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  • 251.
    Larsson, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Brock, Glenn A.
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Balthasar, Uwe
    University of Glasgow.
    Topper, Timothy P.
    Geological Museum, Copenhagen.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Paterimitra pyramidalis from South Australia: scleritome, shell structure and evolution of a Lower Cambrian Ssten group brachiopod2014In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 417-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tommotiid Paterimitra pyramidalis Laurie, 1986, is redescribed based on well-preserved material from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Wirrapowie and Ajax limestones of the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. The material shows that the scleritome of Paterimitra pyramidalis includes three sclerite morphotypes (S1, S2 and L). Detailed shell microstructure studies show striking similarities with both the paterinid brachiopod Askepasma toddense and the tommotiid Eccentrotheca helenia, which strengthens the suggested evolutionary link between tommotiids and brachiopods. Based on the partly articulated specimens and similarities in shell microstructure and sclerite morphology with Eccentrotheca, Paterimitra pyramidalis is reconstructed as a tube-dwelling, epifaunal, sessile, filter-feeder with an organic pedicle-like attachment structure. The proposed reconstruction of the scleritome comprises a basal unit composed of one S1 and one S2 sclerite, as well as an unresolved number of L sclerites lining a coniform tubular structure.

  • 252. Launis, Ahti
    et al.
    Pott, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Mork, Atle
    A glimpse into the Carnian: Late Triassic plant fossils from Hopen, Svalbard2015In: Norwegian Petroleum Directorate Bulletin, ISSN 0808-1409, Vol. 11, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small number of well-preserved plant fossils have been collected during recent fieldwork on Hopen in the Svalbard archipelago. The assemblage shows a composition typical of Carnian floras from central Europe and complements a recent study of old collections of Upper Triassic plant fossils from Svalbard. The new findings include already described species and some possibly new for Svalbard. The plant fossils are from well-dated Carnian beds on Hopen and confirm the earlier assumed Carnian age for plants collected on Svalbard from Upper Triassic sediments. A remarkable feature of this flora is the high number of plants, which are also described from Carnian floras from Austria and Switzerland, but also recorded from Franz Josef Land and other Arctic areas. The stratigraphic value of this flora is discussed.

  • 253.
    Laurie, John
    et al.
    Geoscience Australia, Canberra, Australia.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Mary Elizabeth White AM:5 January 1926 – 5 August 2018: Obituary2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mary White was born in South Africa to an entomologist father and a botanist mother, but spent most of her early years in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), where her father was First Director of Agriculture and Professor of Entomology. She attended the University of Cape Town, where she studied botany and zoology. When looking for a subject for her Masters' thesis, Alexander du Toit recommended a paleobotanical subject, as there was no paleobotanist in Africa but it had Gondwanan fossil flora awaiting study. This eventually led to Mary's lifetime interest in Gondwana and the evolution of its biota.

  • 254. Leakey, M. G.
    et al.
    Feibel, C. S.
    Bernor, R. L.
    Harris, J. M.
    Cerling, T. E.
    Stewart, K. M.
    Storrs, G. W.
    Walker, A.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Winkler, A. J.
    Lothagam: a record of faunal change in the late Miocene of East Africa1996In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 16, p. 556-570Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 255. Leakey, Meave G.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Early Pleistocene Mammals of Africa: Background to dispersal2011In: Out of Africa 1: Who, When and Where? / [ed] Fleagle, J. G., Shea, J. J., Grine, F. & Leakey, R., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial dispersal of humans out of Africa was a significant event in human evolution raising many questions. Why did this happen at this particular time? Was it part of a major migration of mammals out of Africa and did any species move into Africa at the same time? Were climate and habitat changes taking place that might have been contributing factors? With the advent of culture at 2.6 Ma, hominins moved from the primate to the carnivore feeding niche, thus avoiding constraints that had previously determined their distribution. Here we look at fossil carnivores and cercopithecids for factors that provide a background to this significant event in our evolutionary history and we also look at herbivore diversity as a potential source of prey for meat-eating hominins.

  • 256. Lewis, Margaret E.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Carnivoran dispersal out of Africa during the Early Pleistocene: relevance for hominins?2010In: Out of Africa 1: Who, When and Where? / [ed] Fleagle, J. G., Shea, J. J., Grine, F. & Leakey, R, New York: Springer, 2010, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Carnivorans and hominins share a long history of interactions. This paper examines some of the evidence for carnivoran migration out of Africa at the same time as the earliest hominin dispersals. Of the two relevant taxa, Crocuta  and Megantereon , Megantereon  is the focus of this paper due to increased interest in this taxon in recent years and to the nature of the earliest records of dispersal of these two taxa, raising several questions related to Megantereon  and its possible influence on hominins. To answer these questions, a brief summary of the literature on Megantereon  in Eurasia and Africa is provided. While researchers do not agree on the number of species of Megantereon  or the evolutionary relationships among those species, most would agree that Megantereon  is a hypercarnivorous predator capable of grappling with relatively large prey for its body size. Despite the fact that carcasses generated by Megantereon  were probably of value to hominins, the hypotheses that these carcasses were a major source of food or that they were a major force enabling hominins to migrate out of Africa are rejected. As indicated in the literature on extant carnivorans, kleptoparasitism (= food theft) by dominant members of a carnivore guild exacts a heavy price on lower ranking carnivores. In addition, there is nothing in the African fossil record to suggest a special relationship between Megantereon  and hominins that did not exist between hominins and other large-bodied carnivorans. The hypothesis that a species of Megantereon  migrated out of Africa at roughly the same time as early hominins is also considered. While this hypothesis cannot be rejected, alternative hypotheses to explain similarities between later African and Eurasian forms of Megantereon  are proposed (e.g., shared characters are due to convergence or are symplesiomorphies). In the end, the small number of diverse African species (including hominins) who disperse into Eurasia at the Plio- Pleistocene transition may have been part of a sweepstakes dispersal where the factors permitting (or driving) dispersal may have differed from species to species.

  • 257. Lewis, Margaret E.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Patterns of change in in the Plio-Pleistocene carnivorans of eastern Africa: Implications for hominin evolution2007In: Hominin environments in the East African Pliocene: An assessment of the faunal evidence / [ed] Bobe, R., Alemseged, Z. & Behrensmeyer, A. K., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2007, p. 77-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses changes in origination and extinction rates and species richness of eastern African carnivorans through time to discuss issues related to the evolution of hominin behavior. To address the question of which taxa were most likely to have had competitive interactions with hominins, modern carnivorans were sorted into size classes based on shifts in behavior, ecology, and body mass. Four size classes were created, among which the two largest (21.5–100 kg and >100 kg) include those taxa whose behavior is most relevant to the evolution of hominin dietary behavior. Fossil taxa were then assigned to these size classes. A summary of the temporal range and reconstructed behavior and ecology of fossil members of the two largest size classes is presented. We discuss the relevance of each taxon to reconstructing hominin behavior and suggest that hominins must have evolved not only successful anti-predator strategies, but also successful strategies to avoid kleptoparasitism before carcass-based resources could become an important part of the diet. Although hominins were unlikely to have been top predators upon first entrance into the carnivore guild, effective anti-predator/anti-kleptoparasitism strategies in combination with the eventual evolution of active hunting would have increased the rank of hominin species within the guild. While the appearance of stone tools at 2.6 Ma has no apparent effect upon carnivorans, the appearance of Homo ergaster  after 1.8 Ma may have been at least partly responsible for the decrease in the carnivoran origination rate and the increase in the extinction rate at this time. The behavior of H. ergaster , climate change, and concomitant changes in prey species richness may have caused carnivoran species richness to drop precipitously after 1.5 Ma. In this situation, even effective kleptoparasitism by H. ergaster  may have been enough to drive local populations of carnivorans that overlapped with hominins in dietary resources to extinction. Possibly as a result, the modern guild, which evolved within the last few hundred thousand years, is composed primarily of generalists. Although the impact of H. sapiens on the carnivoran guild cannot be assessed due to a lack of carnivoran fossils from this time period, one might not consider the modern carnivore guild to be complete until the appearance of our species approximately 200,000 years ago.

