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  • 1.
    WERDELIN, LARS
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    DRĂGUŞIN, VIRGIL
    ROBU, MARIUS
    PETCULESCU, ALEXANDRU
    POPESCU, AURELIAN
    CURRAN, SABRINA
    E. TERHUNE, CLAIRE
    CARNIVORA FROM THE EARLY PLEISTOCENE OF GRĂUNCEANU (OLTEŢ RIVER VALLEY, DACIAN BASIN, ROMANIA)2023Ingår i: Rivista italiana di paleontologia e stratigrafia, ISSN 0035-6883, E-ISSN 2039-4942, Vol. 129, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 2. Lyras, George A.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    van der Geer, Bartholomeus G. M.
    van der Geer, Alexandra A. E.
    Fossil brains provide evidence of underwater feeding in early seals2023Ingår i: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Jiangzuo, Qigao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China;Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China;CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China;Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5102, USA.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sanisidro, Oscar
    Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad de Alcalá, GloCEE -Global Change Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Alcalá de Henares 28801, Spain.
    Yang, Rong
    Hezheng Paleozoological Museum, Hezheng 731200, People's Republic of China.
    Fu, Jiao
    Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China;CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.
    Li, Shijie
    Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China;CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.
    Wang, Shiqi
    Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China;CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China.
    Deng, Tao
    Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China;CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China.
    Origin of adaptations to open environments and social behaviour in sabretoothed cats from the northeastern border of the Tibetan Plateau2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 290, nr 1997Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Lyras, G.
    Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Paleoneurology of Carnivora2023Ingår i: Paleoneurology of Amniotes: New Directions in the Study of Fossil Endocasts / [ed] Dozo, M.T., Paulina-Carabajal, A., Macrini, T. & Walsh, S., Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, s. 681-710Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The order Carnivora is one of the most speciose mammalian groups with over 280 living species and well over 1000 known extinct species. Here we present an overview of the evolutionary history of the carnivoran brain drawn from 150 years of palaeoneurological research. We demonstrate that the basic sulcal pattern is similar across living carnivorans, which is as follows. In lateral aspect, the cerebrum consists of convolutions arranged in concentric arcs around the Sylvian sulcus that progressively increase in length. In the dorsal aspect of most living carnivorans, a cruciate sulcus is present at the anterior part of the cerebrum. Fossils of early carnivorans display a small cerebral cortex with limited gyrification. A progressive cortical expansion and a trend towards a more complex gyral pattern can be observed. The surface area of the cerebral cortex expanded independently several times in carnivoran evolution, coinciding with increasingly more complex sulcal patterns. Differences in cortical folding patterns distinguish various families of carnivorans. Somatosensory evolution led to the enlargement and elaboration of certain cortical areas. The evolution from a basal pattern to an array of differences in folding patterns and proportional size differences between cortical areas led to the variation we see today.

  • 5. Hopley, Philip J.
    et al.
    Cerling, Thure E.
    Crété, Lucile
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Mwebi, Ogeto
    Manthi, Fredrick K.
    Leakey, Louise N.
    Stable isotope analysis of carnivores from the Turkana Basin, Kenya: Evidence for temporally-mixed fossil assemblages2023Ingår i: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Stable isotope palaeoecology of fossil mammals is a key research tool for understanding the environmental context of hominin evolution in the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa. Well studied mammal groups include bovids, suids, equids, proboscideans and primates, but to date there has been no in-depth study of modern and fossil carnivores. Here we produce an Africa-wide oxygen and carbon enamel isotope dataset for modern carnivores and compare it with fossil carnivore data sampled from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group of the Turkana Basin, Kenya. Comparison of modern carnivore carbon isotopes with satellite images of land cover indicates that carnivore δ13C is related to the proportion of woody cover in the local environment. Modern carnivore oxygen isotopes are strongly influenced by the δ18O of meteoric water, through drinking from standing water and through prey body fluids. Carbon isotope data from fossil carnivores shows close agreement with palaeovegetation reconstructions from δ13C of palaeosol carbonates from the same geological Members, and a similar long-term trend in δ13C values through time (4 Ma to 1 Ma), reflecting a gradual increase in the proportion of C4 grasses in the Turkana Basin. This increase in the δ13C of large carnivores is consistent with the evidence from other mammalian groups for an increase in the proportion of grazers compared to browsers and mixed feeders during this time interval. Two distinct trends within oxygen versus carbon isotope space indicates that the fossil carnivores lived during two distinct climatic regimes – one in which palaeo-lake Turkana was freshwater, and one in which the lake resembled its modern-day hyperalkaline state. These two climatic states most likely represent the end-members of precessionally-driven rainfall extremes over the Ethiopian Highlands. This indicates that each studied faunal assemblage from the Omo Group is a time- and climate-averaged palimpsest; this has significant implications for the interpretation of environmental signals and community palaeoecology derived from Turkana Basin fossil mammals, including early hominins. 

