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  • 1. Tseng, Z. Jack
    et al.
    Zazula, Grant
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    First Fossils of Hyenas (Chasmaporthetes, Hyaenidae, Carnivora) from North of the Arctic Circle2019Ingår i: Open Quaternary, Vol. 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The northern region of Beringia is ecologically and biogeographically significant as a corridor for biotic dispersals between the Old and New Worlds. Large mammalian predators from Beringia are exceedingly rare in the fossil record, even though carnivore diversity in the past was much higher than it is in this region at present. Here we report the first fossils of cursorial hyenas, Chasmaporthetes, in Beringia and north of the Arctic Circle. Two isolated teeth recovered in the Old Crow Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada, were identified amongst over 50,000 known fossil mammal specimens recovered from over a century of collecting in the Old Crow Basin. These rare records fill an important intermediary locale in the more than 10,000 km geographic distance between previously known New and Old World records of this lineage. The Pleistocene age of these fossils, together with its Arctic Circle occurrence, necessitate a rethinking of the role of large-bodied hunter-scavengers in Ice Age megafaunas in North America, and the implications of lacking an important energy flow modifier in present day North American food webs.

  • 2.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Middle Miocene Carnivora and Hyaenodonta from Fort Ternan, western Kenya2019Ingår i: Geodiversitas, ISSN 1280-9659, E-ISSN 1638-9395, Vol. 41, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fort Ternan is a middle Miocene (c. 13.7-13.8 Ma) site famous for its fossils of Kenyapithecus wickeri Leakey, 1962, considered the earliest African hominoid. Herein, the Carnivora and Hyaenodonta from this site are described and placed in their temporal context, showing the middle Miocene to be a time of transition from archaic carnivores of the early Miocene and carnivores of more modern aspect from the late Miocene. Fort Ternan includes: Amphicyonidae represented by ?Myacyon peignei n. sp., a new form distinguished by its hypercarnivorous m1, P4 with large protocone shelf, and M1 with reduced lingual shelf; Barbourofelidae, represented by a derived form; Percrocutidae, represented by abundant material of Percrocuta tobieni Crusafont & Aguirre, 1971; Viverridae, represented by the paradoxurines Kanuites lewisae Dehghani & Werdelin, 2008, and cf. Orangictis Morales & Pickford, 2005, and a putative viverrine; and Hyaenodonta represented by the teratodontine Dissopsalis pyroclasticus Savage, 1965 and a very large hyainailourine. This assemblage is a melange of forms harkening back to the early Miocene (the Hyaenodonta and Amphicyonidae), an evolving, still extant lineage (Viverridae), and more typical late Miocene forms (derived Barbourofelidae and Percrocutidae).

  • 3. Lyras, George
    et al.
    Giannakopoulou, Aggeliki
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The brain anatomy of an early Miocene felid from Ginn Quarry (Nebraska, USA)2019Ingår i: PalZ, Vol. 93, s. 345-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4. Adrian, Brent
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Grossman, Aryeh
    New Miocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from Moruorot and Kalodirr, Kenya2018Ingår i: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     We describe new carnivoran fossils from Kalodirr and Moruorot, two late Early

    Miocene sites in the Lothidok Formation of West Turkana, Kenya. The fossils include a

    new species of viverrid, Kichechia savagei  sp. nov., a new genus and species of felid,

    Katifelis nightingalei  gen. et sp. nov., and an unidentified musteloid. We also report

    new records of the amphicyonid Cynelos macrodon. These new fossils increase the

    known diversity of African Early Miocene carnivorans and highlight regional differences

    in Africa.

