms coincide with those believed to have formed Algoma-type BIFs proximal to active seafloor volcanic centers.

  • 230.
    Chi Fru, Ernest
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Rodríguez, Nathalie
    Stockholm University Department of Geological Sciences.
    Partin, Camille
    University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lalonde, Stefan
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Weiss, Dominik
    Imperial College, London, UK.
    El Albani, Abderrazak
    Université de Poitiers, France.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    ALS Scandinavia, Sweden.
    Konhauser, Kurt
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Cu isotopes in marine black shales record the Great Oxidation Event2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 18, p. 4941-4946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygenation of the atmosphere ∼2.45–2.32 billion years ago (Ga) is one of the most significant geological events to have affected Earth’s redox history. Our understanding of the timing and processes surrounding this key transition is largely dependent on the development of redox-sensitive proxies, many of which remain unexplored. Here we report a shift from negative to positive copper isotopic compositions (δ65CuERM-AE633) in organic carbon-rich shales spanning the period 2.66–2.08 Ga. We suggest that, before 2.3 Ga, a muted oxidative supply of weathering-derived copper enriched in 65Cu, along with the preferential removal of 65Cu by iron oxides, left seawater and marine biomass depleted in 65Cu but enriched in 63Cu. As banded iron formation deposition waned and continentally sourced Cu became more important, biomass sampled a dissolved Cu reservoir that was progressively less fractionated relative to the continental pool. This evolution toward heavy δ65Cu values coincides with a shift to negative sedimentary δ56Fe values and increased marine sulfate after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and is traceable through Phanerozoic shales to modern marine settings, where marine dissolved and sedimentary δ65Cu values are universally positive. Our finding of an important shift in sedimentary Cu isotope compositions across the GOE provides new insights into the Precambrian marine cycling of this critical micronutrient, and demonstrates the proxy potential for sedimentary Cu isotope compositions in the study of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic redox balance in the past.

  • 231. Chiappe, Luis M
    et al.
    Lamb, James P
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division.
    New enantiornithine bird from the marine Upper Cretaceous of Alabama2002In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 170-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 232. Chiarle, Alberto
    et al.
    Kronestedt, Torbjörn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Isaia, Marco
    Courtship behavior in European species of the genus Pardosa (Araneae, Lycosidae)2013In: Journal of Arachnology, ISSN 0161-8202, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 108-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Choo, Thereis
    et al.
    School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca,.
    Escapa, Ignacio
    CONICET, Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio, Trelew U9100GYO, Chubut, Argentina.
    Benjamin, Bomfleur
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Monotypic colonies of Clathropteris meniscioides (Dipteridaceae) from the Early Jurassic of central Patagonia, Argentina: implications for taxonomy and palaeoecology2016In: Palaeontographica. Abteilung B, Palaophytologie, ISSN 0375-0299, Vol. 294, p. 85-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A collection of over 130 specimens of the fossil dipterid fern Clathropteris meniscioides (Brongn. 1825) Brongn. 1828 from in-situ colonies in the Lower Jurassic of Chubut, Argentina, provides evidence for population-level morphological variation within the species and palaeoecology of the site. Characters such as angle of insertion of secondary veins, tertiary vein arrangement and tooth depth were observed to vary between specimens, and the total range of variation captured by this population was found to overlap and intergrade with the descriptions of several previously identified Clathropteris species. This suggests that species delimitations based on minor differences in such characters should be regarded with skepticism, and that the current number of species ascribed to this genus may be artificially inflated. Abundant C. meniscioides fossils at different development stages buried together in a single, thick bed of sheet-flood deposits provide evidence for the species having formed large, pure colonies in open, disturbed floodplain areas. The characteristic and extremely high leaf-vein densities would have allowed for greater carbon assimilation and rapid growth rates. Altogether, this suggests that the species was a fast-growing pioneer species of floodplains, a prominent part of the Early Jurassic vegetation in Gondwana, and a likely food source for large herbivorous dinosaurs common at that time.