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  • 6. Žliobaitė, Indrė
    et al.
    Fortelius, Mikael
    Bernor, Raymond L.
    van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.
    Janis, Christine M.
    Lintulaakso, Kari
    Säilä, Laura K.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac
    Croft, Darin A.
    Flynn, Lawrence J.
    Hopkins, Samantha S. B.
    Kaakinen, Anu
    Kordos, László
    Kostopoulos, Dimitris S.
    Pandolfi, Luca
    Rowan, John
    Tesakov, Alexey
    Vislobokova, Innessa
    Zhang, Zhaoqun
    Aiglstorfer, Manuela
    Alba, David M.
    Arnal, Michelle
    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier
    Belmaker, Miriam
    Bilgin, Melike
    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud
    Borths, Matthew R.
    Cooke, Siobhán B.
    van Dam, Jan A.
    Delson, Eric
    Eronen, Jussi T.
    Fox, David
    Friscia, Anthony R.
    Furió, Marc
    Giaourtsakis, Ioannis X.
    Holbrook, Luke
    Hunter, John
    López-Torres, Sergi
    Ludtke, Joshua
    Minwer-Barakat, Raef
    van der Made, Jan
    Mennecart, Bastien
    Pushkina, Diana
    Rook, Lorenzo
    Saarinen, Juha
    Samuels, Joshua X.
    Sanders, William
    Silcox, Mary T.
    Vepsäläinen, Jouni
    The NOW Database of Fossil Mammals2023Ingår i: Evolution of Cenozoic Land Mammal Faunas and Ecosystems: 25 years of the NOW database of fossil mammals, Springer, 2023, s. 33-42Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    NOW (New and Old Worlds) is a global database of fossil mammal occurrences, currently containing around 68,000 locality-species entries. The database spans the last 66 million years, with its primary focus on the last 23 million years. Whereas the database contains records from all continents, the main focus and coverage of the database historically has been on Eurasia. The database includes primarily, but not exclusively, terrestrial mammals. It covers a large part of the currently known mammalian fossil record, focusing on classical and actively researched fossil localities. The database is managed in collaboration with an international advisory board of experts. Rather than a static archive, it emphasizes the continuous integration of new knowledge of the community, data curation, and consistency of scientific interpretations. The database records species occurrences at localities worldwide, as well as ecological characteristics of fossil species, geological contexts of localities and more. The NOW database is primarily used for two purposes: (1) queries about occurrences of particular taxa, their characteristics and properties of localities in the spirit of an encyclopedia; and (2) large scale research and quantitative analyses of evolutionary processes, patterns, reconstructing past environments, as well as interpreting evolutionary contexts. The data are fully open, no logging in or community membership is necessary for using the data for any purpose.

  • 7. Fortelius, Mikael
    et al.
    Agustí, Jordi
    Bernor, Raymond L.
    de Bruijn, Hans
    van Dam, Jan A.
    Damuth, John
    Eronen, Jussi T.
    Evans, Gudrun
    van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.
    Janis, Christine M.
    Jernvall, Jukka
    Kaakinen, Anu
    von Koenigswald, Wighart
    Lintulaakso, Kari
    Liu, Liping
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Ataabadi, Majid Mirzaie
    Mittmann, Hans-Walter
    Pushkina, Diana
    Saarinen, Juha
    Sen, Sevket
    Sova, Susanna
    Säilä, Laura K.
    Tesakov, Alexey
    Vepsäläinen, Jouni
    Viranta, Suvi
    Vislobokova, Innessa
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Zhang, Zhaoqun
    Žliobaitė, Indrė
    The Origin and Early History of NOW as It Happened2023Ingår i: Evolution of Cenozoic Land Mammal Faunas and Ecosystems: 25 years of the NOW database of fossil mammals. / [ed] Casanovas-Vilar, I. et al., Springer, 2023, s. 7-32Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The NOW database of fossil mammals came to be through a confluence of several initiatives spanning multiple decades. The first public version of NOW database was released in 1996 and the first Advisory Board was established the year after. Originally, NOW stood for Neogene of the Old World but with the gradual expansion of the database the acronym was eventually reassigned to stand for New and Old Worlds. The structure of what would become NOW was originally cloned from the ETE database of the Smithsonian Institution and the first NOW version accessible over the internet was a node of the ETE database. The first standalone, online version of NOW was launched in 2005 and the first formal steering group was established in 2009. During its existence, NOW has been funded, directly or indirectly, by several organizations but fundamentally it has always been an unfunded community effort, dependent on voluntary work by the participants.