  • 5.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    McDonald, H. Gregory
    Shaw, Christopher A.
    Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth2018Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 6. Villavicencio, Natalia
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The Casa del Diablo cave (Puno, Peru) and the late Pleistocene demise of megafauna in the Andean Altiplano2018Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 195, s. 21-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Late Quaternary Extinction event South America lost ~83% of all its late Pleistocene megafaunal genera. As in other regions of the world, the debate about the possible drivers behind these extinctions revolves around the role of humans arriving into the continent and on the effect of the climatic changes characteristic of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The availability of precise chronological information, in order to estimate the timing of extinction of the different taxa affected, is critical for solving such debate. Here we present an updated study of the late Pleistocene mammalian deposits from Casa del Diablo Cave (CdD) in the Altiplano of Peru. The study includes an updated list of the mammalian faunas found in the cave and 11 taxon-specific XAD radiocarbon dates from extinct and extant megafauna bones.We compare this new chronology to the timing of major environmental changes and human arrival in the area, as well as with other megafaunal discoveries from the high Andes. The radiocarbon dates from CdD fall in the time window between 23 and 12.8 cal kyr BP. Compared to other records of extinct megafauna in the high Andes, the one from CdD presents in general younger occurrences. No temporal overlap between humans and extinct megafauna emerges from comparing first dates of appearance of humans in the Altiplano, and last appearance dates of extinct megafauna from CdD. However, the possibility of temporal overlap among the records becomes evident when we compare confidence intervals calculated to estimate true times of human arrival and megafaunal local extinctions.

  • 7.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Flink, Therese
    The phylogenetic context of Smilodon2018Ingår i: Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth / [ed] Werdelin, L., McDonald, H.G., Shaw, C.A., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 8. McDonald, H. Gregory
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The sabertooth cat, Smilodon populator (Carnivora: Felidae), from Cueva de Milodón, Chile2018Ingår i: Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth / [ed] Werdelin, L., McDonald, H.G., Shaw, C.A., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    A contextual review of the Carnivora of Kanapoi2017Ingår i: Journal of Human Evolution, ISSN 0047-2484, E-ISSN 1095-8606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Pliocene is a crucial time period in carnivoran evolution. Holarctic carnivoran faunas suffered a turnover event at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This event is also observed in Africa but its onset is later and the process more drawn-out. Kanapoi is one of the earliest faunas in Africa to show evidence of a fauna that is more typical Pliocene than Miocene in character. The taxa recovered from Kanapoi are: Torolutra sp., Enhydriodon (2 species), Genetta sp., Helogale sp., Homotherium sp., Dinofelis petteri, Felis sp., and Parahyaena howelli. Analysis of the broader carnivoran context of which Kanapoi is an example shows that all these taxa are characteristic of Plio-Pleistocene African faunas, rather than Miocene ones. While some are still extant and some went extinct in the Early Pleistocene, P. howelli is unique in both originating and going extinct in the Early Pliocene.

  • 10. Kitchener, A.C.
    et al.
    Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.
    Eizirik, E.
    Gentry, A.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Wilting, A.
    Yamaguchi, N.
    A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group2017Ingår i: Cat News, ISSN 1027-2992Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

     1. The current classification of the Felidae was reviewed by a panel of 22 experts divided into core, expert and review groups, which make up the Cat Classification Task Force CCTF of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group.

    2. The principal aim of the CCTF was to produce a consensus on a revised classification of the Felidae for use by the IUCN.

    3. Based on current published research, the CCTF has fully revised the classification of the Felidae at the level of genus, species and subspecies.

    4. A novel traffic-light system was developed to indicate certainty of each taxon based on morphological, molecular, biogeographical and other evidence. A concordance of good evidence in the three principal categories was required to strongly support the acceptance of a taxon.

    5. Where disagreements exist among members of the CCTF, these have been highlighted in the accounts for each species. Only further research will be able to answer the potential conflicts in existing data.

    6. A total of 14 genera, 41 species and 80 subspecies are recognised by most members of the CCTF, which is a considerable change from the classification proposed by Wozencraft (2005), the last major revision of the Felidae.

    7. Future areas of taxonomic research have been highlighted in order to answer current areas of uncertainty.

    8. This classification of the Felidae will be reviewed every five years unless a major new piece of research requires a more rapid revision for the conservation benefit of felid species at risk of extinction.