  • 234.
    Chris, Mays
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Monash University.
    Bevitt, Joseph
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Research Office, Lucas Heights, Australia.
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants2017In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1-12, article id 20.3.57AArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography is an increasingly popular technique for the non-destructivestudy of fossils. Whilst the science of X-ray computed tomography (CT) has greatlymatured since its first fossil applications in the early 1980s, the applications and limitationsof neutron tomography (NT) remain relatively unexplored in palaeontology. Thesehighest resolution neutron tomographic scans in palaeontology to date were conductedon a specimen of Austrosequoia novae-zeelandiae (Ettingshausen) Mays and Cantrillrecovered from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian; ~100–94 Ma) strata of the ChathamIslands, eastern Zealandia. Previously, the species has been identified with in situ fossilresin (amber); the new neutron tomographic analyses demonstrated an anomalouslyhigh neutron attenuation signal for fossil resin. The resulting data provided astrong contrast between, and distinct three-dimensional representations of the: 1) fossilresin; 2) coalified plant matter; and 3) sedimentary matrix. These data facilitated ananatomical model of endogenous resin bodies within the cone axis and bract-scalecomplexes. The types and distributions of resin bodies support a close alliance withSequoia Endlicher (Cupressaceae), a group of conifers whose extant members areonly found in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the feasibility of NTas a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils.Herein, we make specific recommendations regarding: 1) the suitability of fossil preservationstyles for NT; 2) the conservation of organic specimens with hydrogenous consolidantsand adhesives; and 3) the application of emerging methods (e.g., neutronphase contrast) for further improvements when imaging fine-detailed anatomical structures.These findings demonstrate that we are still far from reaching the conceptuallimits of NT as a means of virtually extracting fossils, or imaging their internal anatomyeven when embedded within a rock matrix.

  • 235. Cibois, Alice
    et al.
    Gelang, Magnus
    Alström, Per
    Pasquet, Eric
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ericson, Per G P
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Olsson, Urban
    Comprehensive phylogeny of the laughingthrushes and allies (Aves, Leiothrichidae), and a proposal for a revised taxonomy2018In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 47, p. 428-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Claesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bibikova, Elena
    Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry RAS, Kosygin St 19, 119991 Moscow, Russia.
    Shumlyanskyy, Leonid
    M. P. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Palladina Ave. 34, 03142 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Dhuime, Bruno
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St Andrews, North Streeet, St Andrews KYI6 9AL, UK.
    Hawkesworth, C. H.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8, 1RJ, UK.
    The oldest crust in the Ukrainian Shield - Eoarchaean U-Pb ages and Hf-Nd constraints from enderbites and metasediments2014In: Continent Formation Through Time / [ed] Roberts, N. M. W., van Kranendonk, M., Parman, S., Shirey, S. and Clift, P. D., London: The Geological Society Publishing House, 2014, Vol. 389Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oldest crust in the Ukrainian Shield occurs in the Podolian and Azov domains which both include Eoarchaeanarchaean components. U-Pb age data for Dniestr-Bug enderbites, Podolian Domain, indicate these are ca. 3.75 Ga old, and Lu-Hf isotope date indicate extraction from chondritic to mildly isotopically depleted sources with εHf up to ca. +2. Nd model ages support their Eoarchaeanarchaean age, while model ages for Dniestr-Bug metasedimentary gneisses indicate that these also include younger crustal material. Most of the Hf-age data for metasedimentary zircon from the Soroki greenstone belt, Azov Domain, reflects Eoarchaeanarchaean primary crustal sources with chondritic to mildly depleted Hf isotope signatures at 3.75 Ga. A minor portion is derived from Mesoarchaeanarchaean crust with a depleted εHf signature of ca. +4 at 3.1 Ga. U-Pb zircon ages from Fedorivka greenstone belt metasediments are consistent with the Soroki age data, but also include a 2.7‒2.9 Ga component. Nd whole rock model ages provide support for a younger crustal component in the latter. Both domains have been subject to Neoarchaeanarchaean, ca. 2.8 Ga, and Palaeoproterozoic, ca. 2.0 Ga metamorphism. The spatial distribution indicates that the Podolian and Azov domains have evolved independently of each other before the amalgamation of the Ukrainian Shield.