  • 258.
    Li, Jianguo
    et al.
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    Sha, Jingeng
    Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Wang, Xiaoming
    Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.
    Mesozoic and Cenozoic palaeogeography, palaeoclimate and palaeoecology in theeastern Tethys2019In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 515, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now more than 100years since Suess advanced the concept of the Tethys Ocean in 1893. Since the 1960s when the theory of plate tectonics became established, the Tethys region has attracted the attention of many geologists because it has experienced a complex evolution involving numerous continental fragments drifting in several discrete stages from the Gondwanan margin in the Southern Hemisphere northward to amalgamate with Eurasia in the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent orogenies associated with consecutive microplate collisions caused great changes to the regional topography and environments, which researchers now realize had global impacts on climate, biotic evolution, and biogeography.

  • 259.
    Li, Liqin
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Wang, Yongdong
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Liu, Zhaosheng
    State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Late Triassic ecosystem variations inferred by palynological records from Hechuan, southern Sichuan Basin, China2018In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, p. 1793-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Late Triassic deposits of the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China are significant for hosting abundant and diverse fossil assemblages including plants (containing spores and pollen), bivalves and insects. However, the Late Triassic palaeoecological variations are still poorly documented in this region. Here we present results from a palynological study from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Hechuan of Chongqing, southern Sichuan Basin. The palynological analysis revealed a well-preserved terrestrial palynoflora of high diversity, comprising 184 species in 75 genera of spores and pollen. Three palynological assemblages were recognized, reflecting terrestrial successions throughout the entire interval with significant changes in the vegetation. Cycads/bennettites/ginkgophytes and conifers show an increasing trend into younger deposits, while ferns and lycopsids decrease in relative abundance. The Late Triassic vegetation underwent changes from lowland fern forest to a mixed forest with more canopy trees. We applied the Spore-pollen Morphological Group (SMG) method and Sporomorph EcoGroup (SEG) model to interpret the palaeoclimate features. The results reveal that the lower part of the Xujiahe Formation was deposited under relatively warm and humid conditions with an overall cooling and drying trend from latest Norian to Rhaetian time, accompanied by a general decrease of ferns and simultaneous increase of gymnosperms, and a decline in diversity of miospores. This study presents data on variations within the terrestrial ecosystem prior to the end-Triassic extinction event in the Sichuan Basin, and therefore provides important information for understanding the changes in the vegetation preceding the end-Triassic event.

  • 260. Li, Luoyang
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingliang
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Yun, Hao
    Bing, Pan
    Li, Guoxiang
    HOMOLOGOUS SHELL MICROSTRUCTURES INCAMBRIAN HYOLITHS AND MOLLUSCS2019In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 515-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyoliths were among the earliest biomineralizingmetazoans in Palaeozoic marine environments. They havebeen known for two centuries and widely assigned tolophotrochozoans. However, their origin and relationshipswith modern lophotrochozoan clades have been a longstand-ing palaeontological controversy. Here, we provide broadmicrostructural data from hyolith conchs and opercula fromthe lower Cambrian Xinji Formation of North China, includ-ing two hyolithid genera and four orthothecid genera as wellas unidentified opercula. Results show that most hyolithconchs contain a distinct aragonitic lamellar layer that is com-posed of foliated aragonite, except in the orthothecid Newtaxon 1 that has a crossed foliated lamellar microstructure.Opercula are mostly composed of foliated aragonite andoccasionally foliated calcite. These blade or lath-likemicrostructural fabrics coincide well with biomineralizationof Cambrian molluscs rather than lophophorates, as exempli-fied by the Cambrian members of the tommotiid-brachiopodlinage. Accordingly, we propose that hyoliths and molluscsmight have inherited their biomineralized skeletons from anon-mineralized or weakly mineralized common ancestorrather than as a result of convergence. Consequently, fromthe view of biomineralization, the homologous shellmicrostructures in Cambrian hyoliths and molluscs stronglystrengthen the phylogenetic links between the two groups.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-01 18:47
  • 261. Li, Luoyang
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingliang
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Yun, Hao
    Li, Guoxiang
    Bing, Pan
    Shell microstructures of the helcionelloid mollusc Anabarella australis from the lower Cambrian (Series 2) Xinji Formation of North China2019In: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, ISSN 1477-2019, E-ISSN 1478-0941, Vol. 17, p. 1699-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although various types of shell microstructures are documented from Cambrian molluscs, the precise organization and mineralogical composition of Terreneuvian molluscs are relatively unknown. Anabarella was one of the first helcionellid molluscs to appear in the Terreneuvian, with the genus surviving until the third epoch of the Cambrian. Here, shell microstructures of Anabarella australis have been studied based on new collections from the lower Cambrian (Series 2) Xinji Formation of the North China Block. Results show that A. australis has a laminar inner shell layer that consists of crossed foliated lamellar microstructure (CFL). Nacreous, crossed-lamellar and foliated aragonite microstructures previously documented in the older (Terreneuvian) species A. plana are here revised as preservational artefacts of the CFL layers. This complex skeletal organization of Anabarella suggests that mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization evolved very rapidly. Morphologically, specimens from the Chaijiawa section show a pattern of distinct ‘pseudo-dimorphism’ as external coatings are identical to Anabarella, while associated internal moulds are similar to the helcionelloid genus Planutenia. In contrast, internal moulds from the Shangzhangwan section show considerable morphological variation owing to preservational bias and show greater similarities to specimens from South Australia, Northeast Greenland and Germany. These observations demonstrate that the extensive morphological variation seen in the internal moulds of the cosmopolitan genus Anabarella are primarily preservational artefacts and are unlikely to represent the real intra- and interspecific variability of the animal. In these cases, Planutenia is here confirmed to be a subjective synonym of Anabarella.

  • 262. Liebenau, Katharina
    et al.
    Kiel, Steffen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Vardeh, David
    Treude, Tina
    Thiel, Volker
    A quantitative study on the degradation of whale bone lipids: implications for the preservation of fatty acids in marine sediments2015In: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 89-90, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation and preservation affecting the biomarker record of ancient metazoa are not fully 33understood. We report on a five month experiment on the fate of fatty acids (FAs) during the degradation 34of recent whale vertebrae (Phocoena phocoena). Whale bones were analysed for extractable FAs and 35macromolecularly bound n-acyl compounds. Fresh bone showed extractable FAs dominated by 3616:1x7c, 16:0, 18:1x9c and 18:0. Calculated degradation rate constant (k) values showed a rapid 37decrease in FA concentration, with k values higher for unsaturated than for saturated compounds 38(e.g. 0.08/day for 18:1x9c, 0.05/day for 16:0). The appearance or increased abundance of distinctive 39methyl branched (e.g. i/ai-15:0 and -17:0, 10Me-16:0) and hydroxy FAs (e.g. 10OH-16:0 and 10OH- 4018:0) were observed, providing clear evidence for the microbial degradation of bone organic matter 41and an input of lipids from specialised bacteria. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of demineralised extrac- 42tion residues released up to 0.13% of the total n-C16 and n-C18 moieties in the degraded bones. This 43revealed that only a small, yet sizeable portion of bone-derived fatty acyl units was sequestered into 44(proto)kerogen during the earliest stages of degradation.