  • 11. Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo
    et al.
    Brown, Francis H.
    Plavcan, Michael J.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Gigantic lion, Panthera leo, from the Pleistocene of Natodomeri, eastern Africa2017Ingår i: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial skull of a lion from Natodomeri, northwest Kenya is described. The Natodomeri sites are correlated with Member I of the Kibish Formation, dated to between 195 ka and ca. 205 ka. The skull is remarkable for its very great size, equivalent to the largest cave lions (Panthera spelaea  [Goldfuss, 1810]) of Pleistocene Eurasia and much larger than any previously known lion from Africa, living or fossil. We hypothesize that this individual represents a previously unknown population or subspecies of lion present in the late Middle and Late Pleistocene of eastern Africa rather than being an indication of climate-driven size increase in lions of that time. This raises questions regarding the extent of our understanding of the pattern and causes of lion evolution in the Late Pleistocene.

  • 12. Bibi, Faysal
    et al.
    Pante, Michael
    Souron, Antoine
    Stewart, Kathlyn
    Varela, Sara
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud
    Fortelius, Mikael
    Hlusko, Leslea
    Njau, Jackson
    de la Torre, Ignacio
    Paleoecology of the Serengeti during the Oldowan-Acheulean transition at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: The mammal and fish evidence2017Ingår i: Journal of Human Evolution, ISSN 0047-2484, E-ISSN 1095-8606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight years of excavation work by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has produced a rich vertebrate fauna from several sites within Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Study of these as well as recently re-organized collections from Mary Leakey's 1972 HWK EE excavations here provides a synthetic view of the faunal community of Olduvai during Middle Bed II at ~1.7e1.4 Ma, an interval that captures the local transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We expand the faunal list for this interval, name a new bovid species, clarify the evolution of several mammalian lineages, and record new local first and last appearances. Compositions of the fish and large mammal assemblages support previous indications for the dominance of open and seasonal grassland habitats at the margins of an alkaline lake. Fish diversity is low and dominated by cichlids, which indicates strongly saline conditions. The taphonomy of the fish assemblages supports reconstructions of fluctuating lake levels with mass die-offs in evaporating pools. The mammals are dominated by grazing bovids and equids. Habitats remained consistently dry and open throughout the entire Bed II sequence, with no major turnover or paleoecological changes taking place. Rather, wooded and wet habitats had already given way to drier and more open habitats by the top of Bed I, at 1.85e1.80 Ma. This ecological change is close to the age of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition in Kenya and Ethiopia, but precedes the local transition in Middle Bed II. The Middle Bed II largemammal community is much richer in species and includes a much larger number of large-bodied species (>300 kg) than the modern Serengeti. This reflects the severity of Pleistocene extinctions on African large mammals, with the loss of large species fitting a pattern typical of defaunation or ‘downsizing’ by human disturbance. However, trophic network (food web) analyses show that the Middle Bed II communitywas robust, and comparisons with the Serengeti community indicate that the fundamental structure of foodwebs remained intact despite Pleistocene extinctions. The presence of a generalized meateating hominin in the Middle Bed II community would have increased competition among carnivores and vulnerability among herbivores, but the high generality and interconnectedness of the Middle Bed II food web suggests this community was buffered against extinctions caused by trophic interactions.

  • 13. Viranta, Suvi
    et al.
    Atickem, Anagaw
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Stenseth, Nils Christian
    Rediscovering a forgotten canid species2017Ingår i: BMC Zoology, ISSN 2056-3132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The African wolf, for which we herein recognise Canis lupaster Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832 (Symbolae Physicae quae ex Itinere Africam Borealem er Asoam Occidentalem Decas Secunda. Berlin, 1833) as the valid species name (we consider the older name Canis anthus Cuvier, 1820 [Le Chacal de Sénégal, Femelle. In: Geoffroy St.-Hilaire E, Cuvier F, editors. Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères Paris, A. Belin, 1820] a nomen dubium), is a medium-sized canid with wolf-like characters. Because of phenotypic similarity, specimens of African wolf have long been assigned to golden jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758 [Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, 1758]).

    Results

    Here we provide, through rigorous morphological analysis, a species description for this taxonomically overlooked species. Through molecular sequencing we assess its distribution in Africa, which remains uncertain due to confusion regarding possible co-occurrence with the Eurasian golden jackal. Canis lupasterdiffers from all other Canis spp. including the golden jackal in its cranial morphology, while phylogenetically it shows close affinity to the Holarctic grey wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 [Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, 1758]). All sequences generated during this study clustered with African wolf specimens, consistent with previous data for the species.