  • 237.
    Claesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Bibikova, Elena V.
    Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, R.A.S., Moscow, Russia.
    Shumlyanskyy, Leonid
    M.P Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Palladina Ave. 34, 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Billström, Kjell
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Can oxygen isotopes in magmatic zircon be modified by metamorphism? A case study from the Eoarchean Dniester-Bug Series, Ukrainian Shield2016In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 273, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238. Clymans, W.
    et al.
    Conley, D. J.
    Battles, J. J.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Koppers, M. M.
    Likens, G. E.
    Johnson, C. E.
    Silica uptake and release in live and decaying biomass in a northern hardwood forest2016In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 97, no 11, p. 3044-3057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In terrestrial ecosystems, a large portion (20-80%) of the dissolved Si (DSi) in soil solution has passed through vegetation. While the importance of this terrestrial Si filter is generally accepted, few data exist on the pools and fluxes of Si in forest vegetation and the rate of release of Si from decomposing plant tissues. We quantified the pools and fluxes of Si through vegetation and coarse woody debris (CWD) in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem (Watershed 6, W6) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire, USA. Previous work suggested that the decomposition of CWD may have significantly contributed to an excess of DSi reported in stream-waters following experimental deforestation of Watershed 2 (W2) at the HBEF. We found that woody biomass (wood+bark) and foliage account for approximately 65% and 31%, respectively, of the total Si in biomass at the HBEF. During the decay of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) boles, Si loss tracked the whole-bole mass loss, while yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) decomposition resulted in a preferential Si retention of up to 30% after 16yr. A power-law model for the changes in wood and bark Si concentrations during decomposition, in combination with an exponential model for whole-bole mass loss, successfully reproduced Si dynamics in decaying boles. Our data suggest that a minimum of 50% of the DSi annually produced in the soil of a biogeochemical reference watershed (W6) derives from biogenic Si (BSi) dissolution. The major source is fresh litter, whereas only similar to 2% comes from the decay of CWD. Decay of tree boles could only account for 9% of the excess DSi release observed following the experimental deforestation of W2. Therefore, elevated DSi concentrations after forest disturbance are largely derived from other sources (e.g., dissolution of BSi from forest floor soils and/or mineral weathering).

  • 239. Cole, Theresa
    et al.
    Rawlence, Nic
    Dussex, Nicolas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Elleberg, Ursulla
    Houston, Dave
    Mattern, Thomas
    Miskelly, Colin
    Morrisson, Kyle
    Scofield, Paul
    Tennyson, Alan
    Tompson, David
    Wood, Jamie
    Waters, Jonathan
    Ancient DNA of crested penguins: Testing for temporal genetic shifts in the world's most diverse penguin clade2018In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 131, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human impacts have substantially reduced avian biodiversity in many parts of the world, particularly on isolated islands of the Pacific Ocean. The New Zealand archipelago, including its five subantarctic island groups, holds breeding grounds for a third of the world's penguin species, including several representatives of the diverse crested penguin genus Eudyptes. While this species-rich genus has been little studied genetically, recent population estimates indicate that several Eudyptes taxa are experiencing demographic declines. Although crested penguins are currently limited to southern regions of the New Zealand archipelago, prehistoric fossil and archaeological deposits suggest a wider distribution during prehistoric times, with breeding ranges perhaps extending to the North Island. Here, we analyse ancient, historic and modern DNA sequences to explore two hypotheses regarding the recent history of Eudyptes in New Zealand, testing for (1) human-driven extinction of Eudyptes lineages; and (2) reduced genetic diversity in surviving lineages. From 83 prehistoric bone samples, each tentatively identified as ‘Eudyptes spp.’, we genetically identified six prehistoric penguin taxa from mainland New Zealand, including one previously undescribed genetic lineage. Moreover, our Bayesian coalescent analyses indicated that, while the range of Fiordland crested penguin (E. pachyrhynchus) may have contracted markedly over the last millennium, genetic DNA diversity within this lineage has remained relatively constant. This result contrasts with human-driven biodiversity reductions previously detected in several New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa.