  • 263. Loch, Carolona
    et al.
    BUONO, Monica
    KALTHOFF, Daniela
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    FERNANDEZ, Martha
    Enamel microstructure in Eocene cetaceans from Antarctica (Archaeoceti and Mysticeti)2020In: Journal of mammalian evolution, ISSN 1064-7554, E-ISSN 1573-7055Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 264. Long, J. A.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    A new Late Devonian bothriolepid (Placodermi, Antiarcha) from Victoria, with descriptions of other species from the state1986In: Alcheringa, ISSN 0311-5518, E-ISSN 1752-0754, Vol. 10, p. 366-399Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 265. Luo, Q.
    Skovsted, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Xu, Y.
    Liu, Y.
    Wu, J.
    Zhang, S.
    Wang, W.
    Zhong, N.
    Optical characteristics of graptolite-bearing sediments and its implication for thermal maturity assessment2018In: International Journal of Coal Geology, ISSN 0166-5162, E-ISSN 1872-7840, Vol. 195, p. 386-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graptolite reflectance was thought to be one of the most useful thermal maturity indicators for graptolite bearing sediments, however, the relationship between graptolite reflectance and vitrinite reflectance is not well established. Graptolites, especially in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations from the Ordovician to Silurian of SouthChina, have been mistaken for vitrinite-like particles or solid bitumen, which results in inconsistent data on the thermal maturity. In this paper, we have employed optical microscope techniques to describe the detailed optical characteristics of graptolites and solid bitumen in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations. Laboratory simulation ofmaturation was used to determine the relationship between graptolite reflectance and vitrinite reflectance. The organic constituents in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations are mainly composed of graptolites and solid bitumen. Granular and non-granular graptolites were observed in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations, with nongranular as the most common texture. Solid bitumen can be distinguished from non-granular graptolites by its coarse surface, weaker anisotropy, and lower random reflectance. The combination of non-polarized and polarized light is very helpful to distinguish solid bitumen from graptolite. For comparison, organic material from the early Ordovician Alum Shale Formation of Sweden and Estonia was also studied. The macerals of the Alum shales are mainly composed of lamalginites, mineral-bituminous groundmasses, graptolites, and solid bitumen.The major textures of the graptolites in the Sweden and Estonia sediments are non-granular and granular, respectively.Both non-granular graptolite and vitrinite reflectances display a systematic increase with the increase of heating temperature and time. The granular graptolites in the Estonian sample were gradually changed to nongranular graptolites following laboratory simulated maturation, indicating that granular graptolites can transform into non-granular graptolites with maturation. Solid bitumen in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Formations was derived from the solid residue of kerogen and/or post-oil bitumen. The graptolite random reflectance is a better thermal maturity indicator than graptolite maximum reflectance and is more precise due to the smaller standard deviation. Several equations are proposed to determine the thermal maturity of the graptolite-bearing sediments based on graptolite random reflectance, graptolite maximum reflectance and solid bitumen random reflectance.

  • 266. Lyras, George
    et al.
    Giannakopoulou, Aggeliki
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The brain anatomy of an early Miocene felid from Ginn Quarry (Nebraska, USA)2019In: PalZ, Vol. 93, p. 345-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 267. Manchester, Steven R.
    et al.
    Goloneva, Lina B.
    Sokoloff, Dmitry D.
    Friis, Else Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Early eudicot reproductive structure: Fruit andflower morphology of Ranunculaecarpus Samyl.from the Early Cretaceous of eastern Siberia2018In: Acta Palaeobotanica, ISSN 0001-6594, E-ISSN 1427-6402, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floral and fruit morphology of the early eudicot Ranunculaecarpus quinquecarpellatus Samyl. is described based on details from sectioning and microscopy of the permineralized type material from the Albian Buor-Kemyus Formation of the Zyryanka coal basin. Serial sections confirmed most of the originally described characters but revealed additional information, including hypogynous perianth and several stamens with in situ pollen. Each fruit consists of five free follicles inserted on a short receptacle. Follicles are elongate, with a dorsal keel, ventral suture and an attenuate apex, and are thin-walled, with two rows of small seeds in marginal placentation. The seeds are anatropous, ovoid, 1.3–1.7 in length, with an exotesta of cells that are rounded-hexagonal in surface view. The hypogynous perianth is composed of several free tepals. The stamens are short, with tetrasporangiate, dithecal anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Pollen in situ is 18–20 mm long, 13–15 mm in equatorial diameter, with uncertain aperture configuration and a loose reticulum supported by narrow, widely spaced columellae. The combination of macromorphological characters support possible affinity to extant Ranunculaceae. However, Ranunculaecarpus is distinguished from modern members of the family by the persistence of the perianth in fruit, a smaller number of stamens (ca 10) than is typical, and pollen that is unlike that of any extant genera. Given that there are also similarities with Saxifragales, the systematic affinities of Ranunculaecarpus remain uncertain.

  • 268. Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo
    et al.
    Brown, Francis H.
    Plavcan, Michael J.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Gigantic lion, Panthera leo, from the Pleistocene of Natodomeri, eastern Africa2017In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial skull of a lion from Natodomeri, northwest Kenya is described. The Natodomeri sites are correlated with Member I of the Kibish Formation, dated to between 195 ka and ca. 205 ka. The skull is remarkable for its very great size, equivalent to the largest cave lions (Panthera spelaea  [Goldfuss, 1810]) of Pleistocene Eurasia and much larger than any previously known lion from Africa, living or fossil. We hypothesize that this individual represents a previously unknown population or subspecies of lion present in the late Middle and Late Pleistocene of eastern Africa rather than being an indication of climate-driven size increase in lions of that time. This raises questions regarding the extent of our understanding of the pattern and causes of lion evolution in the Late Pleistocene.

  • 269.
    MARRAMÀ, GIUSEPPE
    et al.
    Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria..
    ENGELBRECHT, ANDREA
    Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria..
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    REGUERO, MARCELO A.
    Division Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 81900 FWA La Plata, Argentina.
    KRIWET, JÜRGEN
    Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria..
    THE SOUTHERNMOST OCCURRENCE OF BRACHYCARCHARIAS (LAMNIFORMES, ODONTASPIDIDAE) FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA PROVIDES NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY AND PALEOBIOLOGY OF PALEOGENE SAND TIGER SHARKS2018In: Rivista italiana di paleontologia e stratigrafia, ISSN 0035-6883, E-ISSN 2039-4942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The first record of one of the most common and widespread Paleogene selachians, the sand tiger shark Brachycarcharias, in the Ypresian strata of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica, is provided herein. Selachians from the early Eocene horizons of this deposit represent the southernmost Paleogene occurrences in the fossil record, and are represented by isolated teeth belonging to orectolobiforms, lamniforms, carcharhiniforms, squatiniforms and pristiophoriforms. The combination of dental characters of the 49 isolated teeth collected from the horizons TELMs 2, 4 and 5 supports their assignment to the odontaspidid Brachycarcharias lerichei (Casier, 1946), a lamniform species widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the early Paleogene. The unambiguous first report of this lamniform shark in the Southern Hemisphere in the Eocene of the La Meseta Formation improves our knowledge concerning the diversity and paleobiology of the cartilaginous fishes of this deposit, and provides new insights about the biotic turnovers that involved the high trophic levels of the marine settings after the end-Cretaceous extinction and before the establishment of the modern marine ecosystems.