    Conclusions

    We suggest that the estimated current geographic range of golden jackal in Africa represents the African wolf range. Further research is needed in eastern Egypt, where a hybrid zone between Eurasian golden jackal and African wolf may exist. Our results highlight the need for improved studies of geographic range and population surveys for the taxon, which is classified as ‘least concern’ by the IUCN due to its erroneous identification as golden jackal. As a species exclusively distributed in Africa, investigations of the biology and threats to African wolf are needed.

  • 14. Vinuesa, Victor
    et al.
    Madurell-Malapeira, Joan
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Robles, Josep M.
    Obradó, Paul
    Alba, David M.
    A New Skull of Hyaenictis Gaudry, 1861 (Carnivora, Hyaenidae) Shows Incipient Adaptations to Durophagy2016Ingår i: Journal of mammalian evolution, ISSN 1064-7554, E-ISSN 1573-7055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15. Fortelius, Mikael
    et al.
    Žliobaitė, Indre
    Kaya, Ferhat
    Bibi, Faysal
    Bobe, René
    Leakey, Louise
    Leakey, Meave
    Patterson, David
    Rannikko, Janina
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    An ecometric analysis of the fossil mammal record of the Turkana Basin2016Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 371, artikel-id 20150232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ecometric methods have been used to analyse fossil mammal faunas and environments of Eurasia and North America, such methods have not yet been applied to the rich fossil mammal record of eastern Africa. Here we report results from analysis of a combined dataset spanning east and west Turkana from Kenya between 7 and 1 million years ago (Ma). We provide temporally and spatially resolved estimates of temperature and precipitation and discuss their relationship to patterns of faunal change, and propose a new hypothesis to explain the lack of a temperature trend. We suggest that the regionally arid Turkana Basin may between 4 and 2 Ma have acted as a ‘species factory’, generating ecological adaptations in advance of the global trend. We show a persistent difference between the eastern and western sides of the Turkana Basin and suggest that the wetlands of the shallow eastern side could have provided additional humidity to the terrestrial ecosystems. Pending further research, a transient episode of faunal change centred at the time of the KBS Member (1.87–1.53 Ma), may be equally plausibly attributed to climate change or to a top-down ecological cascade initiated by the entry of technologically sophisticated humans.

  • 16. Kuhn, Brian F.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Steininger, Christine
    Fossil Hyaenidae from Cooper’s Cave South Africa, and the palaeoenvironmental implications2016Ingår i: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, E-ISSN 1867-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Människans evolution2016Ingår i: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 111, s. 2-10Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Review of The White River Badlands: Geology and Paleontology by Rachel C. Benton, Dennis O. Terry, Jr., Emmett Evanoff, and H. Gregory McDonald2016Ingår i: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, artikel-id e1158720Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19. Kuhn, Brian F.
    et al.
    Hartstone-Rose, Adam
    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.
    Herries, Andrew I. R.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Bamford, Marion K.
    Berger, Lee R.,
    The carnivore guild circa 1.98 million years: biodiversity and implications for the palaeoenvironment at Malapa, South Africa2016Ingår i: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, E-ISSN 1867-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20. Faurby, Søren
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    The difference between trivial and scientific names: There were never any true cheetahs in North America2016Ingår i: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes
    A critical review of African species of Eucyon (Mammalia; Carnivora; Canidae), with a new species from the Pliocene of the Woranso-Mille Area, Afar Region, Ethiopia2015Ingår i: Papers in PalaeontologyArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22. Meachen, Julie
    et al.
    Dunn, Rachel
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Carnivoran postcranial adaptations and their relationships to climate2015Ingår i: EcographyArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23. DiMaggio, Erin N.
    et al.
    Campisano, Christopher J.
    Rowan, John
    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume
    Deino, Alan L.
    Bibi, Faysal
    Lewis, Margaret
    Souron, Antoine
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Reed, Kaye E.
    Arrowsmith, J. Ramon
    Late Pliocene Fossiliferous Sedimentary Record and the Environmental Context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia2015Ingår i: Science, Vol. 347, s. 1355-1359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Wesley-Hunt, Gina D.
    Carnivoran ecomorphology: patterns below the family level2014Ingår i: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 51, s. 259-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25. Chenhall, R
    et al.
    Martinelli, L
    McLaughlin, J
    Paulsen, B S
    Senior, K
    Svalastog, A L
    Tunon, H
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Culture, science and bioethics - Interdisciplinary understandings of and practices in science, culture and ethics2014Ingår i: New Zealand Online Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 1, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Revealing the maternal demographic history of Panthera leo using ancient DNA and a spatially explicit genealogical analysis2014Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 14, nr 70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Background: Understanding the demographic history of a population is critical to conservation and to our broader understanding of evolutionary processes. For many tropical large mammals, however, this aim is confounded by the absence of fossil material and by the misleading signal obtained from genetic data of recently fragmented and isolated populations. This is particularly true for the lion which as a consequence of millennia of human persecution, has large gaps in its natural distribution and several recently extinct populations.