  • 240. Collinson, J M
    et al.
    McGowan, R Y
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    First British records of ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ Subalpine Warblers2014In: British birds, Vol. 107, p. 282-285Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 241. Conand, Chantal
    et al.
    Mulochau, Thierry
    Stöhr, Sabine
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Eléaume, Marc
    Chabanet, Pascale
    Inventory of echinoderms in the Iles Eparses (Europa, Glorieuses, Juan de Nova), Mozambique Channel, France2016In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 72, p. 53-61-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242. Conley, Daniel
    et al.
    Frings, Patrick J
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Fontorbe, Guillaume
    Clymans, Wim
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Hendry, Katherine
    Marron, Alan
    De La Rocha, Christina
    Biosilicification drives a decline of dissolved Si in the oceans through geologic time2017In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosilicification has driven variation in the global Si cycle over geologic time. The evolution of different eukaryotic lineages that convert dissolved Si (DSi) into mineralized structures (higher plants, siliceous sponges, radiolarians and diatoms) has driven a secular decrease in DSi in the global ocean leading to the low DSi concentrations seen today. Recent studies, however, have questioned the timing previously proposed for the DSi decreases and the concentration changes through deep time, which would have major implications for the cycling of carbon and other key nutrients in the ocean. Here, we combine relevant genomic data with geological data and present new hypotheses regarding the impact of the evolution of biosilicifying organisms on the DSi inventory of the oceans throughout deep time. Although there is no fossil evidence for true silica biomineralization until the late Precambrian, the timing of the evolution of silica transporter genes suggests that bacterial silicon-related metabolism has been present in the oceans since the Archean with eukaryotic silicon metabolism already occurring in the Neoproterozoic. We hypothesize that biological processes have influenced oceanic DSi concentrations since the beginning of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  • 243.
    Cooper, Mark
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Hawthorne, Frank
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Langhof, Jörgen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Holtstam, Dan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Wiklundite, ideally Pb2[4](Mn2+,Zn)3(Fe3+,Mn2+)2(Mn2+,Mg)19(As3+O3)2[(Si,As5+)O4]6 (OH)18Cl6, a new mineral from Långban, Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden: Description and crystal structure2017In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 841-855Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Cornacchia, Irene
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza Universita di Roma.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Agostine, Samuele
    Instituto di Geosciencze e Georisorse, CNR, Pisa.
    Brandanao, Marco
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza Universita di Roma.
    Strontium stratigraphy of the upper Miocene Lithothamnion Limestone in the Majella Mountain, central Italy, and its palaeoenvironmental implications2017In: Lethaia: an international journal of palaeontology and stratigraphy, ISSN 0024-1164, E-ISSN 1502-3931, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 561-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio has been widely used as aphysical tool to date and correlate carbonate successions due to the long Srresidence time in comparison with the ocean mixing time. If this method workson oceanic successions, marginal basins may show different Sr isotope recordsin comparison with the coeval ocean one due to sea-level variations,continental run-off and restricted water exchanges. In this work, we present the87Sr/86Sr isotope record of the upper Miocene carbonateramp of the Lithothamnion Limestone(Majella Mountain, central Apennines), as an example of the onset of restrictedwater exchanges between a marginal basin and the ocean water masses. The overalllatemost Tortonian–earlyMessinian Sr isotope record of the Lithothamnion Limestonefits below the global reference line. This deviation has been interpreted as dueto the strong control that freshwater input and enhanced continental run-off,linked to the migration of the Apennine accretionary wedge and foredeep system,have had on the central Adriatic water chemistry. These results imply that anaccurate oceanographic and geodynamic framework along with diagenetic overprintinvestigation has to be taken into consideration prior to apply SIS oncarbonate successions on marginal basins, even when facies analyses indicatefully marine conditions. This seems to be the case for the upper MioceneCentral Mediterranean carbonate successions, but may have more general validityand be extended to other recent or past marginal basins.

  • 245. Cote, Susanne M.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Seiffert, E. R.
    Barry, J. C.
    The enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida2007In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, p. 5510-5515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kelba quadeemae, a fossil mammal from the Early Miocene of East Africa, was originally named on the basis of three isolated upper molars. Kelba has previously been interpreted as a creodont, a pantolestid, an insectivoran, and a hemigaline viverrid. The true affinities of this taxon have remained unclear because of the limited material and its unique morphology relative to other Miocene African mammals. New material of Kelba from several East African Miocene localities, most notably a skull from the Early Miocene locality of Songhor in Western Kenya, permits analysis of the affinities of Kelba and documents the lower dentition of this taxon. Morphological comparison of this new material clearly demonstrates that Kelba is a member of the order Ptolemaiida, a poorly understood group whose fossil record was previously restricted to the Oligocene Fayum deposits of northern Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of the Ptolemaiida, including Kelba, and recovers two monophyletic clades within the order. We provide new family names for these groups and an emended diagnosis for the order. The discovery of ptolemaiidans from the Miocene of East Africa is significant because it extends the known temporal range of the order by >10 million years and the geographic range by >3,200 km. Although the higher-level affinities of the Ptolemaiida remain obscure, their unique morphology and distribution through a larger area of Africa (and exclusively Africa) lend support to the idea that Ptolemaiida may have an ancient African origin.