  • 270.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bevitt, Joseph
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Research Office, B3, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia.
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, 9 Rainforest Walk, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    Pushing the limits of neutron tomography in palaeontology: Three-dimensional modelling of in situ resin within fossil plants2017In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 20, no 3.57A, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography is an increasingly popular technique for the non-destructive

    study of fossils. Whilst the science of X-ray computed tomography (CT) has greatly

    matured since its first fossil applications in the early 1980s, the applications and limitations

    of neutron tomography (NT) remain relatively unexplored in palaeontology. These

    highest resolution neutron tomographic scans in palaeontology to date were conducted

    on a specimen of Austrosequoia novae-zeelandiae (Ettingshausen) Mays and Cantrill

    recovered from mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian; ~100–94 Ma) strata of the Chatham

    Islands, eastern Zealandia. Previously, the species has been identified with in situ fossil

    resin (amber); the new neutron tomographic analyses demonstrated an anomalously

    high neutron attenuation signal for fossil resin. The resulting data provided a

    strong contrast between, and distinct three-dimensional representations of the: 1) fossil

    resin; 2) coalified plant matter; and 3) sedimentary matrix. These data facilitated an

    anatomical model of endogenous resin bodies within the cone axis and bract-scale

    complexes. The types and distributions of resin bodies support a close alliance with

    Sequoia Endlicher (Cupressaceae), a group of conifers whose extant members are

    only found in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the feasibility of NT

    as a means to differentiate chemically distinct organic compounds within fossils.

    Herein, we make specific recommendations regarding: 1) the suitability of fossil preservation

    styles for NT; 2) the conservation of organic specimens with hydrogenous consolidants

    and adhesives; and 3) the application of emerging methods (e.g., neutron

    phase contrast) for further improvements when imaging fine-detailed anatomical structures.

    These findings demonstrate that we are still far from reaching the conceptual

    limits of NT as a means of virtually extracting fossils, or imaging their internal anatomy

    even when embedded within a rock matrix.

  • 271.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Cantrill, David
    Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria.
    Protodammara reimatamoriori, a new species of conifer (Cupressaceae) from the Upper Cretaceous Tupuangi Formation, Chatham Islands, Zealandia2019In: Alcheringa, ISSN 0311-5518, E-ISSN 1752-0754, Vol. 43, p. 114-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated conifer female reproductive structures are common fossil elements from Cenomanian (ca 99–94 Ma) charcoal- and resin-rich beds of theTupuangi Formation, Chatham Islands, southwest Pacific Ocean. Recent findings have proposed that these are the oldest fossil evidence of serotiny,a highly successful fire-adaptive reproductive strategy common among tree species living in fire-prone areas today. Herein, we systematicallydescribe the external morphological and anatomical features of these fossils, by employing a combination of manual extraction and neutron tomographytechniques. We propose a new species of conifer, Protodammara reimatamoriori, and a re-examination of fossil material of the Protodammaratype species facilitated an emendation of the genus. Protodammara shares numerous features with extant Cunninghamia, Taiwania, Athrotaxis, andseveral extinct taxa of Cupressaceae, and is interpreted as an extinct lineage of the early-divergent ‘taxodioid Cupressaceae’ stem group.

  • 272.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Monash University.
    Cantrill, David
    Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria, Private Bag 2000, South Yarra, VIC 3141, Australia.
    Bevitt, Joseph J.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia.
    Polar wildfires and conifer serotiny during the Cretaceous globalhothouse2017In: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 45, no 12, p. 1119-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several highly effective fire-adaptive traits first evolved among modern plants duringthe mid-Cretaceous, in response to the widespread wildfires promoted by anomalously highatmospheric oxygen (O2) and extreme temperatures. Serotiny, or long-term canopy seedstorage, is a fire-adaptive strategy common among plants living in fire-prone areas today,but evidence of this strategy has been lacking from the fossil record. Deposits of abundantfossil charcoal from sedimentary successions of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, recordwildfires in the south polar regions (75°–80°S) during the mid-Cretaceous (ca. 99–90 Ma).Newly discovered fossil conifer reproductive structures were consistently associated withthese charcoal-rich deposits. The morphology and internal anatomy as revealed by neutrontomography exhibit a range of serotiny-associated characters. Numerous related fossils fromsimilar, contemporaneous deposits of the Northern Hemisphere suggest that serotiny was akey adaptive strategy during the high-fire world of the Cretaceous.

  • 273.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Coward, Andrew
    School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, 9 Rainforest Walk, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    O'Dell, Luke
    Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Locked Bag 20000, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia.
    Tappert, Ralf
    Department of Geology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada.
    The botanical provenance and taphonomy of Late Cretaceous Chatham amber, Chatham Islands, New Zealand2019In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 260, p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil resin (amber) has been recently reported as common, but small, sedimentary components throughout thelower Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian; 99–94 Ma) strata of the Tupuangi Formation, Chatham Islands, easternZealandia. From these deposits, resin has also been identified and obtained from well-preserved, coalified specimensof the conifer fossil Protodammara reimatamorioriMays and Cantrill, 2018. Here, we employed attenuatedtotal reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to both dispersed and in situ amber specimens.These resulted in very similar chemical signatures, indicating that these fossils are likely from the same orclosely-related botanical sources. The FTIR data are typical of a conifer source within the ‘cupressaceous resins’category of Tappert et al. (2011). Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) facilitatedthe probable identification of these ambers as ‘Class Ib' (sensu Anderson et al. 1992). Based on these spectraldata sets, the likely botanical sources of the amber were either Araucariaceae or Cupressaceae; both of these coniferfamilies were common and widespread in the Southern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous. However, themorphology and anatomy of P. reimatamoriori support an affinity to the latter family, thus indicating that the Cretaceousamber of the Chatham Islands was generally produced by members of the Cupressaceae. Comparing theFTIR data to the published spectra of modern resins, we also identify a band ratio which may aid in distinguishingbetween the FTIR spectra of Araucariaceae and Cupressaceae, and outline the limitations to this approach. A highconcentration of ester bonds in Chatham amber specimens, which exceeds typical Cupressaceae resins, is probablycaused by taphonomic alteration via thermal maturation. The source of thermal alteration was likely preburialwildfires,conditions forwhich P. reimatamoriori was adapted to as part of its life cycle. A comparison of ambersof the Chatham Islands with modern resins and amber from various localities in Australasia reveals that,taphonomic influences aside, Chatham amber has a unique signature, suggesting that members of the basalCupressaceae (e.g., Protodammara) were not major contributors to other documented Australasian amber deposits.The closest analogy to Chatham amber deposits appears to be the Upper Cretaceous Raritan Formation,USA, which is characterised by its rich amber, charcoal and Cupressaceae fossil assemblages. This study furthersupports the hypotheses that the early Late Cretaceous south polar forests were dominated by Cupressaceae,and regularly disturbed by wildfires.

  • 274.
    Mays, Chris
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Caught between mass extinctions - the rise and fall of Dicroidium2019In: Deposits Magazine, Vol. 59, p. 43-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of Earth’s greatest biotic crisis 251.9 million years ago - the end-Permian mass extinction - a group of plants arose that would come to dominate the flora of the Southern Hemisphere. Recovery of the vegetation from the end-Permian crisis was slow; but steadily, one group of seed plants, typified by the leaf fossil Dicroidium, began to diversify and fill the dominant canopy-plant niches left vacant by the demise of the Permian glossopterid forests.