    Results: We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from museum-preserved individuals, including the extinct Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) and Iranian lion (P. l. persica), as well as lions from West and Central Africa. We added these to a broader sample of lion sequences, resulting in a data set spanning the historical range of lions. Our Bayesian phylogeographical analyses provide evidence for highly supported, reciprocally monophyletic lion clades. Using a molecular clock, we estimated that recent lion lineages began to diverge in the Late Pleistocene. Expanding equatorial rainforest probably separated lions in South and East Africa from other populations. West African lions then expanded into Central Africa during periods of rainforest contraction. Lastly, we found evidence of two separate incursions into Asia from North Africa, first into India and later into the Middle East.

    Conclusions: We have identified deep, well-supported splits within the mitochondrial phylogeny of African lions, arguing for recognition of some regional populations as worthy of independent conservation. More morphological and nuclear DNA data are now needed to test these subdivisions.

  • 27. Hartstone-Rose, Adam
    et al.
    Kuhn, Brian F.
    Nalla, Shahed
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Berger, Lee R.
    A new species of fox from the Australopithecus sediba type locality, Malapa, South Africa2013Ingår i: Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, ISSN 0035-919X, E-ISSN 2154-0098, Vol. 68, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1.977 Ma site of ‘Malapa’ (Gauteng, South Africa) has yielded important new fossils, including the type specimens of the new hominin species Australopithecus sediba. Recently, we reported the first Carnivora specimens to have been recovered from the site. That sample included members of Felidae, Herpestidae and Hyaenidae. That first report also included three associated small canid specimens (an M2, a rib and a posterior mandibular fragment including the P4, M1, coronoid, condylar and angular processes) that we attributed to Vulpes cf. V. chama. In this paper, we compare these specimens to a broad sample of modern and fossil foxes and conclude that these specimens are distinct enough to be referred to a new species, here described and named Vulpes skinneri.

  • 28.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    King of beasts2013Ingår i: Scientific American, nr 11, s. 34-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    Koobi Fora Research Project Volume 7: The Carnivora2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki
    Driscoll, C. A.
    Abramov, A.
    Csorba, G.
    Cuisin, J.
    Fernholm, Bo
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Hiermeier, M.
    Hills, D.
    Hunter, L.
    Itakura, H.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Kascheev, V.
    Krohmann, K.
    Martin, T.
    Nowak-Kemp, M.
    Pavlinov, I.
    Renoud, F.
    Tomsett, L.
    van der Mije, S.
    Zholnerovskaya, E.
    Groves, Colin
    Kitchener, Andrew C.
    Nijman, V.
    Macdonald, David W.
    Locating specimens of extinct tiger (Panthera tigris) subspecies: Caspian tiger (P. t. virgata), Javan tiger (P. t. sondaica), and Balinese tiger (P. t. balica) – including previously unpublished specimens2013Ingår i: Mammal Study, ISSN 1343-4152, E-ISSN 1348-6160, Vol. 38, s. 187-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in multivariate statistics, and in ancient DNA techniques, have greatly increased understanding of tiger phylogeography. However, regardless of advances in analytical methodology, researchers will continue to need access to specimens for morphological measurements and sampling for genetic analysis. The tiger has become increasingly endangered, and out of the nine putative tiger subspecies, three (Javan, Balinese, and Caspian) have become extinct in the last 100 years, leaving the specimens kept in natural history collections as the only materials available for research. Frustratingly little information is widely available concerning the specimens of these extinct tiger subspecies. We conducted an extensive search for specimens of extinct tiger subspecies, and also developed a simple on-site method to assign unprovenanced and probable Indonesian specimens to either Javan/Balinese or Sumatran subspecies. We located a total of 88 Javan, 11 Balinese, and 46 Caspian tigers, including seven new Javan tigers, and three Balinese tigers that were not widely known previously. These specimens are critical for research in order to understand the intraspecific phylogeny and evolutionary history of the tiger.