  • 246. Cotton, James A.
    et al.
    Berriman, Matthew
    Dalén, Love
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics.
    Barnes, Ian
    Eradication genomics-lessons for parasite control2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, p. 130-131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247. Coulianos, C. C.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Några för Sverige nya gallbildningar samt nya landskapsfynd [Some plant galls new to Sweden and new provincial records]2014In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, p. 297-301Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 248. Coulson, S.J.
    et al.
    Convey, P.
    Aakra, K.
    Aarvik, L.
    Ávila-Jiménez, M.L.
    Babenko, A.
    Biersma, E.M.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Brittain, J.E.
    Carlsson, A.M.
    Christoffersen, K.
    De Smet, W.H.
    Ekrem, T.
    Fjellberg, A.
    Füreder, L.
    Gustafsson, D.
    Gwiazdowicz, D.J.
    Hansen, L.O.
    Holmstrup, M.
    Hullé, M.
    Kaczmarek, L.
    Kolicka, M.
    Kuklin, V.
    Lakka, H.-K.
    Lebedeva, N.
    Makarova, O.
    Maraldo, K.
    Melekhina, E.
    Ödegaard, F.
    Pilskog, H.E.
    Simon, J.C.
    Sohlenius, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Solhöy, T.
    Söli, G.
    Stur, E.
    Tanasevitch, A.
    Taskareva, A.
    Velle, G.
    Zawierucha, K.
    Zmudczynska-Skarbek, K.
    The terrestrial and freshwater invertebrate biodiversity of the archipelagoes of the Barents Sea; Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya2014In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 68, p. 440-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 249. Crous, P.W.
    et al.
    Quaedvlieg, W
    Hansen, Karen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany.
    Hawksworth, D.L.
    Groenwald, J.Z.
    Phacidium and Ceuthospora (Phacidiaceae) are congeneric: taxonomic and nomenclatural implications2014In: IMA Fungus, ISSN 2210-6340, E-ISSN 2210-6359, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 173-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 250. Crémière, A.
    et al.
    Lepland, A.
    Chand, S.
    Sahy, D.
    Kirsimäe, K.
    Bau, M.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    Noble, S.R.
    Martma, T.
    Thorsnes, T.
    Brunstad, H.
    Fluid source and methane-related diagenetic processes recorded in cold seep carbonates from the Alvheim channel, central North Sea2016In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 432, p. 16-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated petrography, mineralogy, geochronology and geochemistry of cold seep carbonate crusts and free gas from the Alvheim channel elucidate diagenetic carbonate precipitation and related seepage histories in the central North Sea. Free gas isotope characteristics coupled with carbonate δ13C values as low as − 66‰ VPDB, indicate a predominantly microbial methane source with minor thermogenic contribution. We estimate that ~ 70% of the carbon sequestered into carbonate precipitates was derived from local oxidation of methane. The early stage of crust growth is represented by microcrystalline aragonite and Mg-calcite (10 to 40% mol MgCO3) cementing seafloor sediments consisting of clays, quartz, feldspar, and minor detrital low Mg-calcite and dolomite. Typical association of aragonite cement with coarse-grained detritus may reflect elevated fluid flow and flushing of fine particles prior to cementation close to the seafloor. Middle rare earth element enrichment in early generation microcrystalline cements containing framboidal pyrite indicates diagenetic precipitation within the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation contiguous to iron reduction. The later generation diagenetic phase corresponds to less abundant radial fibrous and botryoidal aragonite which lines cavities developed within the crusts. In contrast to early generation cements, late generation cavity infills have rare earth elements and Y patterns with small negative Ce anomalies similar to seawater, consistent with carbonate precipitation in a more open, seawater dominated system. Aragonite U–Th ages indicate carbonate precipitation between 6.09 and 3.46 kyr BP in the northern part of the channel, whereas in the southern part precipitation occurred between 1.94 and 0.81 kyr BP reflecting regional changes in fluid conduit position.

2345678 201 - 250 of 1872
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