  • 275. McDonald, H. Gregory
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The sabertooth cat, Smilodon populator (Carnivora: Felidae), from Cueva de Milodón, Chile2018In: Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth / [ed] Werdelin, L., McDonald, H.G., Shaw, C.A., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 276.
    McElwain, J.C.
    et al.
    Earth Institute, O’Brien Centre for Science, and School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Steinthorsdottir, Margret
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Palaeoecology, ploidy, palaeoatmospheres and developmental biology: A review of fossil stomata2017In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 174, p. 650-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of stomata is a diagnostic trait of all living and extinct land plants with the exception of liverworts. They are preserved widely in the fossil record from anatomically pristine stomatal complexes on permineralized and charcoalified stems of the earliest land plants dating back >400 million years to isolated guard cell pairs in Quaternary aged palynological samples. Detailed study of fossil stomatal complexes has been used to track the evolution of genome size and to reconstruct atmospheric composition, to circumscribe new species to science and to bring ancient landscapes to life by providing both habitat information and insights on fossil plant ecophysiological function and life-form. This review explores how fossil stomata can be used to advance our understanding of plant, environment and atmospheric evolution over the Phanerozoic. We compare the utility of qualitative (e.g. presence/absence of stomatal crypts) versus quantitative stomatal traits (e.g. amphistomaty ratio) in palaeoecological reconstructions. A case study on Triassic-Jurassic Ginkgoales is provided to highlight the methodological difficulty of teasing apart the effect of genome size, ploidy and environment on guard cell size evolution across mass extinction boundaries. We critique both empirical and mechanistic stomatal-based models for palaeo-CO2 reconstruction and highlight some key limitations and advantages of both approaches. Finally we question if different stomatal developmental pathways have ecophysiological consequence for leaf gas exchange and ultimately the application of different stomatal-based CO2 proxy methods. We conclude that most studies currently only capture a fraction of the potential invaluable information that can be gleaned from fossilized stomata and highlight future approaches to their study that better integrate across the disciplinary boundaries of palaeobotany, developmental biology, palaeoecology and plant physiology.

  • 277.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    A new genus of glossopterid fructifications from the Artinskian–Changhsingian of eastern Australia2016In: Ameghiniana, ISSN 0002-7014, E-ISSN 1851-8044, Vol. 53, p. 586-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new genus, Karingbalia is established to accommodate certain eastern Australian glossopterid fertile organs previously assigned to Ottokaria Zeiller emend. Pant et Nautiyal. Karingbalia differs from Ottokaria mainly by the sub-parallel rather than perpendicular orientation of basal peripheral lobes with respect to the receptacle margin. Moreover, Karingbalia ranges from the Artinskian to Changhsingian, whereas Ottokaria sensu stricto is probably confined to the Cisuralian. Two Karingbalia species are recognized: K. inglisensis McLoughlin comb. nov. from the Lopingian of the Bowen and Sydney basins; and K. nychumensis sp. nov. from Artinskian–lower Kungurian strata on the Georgetown Inlier. Several additional species of Ottokaria from across Gondwana do not conform precisely to the diagnosis of that genus and their taxonomic reappraisal is proposed.

  • 278.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Antarctica’s Glossopteris forests2017In: 52 More Things You Should Know About Palaeontology / [ed] Cullum, A.; Martinius, A.W., Nova Scotia: Agile Libre , 2017, p. 22-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Prince Charles Mountains (PCMs) of East Antarctica were first spotted

    from the air during The United States Navy Antarctic Developments Program

    'Operation Highjump' in 1946-47. but first visited nearly a decade later by

    Australian explorers. In the austral summer of 1994-95. Andrew Drinnan (University

    of Melbourne) and I ventured to the PCMs to search for fossil plants.

    Most of the rocks there are ancient - Archaean and Proterozoic granites and

    metamorphics - but one small area. the Amery Oasis. hosts Permian coal-rich

    strata and Triassic red-beds.

  • 279.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Australia's Permian vertebrates: where have they gone?2017In: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Magazine, ISSN 1448-4420, Vol. 14, p. 70-75Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Permian period (299–252 Million years old) is that time interval immediately before the rise of the dinosaurs. It began with an ice age and ended with the largest mass extinction event in Earth’s history. Australia’s Permian strata contain a rather meagre record of vertebrate fossils. Vertebrates are those animals with a backbone. In the modern world, that includes everything from fish to birds and mammals but, in the Permian, the vertebrate groups present were fish, amphibians and reptiles. Australia’s sparse vertebrate record stands in contrast to some other parts of the world, such as the Karoo Basin in South Africa, which is endowed with a rich record of bones and teeth, particularly from early mammal-like reptiles.

  • 280.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Exceptional fossils and biotas of Gondwana: the fortieth anniversary issue of Alcheringa2016In: Alcheringa, ISSN 0311-5518, E-ISSN 1752-0754, Vol. 40, p. 399-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcheringa is now a truly international palaeontological journal. Although the early issues had a strong focus on Australasian fossil material, recent issues have published papers on material from all parts of the globe. As part of Alcheringa’s continuing editorial initiatives, and in light of the prominent role the journal has played in promoting the palaeontology of the Southern Hemisphere, we devote the final issue of volume 40 to the theme of ‘Exceptional fossils and biotas of Gondwana’. This issue includes a selection of invited papers dealing with a broad geographic and stratigraphic array of Southern Hemisphere fossils that have special historical, biostratigraphical, palaeoecogical or biogeographical significance. This theme extends to the documentation of exceptionally preserved ‘whole biotas’ from Gondwana.

  • 281.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Homonymy of genera2015In: Australasian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter, ISSN 2204-910X, no 162-163, p. 8-11Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Philip Short recently faced the problem of having established a plant genus that turned out to be a homonym of an earliernamed genus. In 2014, he erected the name Roebuckia for a range of daisy species in his review of Brachyscome. However, Roebuckia had already been established as a name for a fossil (Early Cretaceous) plant from Western Australia by myself (McLoughlin, 1996). Because homonyms are illegitimate according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (McNeill et al., 2012), Philip was obliged to establish a new name (Roebuckiella) for those species he had previously assigned to Roebuckia (see Short, 2015). How, then, can one be sure that when establishing a new genus, the chosen name has not been used before?

  • 282.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The Landsborough Sandstone: the Sunshine Coast’s Jurassic park2015In: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Journal, ISSN 1448-4420, Vol. 12, p. 78-82Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Formed by lava thrusting up through sandstone bedrock 25 million years ago, the Glasshouse Mountains form an imposing backdrop to farming country in the Sunshine Coast Hinterland. Deposited in the Early Jurassic Period, this rock formation—known as the Landsborough Sandstone—forms the bedrock for most of the coastal plain from Brisbane’s northern suburbs to Coolum and hosts a range of fossil plants including ferns, seed-ferns and conifers.

  • 283.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Biotic interactions in an exceptionallywell preserved osmundaceous fern rhizome from the Early Jurassic of Sweden2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 464, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remarkably well permineralized osmundaceous rhizome from the Early Jurassic of southern Sweden yields evidence of an array of interactions with other organisms in its immediate environment. These include epiphytism by a herbaceous heterosporous lycopsid; putative oribatid mite herbivory and detritivory (petiole and detritus borings and coprolites); potential pathogenic, saprotrophic or mycorrhizal interactions between fungi and the host plant and its epiphytes; parasitism or saprotrophy by putative peronosporomycetes; and opportunistic or passivemycophagy by oribatid mites evidenced by fungal spores in coprolites. A combination of abrupt burial by lahar deposits and exceedingly rapid permineralization by precipitation of calcite from hydrothermal brines facilitated the exquisite preservation of the rhizome and its component community of epiphytes, herbivores, saprotrophs and parasites. Ancient ferns with a rhizome cloaked by a thick mantle of persistent leaf bases and adventitious roots have a high potential for preserving macro-epiphytes and associated micro-organisms, and are especially promising targets for understanding the evolution of biotic interactions in forest understorey ecosystems.