  • 31. Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki
    et al.
    Driscoll, Carlos A.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Abramov, Alexei V.
    Csorba, Gabor
    Cuisin, Jacques
    Fernholm, Bo
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Hiermeier, Michael
    Hills, Daphne
    Hunter, Luke
    Itakura, Hiroyuki
    Johansson, Ulf S.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Kascheev, Vitaliy
    Krohmann, Katrin
    Martin, Thomas
    Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia
    Pavlinov, Igor Ya.
    Renoud, Francis
    Tomsett, Louise
    van der Mije, Steven
    Zholnerovskaya, Elena
    Groves, Colin
    Kitchener, Andrew C.
    Nijman, Vincent
    Macdonald, David W.
    Locating specimens of extinct tiger (Panthera tigris) subspecies: Javan tiger (P. t. sondaica), Balinese tiger (P. t. balica), and Caspian tiger (P. t. virgata), including previously unpublished specimens2013Ingår i: Mammal Study, ISSN 1343-4152, E-ISSN 1348-6160, Vol. 38, s. 187-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Sheng, G.-L.
    et al.
    Soubrier, J.
    Liu, J.-Y.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Llamas, B.
    Thomson, V. A.
    Tuke, J.
    Wu, L.-W.
    Chen, Q.-L.
    Lai, X.-L.
    Cooper, A.
    Pleistocene cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta2013Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, Vol. 23, s. 522-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    Richard Stockton College of New Jersey.
    Temporal change in functional richness and evenness in the eastern African Plio-Pleistocene carnivoran guild2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. e57944-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze functional richness and functional evenness of the carnivoran guild in eastern Africa from 3.5 Ma to 1.5 Ma, and compare them to the present day. The data consist of characters of the craniodental apparatus of 76 species of fossil and extant carnivorans, divided into four 0.5 Ma time slices from 3.5 to 1.5 Ma, together with the modern fauna. Focus is on large (>21.5 kg) carnivores. Results show that the large carnivore guild has lost nearly 99% of its functional richness since 3.5 Ma, in a process starting prior to 2 Ma. Measurement of functional evenness shows the modern large carnivore guild to be unique in being randomly distributed in morphospace while in all past time slices there is significant clustering of species. The results are analyzed in the light of known changes to climate and environment in eastern Africa. We conclude that climate change is unlikely to explain all of the changes found and suggest that the evolution of early hominins into carnivore niche space, especially the evolution of derived dietary strategies after 2 Ma, played a significant part in the reduction of carnivore functional richness.

  • 34.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Manthi, F. K.
    Carnivora from the Kanapoi hominin site, northern Kenya2012Ingår i: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 64, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The assemblage from Kanapoi represents the most diverse early Pliocene carnivore assemblage from sub- Saharan Africa. Carnivora from Kanapoi were originally described by Werdelin (2003a), but continuing field work has brought to light significant new material from the site, shedding new light on the earliest post-Miocene radiation of Carnivora in Africa. Most importantly, a second species of Enhydriodon has been recovered from the site, including the first specimen to include a large part of the neurocranium. This makes Kanapoi the first site to include two species of this genus. This addition to the fauna will be of prime significance to understanding the ecology and evolutionary radiation of these giant, extinct otters. Other significant new finds include additional material of a wildcat-sized felid. Finds of this group are rare, and the new Kanapoi material adds significantly to our knowledge of the stem lineage of the genus Felis, which is widespread in Africa today.