  • 284.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany.
    Drinnan, Andrew N.
    School of Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    Pachytestopsis tayloriorum gen. et sp. nov., an anatomically preserved glossopterid seed from the Lopingian of Queensland, Australia2018In: Transformative Paleobotany: Papers to Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor / [ed] Krings, M., Harper, C.J., Cúneo, N.R., Rothwell, G.W., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2018, p. 155-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permineralized seed, Pachytestopsistayloriorum gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Changhsingian (upper Permian) Fort Cooper Coal Measures at the Homevale locality in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland,Australia. This largest permineralized seed species yet recorded from Permian deposits of Gondwana conforms to a size accommodated by either Rigbyaceae or Lidgettoniaceae (glossopterid) fructifications recorded elsewhere in the Sydney-Bowen basin complex. The seeds are characterized by a thin endotesta of longitudinally orientated cells, thick mesotesta incorporating an inner band of very thick walled sclereids and an outer layer of thin-walled parenchymatous cells, and an exotesta that comprises a well-developed epidermis and several layers of thick-walled hypodermal cells. Vascular supply to the base of the seed passes through the integument and bifurcates into the nucellar pad. Taeniate bisaccate pollen of Protohaploxypinus-type occurs in the pollen chamber of the seed. A comparison of the characters of P. tayloriorum with other permineralized seeds from the Permian of Gondwana indicates that several of the characters used in previous phylogenetic analyses incorporating glossopterids are wrongly scored or ambiguous in their definition.

  • 285.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Reguero, Marcelo
    División Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA La Plata, Argentina.
    Fossil clitellate annelid cocoons and their microbiological inclusions from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica2016In: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 19, no 1.11A, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clitellate annelids have a meagre body fossil record but they secrete proteinaceous

    cocoons for the protection of eggs that, after hardening, are readily fossilized

    and offer a largely untapped resource for assessing the evolutionary history of this

    group. We describe three species of clitellate cocoons (viz., Burejospermum seymourense

    sp. nov., B. punctatum sp. nov. and Pegmatothylakos manumii gen. et sp. nov.)

    from the lower Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. The

    cocoons probably derive from continental settings and were transported to, and preserved

    within, nearshore marine to estuarine environments. The cocoons provide the

    first evidence of commensal or parasitic relationships in the Eocene continental ecosystems

    of Antarctica. Moreover, numerous micro-organisms and the oldest fossilized

    examples of animal spermatozoa are preserved as moulds within the consolidated

    walls of the cocoons. Fossil annelid cocoons offer potential for enhanced palaeoenvironmental

    interpretation of sediments, correlation between continental and shallowmarine

    strata, and improved understanding of the development of clitellate annelid

    reproductive traits and the evolutionary history of soft-bodied micro-organisms in general.

  • 286.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Thomas, Mörs
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    The wierd world of fossil worm cocoons2016In: Deposits Magazine, ISSN ISSN 1744-9588, Vol. 46, p. 399-406Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Curious fossils in continental sedimentary strata that range from about a millimetre in diameter up to the size of a fingernail and appear to have a net-like coating on the surface have reported for over 150 years and have been variously interpreted as the eggs of insects, parts of lichens, the food-catching devices of ancient invertebrates, the membranous coatings of seeds, or the linings of clubmoss sporangia. Many early palaeobiologists simply labelled them as ‘red eggs’ and avoided assigning them to any particular biological group. However, these fossils match the characteristics of the egg-bearing cocoons of modern leeches and their relatives. During cocoon secretion, micro-organisms from the surrounding environment can become entrapped and entombed in the sticky threads of the cocoon wall, thus escaping decay, and ultimately becoming part of the fossil record.

  • 287.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Bomfleur, Benjamin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Lund University.
    A phenomenal fossil fern, forgotten for forty years2014In: Deposits Magazine, ISSN 17749588, Vol. 40, p. 16-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    On some occasions, it is the hard sweat and toil of palaeontologists labouring in the field at carefully planned excavation sites that yields the prize specimen on which careers are built. On other occasions, it is the chance discovery by an amateur collector that may yield that special fossil. We present an account of one such remarkable fossil discovery by an eccentric farmer in southern Sweden. However, more remarkable is that this exceptional fossil remained unstudied and largely unnoticed in a major museum for almost 40 years, before its true significance was realised.

  • 288.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Carpenter, Raymond J
    Jordan, Gregory J
    Hill, Robert S
    Seed ferns survived the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in Tasmania.2008In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 465-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed ferns, dominant elements of the vegetation in many parts of the world from the Triassic to Cretaceous, were considered to have disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous together with several other groups that had occupied key positions in terrestrial and marine ecosystems such as dinosaurs, plesiosaurs, and ammonoids. Seed-fern demise is generally correlated with competition from diversifying flowering plants through the Cretaceous and the global environmental crisis related to the Chicxulub impact event in the paleotropics at the end of the period. New fossils from Tasmania show that one seed-fern lineage survived into the Cenozoic by at least 13 million years. These fossils are described here as a new species, Komlopteris cenozoicus. Komlopteris is a genus of seed ferns attributed to Corystospermaceae and until now was not known from sediments younger than the Early Cretaceous. Discovery of this "Lazarus taxon," together with the presence of a range of other relictual fossil and extant organisms in Tasmania, other southern Gondwanan provinces, and some regions of northern North America and Asia, underscores high-latitude regions as biodiversity refugia during global environmental crises and highlights their importance as sources of postextinction radiations.

  • 289.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Drinnan, Andrew
    School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
    Slater, Ben
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
    Hilton, Jason
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
    Paurodendron stellatum: a new Permian permineralized herbaceous lycopsid from the Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica2015In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 220, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diminutive, silica-permineralized lycopsid axes, from a Guadalupian (Middle Permian) silicified peat in the Bainmedart Coal Measures of East Antarctica are described and assigned to Paurodendron stellatum sp. nov. Axes consist only of primary-growth tissues with a vascular system characterized by an exarch actinostele with 6–20 protoxylem points. Stems have a relatively narrow cortex of thin-walled cells that are commonly degraded, but the root cortex typically contains more robust, thick-walled cells. The stems bear helically inserted, elliptical–rhombic, ligulate microphylls. Roots possess an eccentrically positioned monarch vascular strand. Paurodendron stellatum is one of a very small number of anatomically preserved lycopsid axes described from the Gondwanan Permian and represents the first post-Carboniferous record of this genus. Based on dispersed vegetative remains, megaspores and microspores, herbaceous lycopsids, such as P. stellatum, appear to have been important understorey components of both low- and high-latitude mire forests of the late Palaeozoic.

  • 290.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Haig, David W.
    Centre for Energy Geoscience, School of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia.
    Siversson, Mikael
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, WA 6106, Australia.
    Einarsson, Elisabeth
    Department of Geology, Lund University, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Did mangrove communities exist in the Late Cretaceous of the Kristianstad Basin, Sweden?2018In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 498, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous inferences of oyster-dominated communities occupying mangrove-like depositional settings in the Kristianstad Basin, Sweden, during the late early Campanian are reassessed. A significant percentage of oysters (Acutostrea incurva) from the Belemnellocamax mammillatus zone in Bed 3 at Åsen bear indentations on their left valves indicating attachment to plant axes. Many of these axes bear morphological features characteristic of the distal subaerial portions of woody plant branches and appear to have been rafted into the marine environment rather than representing in situ mangrove stems and roots. Foraminiferal assemblages recovered from sediment within the oyster body cavities differ from modern mangrove-community associations by the absence of siliceous agglutinated Foraminifera, the presence of diverse and relatively abundant Lagenida, relatively common triserial Buliminida, and a notable percentage of planktonic taxa. Chondrichthyan teeth assemblages from the same beds are similarly incompatible with the interpretation of a mangrove depositional environment based on comparisons with the distribution of related extant taxa. Apart from oyster shells and belemnite rostra, these beds are notably depauperate in diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrate remains compared with coeval carbonate shoal and rocky shoreline assemblages from the same basin. The collective palaeontological and sedimentological evidence favours an inner neritic sandy-substrate setting, but not nearshore or mangrove-like depositional environment for the oyster-rich Bed 3 at Åsen. The absence of mangrove-like assemblages at Åsen is consistent with the development of modern mangrove ecosystems much later (during the Maastrichtian and Cenozoic) based on the global palynological record.

  • 291.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Jansson, Ida-Maria
    Lund University.
    Vajda, Vivi
    Lund University.
    Megaspore and microfossil assemblages reveal diverse herbaceous lycophytes in the Australian Early Jurassic flora2014In: Grana, ISSN 0017-3134, Vol. 53, p. 22-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we describe and illustrate by transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy the first Australian Jurassic megaspore assemblages. The megaspores and other mesofossils were isolated from terrestrial deposits of the Marburg Subgroup (late Pliensbachian) at Inverleigh Quarry, Clarence-Moreton Basin, eastern Australia. Nine megaspore taxa are identified including one new species: Paxillitriletes rainei. Miospore assemblages recovered from the same samples at Inverleigh reveal a slightly higher diversity of lycophyte microspores. The collective megaspore suite from Inverleigh shares several genera with mid-Mesozoic assemblages from widely distributed parts of the world, but most of the Inverleigh species have subtle morphological differences from congeneric forms elsewhere. The megaspores accumulated in fluvial floodplain facies and are associated with mostly dissociated isoetalean leaf debris. Other mesofossils in the sampled interval include annelid egg cases, dispersed seeds and charcoal. Invertebrate burrows and possible vertebrate tracks also occur in this succession. Lycophyte macrofossils are otherwise known from only two other Australian Jurassic deposits. The richness of the megaspore and microspore suites attest to a significant diversity of lycophytes in the Australian Jurassic floras not hitherto appreciated from described macrofloras

  • 292.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Maksimenko, Anton
    Australian Synchrotron.
    Mays, Chris
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    A new high-paleolatitude late Permian permineralized peat flora from the Sydney Basin, Australia2019In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 180, p. 513-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of research. Permineralized peats are prized for hosting three-dimensionally preserved plant remains that provide insights into fossil plant anatomy and the composition of coal-forming ecosystems. A new record of siliceous permineralized peat is documented from a Lopingian-aged (upper Permian) strata from the southern Sydney Basin. It represents the fifth Permian permineralized peat identified from eastern Australia.

    Methodology. The single permineralized peat block was cut into smaller blocks, and both cellulose acetate peels and standard thin sections were prepared for study using transmitted light microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the peat was carried out using point counts perpendicular to bedding. One block examined using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (CT) revealed the three-dimensional anatomy of abundant fossil seeds.

    Pivotal results. The peat contains a plant assemblage dominated by glossopterid leaves, seeds, and axes; although degraded, probable pteridophyte remains represent a significant subsidiary component of the assemblage. A new leaf form (Glossopteris thirroulensis McLoughlin et Mays sp. nov.) and a new type of seed (Illawarraspermum ovatum McLoughlin et Mays gen. et sp. nov.) are described. Leaf-, wood/seed-, and fine detritus-rich organic microfacies with gradational boundaries are evident within the peat.

    Conclusions. Regular growth rings in the small permineralized axes, together with the occurrence of autumnal mats of glossopterid leaves, signify a strongly seasonal climate. The presence of abundant charcoal in the peat indicates that fire was a significant influence on the high-paleolatitude mire ecosystem. Differentiation of organic microfacies within the peat profile indicates subtle variation in the contribution of plant components to the peat through time. The absence of mineral grains in thin section and CT, together with the presence of authigenic sulfides, indicates accumulation of organic matter in a stagnant mire away from the influence of clastic input.

  • 293.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Martin, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Western Australia, Department of Mines and Petroleum.
    The record of Australian Jurassic plant-arthropod interactions2015In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 27, p. 940-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of Australian Jurassic plant fossil assemblages reveals examples of foliar andwood damage generated by terrestrial arthropods attributed to leaf-margin feeding, surface feeding, lamina hole feeding, galling, piercingand-sucking, leaf-mining, boring and oviposition. These types of damage are spread across a wide range of fern and gymnosperm taxa, but are particularly well represented on derived gymnosperm clades, such as Pentoxylales and Bennettitales. Several Australian Jurassic plants show morphological adaptations in the form of minute marginal and apical spines on leaves and bracts, and scales on rachises that likely represent physical defences against arthropod herbivory. Only two entomofaunal assemblages are presently known from the Australian Jurassic but these reveal a moderate range of taxa, particularly among the Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata, all of which are candidates for the dominant feeding traits evidenced by the fossil leaf and axis damage. The survey reveals that plant–arthropod interactions in the Jurassic at middle to high southern latitudes of southeastern Gondwana incorporated a similar diversity of feeding strategies to those represented in coeval communities from other provinces. Further, the range of arthropod damage types is similar between Late Triassic and Jurassic assemblages from Gondwana despite substantial differences in the major plant taxa, implying that terrestrial invertebrate herbivoreswere able to successfully transfer to alternative plant hosts during the floristic turnovers at the Triassic–Jurassic transition.

  • 294.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Pott, Christian
    LWL-Museum of Natural History, Münster, Germany.
    Plant mobility in the Mesozoic: Disseminule dispersal strategies of Chineseand Australian Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous plants2019In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 515, p. 47-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four upper Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous lacustrine Lagerstätten in China and Australia (the Daohugou, Talbragar, Jehol, and Koonwarra biotas) offer glimpses into the representation of plant disseminule strategies during that phase of Earth history in which flowering plants, birds, mammals, and modern insect faunas began to diversify. No seed or foliage species is shared between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere fossil sites and only a few species are shared between the Jurassic and Cretaceous assemblages in the respective regions. Freesporing plants, including a broad range of bryophytes, are major components of the studied assemblages and attest to similar moist growth habitats adjacent to all four preservational sites. Both simple unadorned seeds and winged seeds constitute significant proportions of the disseminule diversity in each assemblage. Anemochory, evidenced by the development of seed wings or a pappus, remained a key seed dispersal strategy through the studied interval. Despite the rise of feathered birds and fur-covered mammals, evidence for epizoochory is minimal in the studied assemblages. Those Early Cretaceous seeds or detached reproductive structures bearing spines were probably adapted for anchoring to aquatic debris or to soft lacustrine substrates. Several relatively featureless seeds in all assemblages were potentially adapted to barochory or to endozoochory—the latter evidenced especially by the presence of smooth seeds in vertebrate gut contents and regurgitant or coprolitic masses. Hydrochory is inferred for several aquatic plants that notably bear small featureless seeds, particularly aggregated into detachable pods.