  • 35. Raia, Pasquale
    et al.
    Carotenuto, F.
    Passaro, F.
    Piras, P.
    Fulgione, D.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Saarinen, J.
    Fortelius, Mikael
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Rapid action in the Palaeogene. The relationship between phenotypic and taxonomic diversification in Cenozoic mammals2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A classic question in evolutionary biology concerns the tempo and mode of lineage evolution. Considered variously in relation to resource utilization, intrinsic constraints or hierarchic level, the question of how evolutionary change occurs in general has continued to draw the attention of the field for over a century and a half. Here we use the largest species-level phylogeny of Coenozoic fossil mammals (1031 species) ever assembled and their body size estimates, to show that body size and taxonomic diversification rates declined from the origin of placentals towards the present, and very probably correlate to each other. These findings suggest that morphological and taxic diversifications of mammals occurred hierarchically, with major shifts in body size coinciding with the birth of large clades, followed by taxonomic diversification within these newly formed clades. As the clades expanded, rates of taxonomic diversification proceeded independently of phenotypic evolution. Such a dynamic is consistent with the idea, central to the Modern Synthesis, that mammals radiated adaptively, with the filling of adaptive zones following the radiation.

  • 36.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    Richard Stockton College of New Jersey.
    The taxonomic identity of the type specimen of Crocuta sivalensis (Falconer, 1867)2012Ingår i: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 32, s. 1453-1456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    A new genus and species of Felidae (Mammalia) from Rusinga Island, Kenya, with notes on early Felidae of Africa2011Ingår i: Estudios Geologicos, ISSN 0367-0449, E-ISSN 1988-3250, Vol. 67, s. 217-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lower Miocene (Burdigalian) deposits of the Hiwegi Fm., Rusinga Island, Kenya, have yielded a single specimen of a small felid. This specimen, here identified as the holotype of a new genus and species, is of the size of the smallest living Felidae. It shows some features of primitive, “Pseudaelurus-grade” cats, but also features of both morphology and metrics that are intermediate between this grade and modern Felidae, suggesting a transitional taxon. This is in contrast with Diamantofelis and Namafelis from Namibia, which, though aberrant, are more clearly of “Pseudaelurus-grade”. The Rusinga specimen is the most derived felid specimen of the lower Miocene.

  • 38.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Dehghani, Reihaneh
    Carnivora2011Ingår i: Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli, Tanzania: Human Evolution in Context, Volume 2 / [ed] Harrison, T., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, s. 189-232Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the extensive carnivoran fauna of Laetoli on the basis of collections housed in Berlin, London, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam. Members of the Carnivora are known from both the Lower and Upper Laetolil Beds, as well as from the Upper Ndolanya Beds. Of these, the Upper Laetolil Beds are best sampled, and the material includes a minimum of 28 species of Carnivora (four Canidae, three Mustelidae, three Viverridae, six Herpestidae, five Hyaenidae, and seven Felidae). Many of the smaller Carnivora species include complete or partial skeletons and whole, undamaged crania, suggesting rapid burial and absence of trampling and other taphonomic processes that severely affected the more fragmentary larger Carnivora. The Upper Ndolanya Beds Carnivora are preserved in a similar fashion. This stratigraphic unit includes nine to ten species (one Mustelidae, two Herpestidae, one or two Hyaenidae, and five Felidae). All of these are also known from the Upper Laetolil Beds. The Lower Laetolil Beds are less well sampled, with only four species of Carnivora (one Mustelidae, one Herpestidae, and two Hyaenidae). Of these, the mustelid and one hyenid are unique to this stratigraphic unit, while one hyenid is shared with the Upper Laetolil Beds and the herpestid with both the Upper Laetolil Beds and the Upper Ndolanya Beds. Three of the Lower Laetolil Beds Carnivora (all except the herpestid) are partial skeletons, suggesting different depositional or taphonomic conditions at that time, while the presence of an otter in the Lower Laetolil Beds indicates the presence of a large, permanent body of water in the vicinity.

  • 39. Kuhn, Brian F.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Hartstone-Rose, Adam
    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.
    Berger, Lee R.
    Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. e26940-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  • 40. Leakey, Meave G.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Early Pleistocene Mammals of Africa: Background to dispersal2011Ingår i: Out of Africa 1: Who, When and Where? / [ed] Fleagle, J. G., Shea, J. J., Grine, F. & Leakey, R., New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2011, s. 3-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial dispersal of humans out of Africa was a significant event in human evolution raising many questions. Why did this happen at this particular time? Was it part of a major migration of mammals out of Africa and did any species move into Africa at the same time? Were climate and habitat changes taking place that might have been contributing factors? With the advent of culture at 2.6 Ma, hominins moved from the primate to the carnivore feeding niche, thus avoiding constraints that had previously determined their distribution. Here we look at fossil carnivores and cercopithecids for factors that provide a background to this significant event in our evolutionary history and we also look at herbivore diversity as a potential source of prey for meat-eating hominins.

  • 41. Andersson, Ki
    et al.
    Norman, David
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Sabertoothed carnivores and the killing of large prey2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. e24971-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ~10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs.

  • 42.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Bibymalagasia (Mammalia Incertae sedis)2010Ingår i: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa / [ed] Werdelin, L. & Sanders, W. J., Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010, s. 113-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Peigné, Stéphane
    Carnivora2010Ingår i: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa / [ed] Werdelin, L. & Sanders, W. J., Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010, s. 603-657Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 44. Lewis, Margaret E.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Carnivoran dispersal out of Africa during the Early Pleistocene: relevance for hominins?2010Ingår i: Out of Africa 1: Who, When and Where? / [ed] Fleagle, J. G., Shea, J. J., Grine, F. & Leakey, R, New York: Springer, 2010, s. 13-26Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Carnivorans and hominins share a long history of interactions. This paper examines some of the evidence for carnivoran migration out of Africa at the same time as the earliest hominin dispersals. Of the two relevant taxa, Crocuta  and Megantereon , Megantereon  is the focus of this paper due to increased interest in this taxon in recent years and to the nature of the earliest records of dispersal of these two taxa, raising several questions related to Megantereon  and its possible influence on hominins. To answer these questions, a brief summary of the literature on Megantereon  in Eurasia and Africa is provided. While researchers do not agree on the number of species of Megantereon  or the evolutionary relationships among those species, most would agree that Megantereon  is a hypercarnivorous predator capable of grappling with relatively large prey for its body size. Despite the fact that carcasses generated by Megantereon  were probably of value to hominins, the hypotheses that these carcasses were a major source of food or that they were a major force enabling hominins to migrate out of Africa are rejected. As indicated in the literature on extant carnivorans, kleptoparasitism (= food theft) by dominant members of a carnivore guild exacts a heavy price on lower ranking carnivores. In addition, there is nothing in the African fossil record to suggest a special relationship between Megantereon  and hominins that did not exist between hominins and other large-bodied carnivorans. The hypothesis that a species of Megantereon  migrated out of Africa at roughly the same time as early hominins is also considered. While this hypothesis cannot be rejected, alternative hypotheses to explain similarities between later African and Eurasian forms of Megantereon  are proposed (e.g., shared characters are due to convergence or are symplesiomorphies). In the end, the small number of diverse African species (including hominins) who disperse into Eurasia at the Plio- Pleistocene transition may have been part of a sweepstakes dispersal where the factors permitting (or driving) dispersal may have differed from species to species.

  • 45.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Sanders, W. J.
    Cenozoic Mammals of Africa2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Chronology of Neogene mammal localities2010Ingår i: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa / [ed] Werdelin, L. & Sanders, W. J., Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010, s. 27-43Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 47. Wesley-Hunt, Gina D.
    et al.
    Dehghani, Reihaneh
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Comparative ecomorphology and biogeography of Herpestidae and Viverridae (Carnivora)2010Ingår i: Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function / [ed] Goswami, A. & Friscia, A., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, s. 246-268Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki
    Johnson, Warren E.
    O'Brien, Stephen J.
    Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)2010Ingår i: The Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids / [ed] Macdonald, D. M. & Loveridge, A., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, s. 59-82Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Cote, Susanne M.
    Prionogalidae2010Ingår i: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa / [ed] Werdelin, L. & Sanders, W. J., Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010, s. 561-562Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Wesley-Hunt, Gina D.
    The biogeography of carnivore ecomorphology2010Ingår i: Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function / [ed] Goswami, A. & Friscia, A., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, s. 225-245Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
123 1 - 50 av 137
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