  • 295.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Pott, Christian
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Museum für Naturkunde Paläontologische Bodendenkmalpflege Sentruper Straße 285 48161 Münster.
    Sobbe, Ian H.
    Ancient Environments, Queensland Museum, PO Box 3300, South Brisbane, 4101 Qld, Australia, and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia.
    The diversity of Australian Mesozoic bennettitopsid reproductive organs2018In: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, E-ISSN 1867-1608, Vol. 98, p. 71-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several dispersed reproductive organs of bennettitopsid gymnosperms are described and illustrated from Triassic to Cretaceous strata of Australia: Williamsonia eskensis sp. nov. (Middle Triassic), Williamsonia ipsvicensis sp. nov. (Upper Triassic), Williamsonia durikaiensis sp. nov. (Lower Jurassic), Williamsonia sp. (Lower Jurassic), Williamsonia rugosa sp. nov. (Middle Jurassic), Williamsonia gracilis sp. nov. (Lower Cretaceous), Cycadolepis ferrugineus sp. nov. (Lower Jurassic), Cycadolepis sp. (Lower Cretaceous), and Fredlindia moretonensis Shirley 1898 comb. nov. (Upper Triassic). Among these, W. eskensis appears to represent the oldest bennettitalean reproductive structure yet identified. Although global floras expressed less provincialism during the Mesozoic and many genera are cosmopolitan, Australian bennettopsid species appear to have been endemic based on the morphological characters of the reproductive structures. Bennettopsids have a stratigraphic range of around 210 million years in Australia and are widely and abundantly represented by leaf fossils, but only around 20 specimens of reproductive structures, of which half are attributed to Fredlindia, have been recovered from that continent’s geological archive. The extremely low representation of reproductive organs vis-à-vis foliage is interpreted to reflect a combination of physical disintegration of the seed-bearing units while attached to the host axis and, potentially, extensive vegetative reproduction in bennettopsids growing at high southern latitudes during the Mesozoic.

  • 296.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Prevec, Rose
    Department of Earth Sciences, Albany Museum, 40 Somerset Street, Makhanda, 6139, Eastern Cape, South Africa, and Department of Botany, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Makhanda, 6140, Eastern Cape, South Africa.
    The architecture of Permian glossopterid ovuliferous reproductive organs2019In: Alcheringa, ISSN 0311-5518, E-ISSN 1752-0754, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 480-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A historical account of research on glossopterid ovuliferous reproductive structures reveals starkly contrasting interpretations of their architecture and homologies from the earliest investigations. The diversity of interpretations has led to the establishment of a multitude of genera for these fossil organs, many of the taxa being synonymous. We identify a need for taxonomic revision of these genera to clearly demarcate taxa before they can be used effectively as palaeobiogeographic or biostratigraphic indices. Our assessment of fructification features based on extensive studies of adpression and permineralized fossils reveals that many of the character states for glossopterids used in previous phylogenetic analyses are erroneous. We interpret glossopterid fertiligers to have been borne in loose strobili in which individual polysperms represent fertile cladodes of diverse morphologies subtended by a vegetative leaf or bract. Polysperms within the group are variously branched or condensed with ovule placement ranging from marginal to abaxial, in some cases occurring on recurved branchlets or in cupule-like structures. Glossopterid polysperms of all types are fringed by one or two ranks of wing-like structures that may represent the remnants of megasporophylls that were, ancestrally, developed on the fertile axillary shoot. Glossopterid fertiligers have similarities to the condensed bract/ovuliferous scale complexes of conifer cones, but comparisons with Mesozoic seed-ferns are hindered by insufficient data on the arrangement and homologies of the ovulebearing organs of the latter group. Nevertheless, glossopterid polysperms differ from the ovuliferous organs of Mesozoic seed-ferns by longitudinal versus transverse folding, respectively.

  • 297.
    McLoughlin, Stephen
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Strullu-Derrien, Christine
    Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK.
    Biota and palaeoenvironment of a high middle-latitude Late Triassic peat-forming ecosystem from Hopen, Svalbard archipelago2016In: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, ISSN 0305-8719, Vol. 434, p. 87-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A siliceous permineralized peat block recovered from Hopen in the Svalbard archipelago hosts a low-diversity Late Triassic flora dominated by autochthonous roots and stems of bennettitaleans and lycophytes, and parautochthonous leaves, sporangia, spores and pollen from a small range of pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Some parenchymatous bennettitalean root cells show interactions with chytrid fungi and bacteria; the remains of other fungi and fungi-like organisms are dispersed within the peat’s detrital matrix. Cavities excavated through some roots and compacted detritus contain abundant coprolites probably derived from sapro-xylophagous oribatid mites, although no body fossils have yet been identified. Sparse larger coprolites containing leaf fragments attest to the presence of invertebrate folivores in the ancient ecosystem. The low diversity flora, relatively few trophic levels and simple nutritional web, together with sedimentological aspects of the host formation and the peat structure, collectively favour accumulation of the organic mass as a fibric (root-dominated) peat within a temperate (high middle-latitude), well aerated mire.

  • 298. McMahon, Sean
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    A new frontier for palaeobiology: Earth's vast deep biosphere2019In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 41, no 8, article id 1900052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse micro‐organisms populate a global deep biosphere hosted by rocks and sediments beneath land and sea, containing more biomass than any other biome except forests. This paper reviews an emerging palaeobiological archive of these dark habitats: microfossils preserved in ancient pores and fractures in the crust. This archive, seemingly dominated by mineralized filaments (although rods and coccoids are also reported), is presently far too sparsely sampled and poorly understood to reveal trends in the abundance, distribution, or diversity of deep life through time. New research is called for to establish the nature and extent of the fossil record of Earth's deep biosphere by combining systematic exploration, rigorous microanalysis, and experimental studies of both microbial preservation and the formation of abiotic pseudofossils within the crust. It is concluded that the fossil record of Earth's largest microbial habitat may still have much to tell us about the history of life, the evolution of biogeochemical cycles, and the search for life on Mars.

  • 299. Meachen, Julie
    et al.
    Dunn, Rachel
    Werdelin, Lars
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Carnivoran postcranial adaptations and their relationships to climate2015In: EcographyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 300. Mehlqvist, Kristina
    et al.
    Larsson, Kent
    Vajda, Vivi
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Linking upper Silurian terrestrial and marine successions—Palynologicalstudy from Skåne, Sweden2014In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 202, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed a palynostratigraphic study on miospore assemblages from near-shore marine Silurian sed-imentary rocks of Skåne, southern Sweden. The material includes both drillcore (from Klintaborrningen 1 and Bjärsjölagårdborrningen 2) and outcrop samples from various localities in Skåne. Well- preserved spore assemblages were identified. Long ranging species with a global distribution dominate the spore assemblages, including Ambitisporites sp., Dyadospora sp., Laevolancis sp., and Tetrahedraletes sp. and complemented with key taxa including Emphanisporites neglectus, Hispanaediscus lamontii, Hispanaediscus verrucatus, Scylaspora scripta, Synorisporites libycus and Synorisporites tripapillatus. Based on biostratigraphical schemes for early land plant spores, the studied sedimentary rocks of the cores Klintaborrningen 1 and Bjärsjölagårdborrningen 2 are interpreted as late Silurian in age, spanning Ludlow to Přídolí. The spore assemblages are compared and correlated to marine fossil schemes including those of conodonts, chitinozoans, graptolites and tentaculitids. Additionally, relative abundance data of specific spore taxa have been used for correlation between the drillcores and the outcrops.

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