  • 8.
    Ericson, Per G P
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik.
    Zuccon, Dario
    Larsson, Petter
    Tison, Jean-Luc
    Emslie, Steven D.
    Götherström, Anders
    Hume, Julian P.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
    A 14,000-year-old genome sheds light on the evolution and extinction of a Pleistocene vulture2022Ingår i: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikel-id 857Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Jiangzuo, Qigao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing, 100871, China.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Sun, Yuanlin
    Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing, 100871, China.
    A dwarf sabertooth cat (Felidae: Machairodontinae) from Shanxi, China, and the phylogeny of the sabertooth tribe Machairodontini2022Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 284, s. 107517-107517, artikel-id 107517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tribe Machairodontini is a major lineage of felid sabertooth cats that flourished in the late Cenozoic and included the top predators in the ecosystem of that time. As top predators members of the tribe had a profound influence on the paleoenvironment, yet the evolution and diversification of this tribe are unclear due to a lack of comprehensive revision and phylogenetic study. Here we describe a new dwarfed ecomorph of Machairodontini, Taowu liui gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Pleistocene of northern China,and carry out the best sampled phylogeny of the subfamily to date. Our analyses support that the African Mio-Pleistocene Lokotunjailurus represents an early divergent group, convergent with the Amphimachairodus-Homotheriina lineage in dental traits. The derived Pliocene to Pleistocene subtribe Homotheriina originated in Africa, from Adeilosmilus gen. nov. kabir or very a closely related taxon. Taowu liui gen. et sp. nov. belongs to a sister clade to Homotheriina. The Plio-Pleistocene Homotheriina of theNew World belong to a monophyletic group in which Ischyrosmilus-Xenosmilus show a gradual adaptation to handling slow and powerful prey, whereas the true Homotherium only appeared after theMiddle Pleistocene, in a separate intercontinental dispersal event.

  • 10.
    Lewis, Margaret
    et al.
    Stockton University, USA.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    A revision of the genus Crocuta (Mammalia, Hyaenidae)2022Ingår i: Palaeontographica. Abteilung A, Palaozoologie, Stratigraphie, ISSN 0375-0442, Vol. 322, nr 1-4, s. 1-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Crocuta evolved in Africa no later than 4 Ma and dispersed from that continent between 2.5 and 2 Ma. At its peak in the late Pleistocene, Crocuta had a geographic distribution that encompassed most of the Old World, except for the northernmost parts of Siberia. Herein, we describe new material of Crocuta from Africa, review the fossil record of the genus in the rest of the world, and revise its species-level taxonomy on the basis of metric and morphological data. We conclude that the genus comprises at least seven extinct species in addition to the extant C. crocuta and that the fossil record includes a number of transitional specimens that cannot be classified to species. Extinct African species are C. venustula (synonyms: C. dietrichi, C. dbaa; early Pliocene – early Pleistocene), C. ultra (early – middle Pleistocene), and C. eturono (late Pliocene). Asian species are C. honanensis (early Pleistocene) and C. ultima (middle – late Pleistocene), possibly with an unnamed species in the early Pleistocene of India and Pakistan. European species are C. intermedia (middle Pleistocene) and C. spelaea (middle – late Pleistocene).

  • 11.
    Flink, Therese
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Digital endocasts from two late Eocene carnivores shed light on the evolution of the brain at the origin of Carnivora2022Ingår i: Papers in Paleontology, ISSN 2056 2802, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the brain at the origin of Carnivora remains poorly understood, largely owing to the limited number of cranial endocasts known from Carnivoramorpha and basal crown Carnivora. Here, we use x-ray computed tomography to create digital endocasts of two early carnivores, Quercygale angustidens and Gustafsonia cognita. Quercygale angustidens is generally regarded as the sister taxon to Carnivora and Nimravidae and is thus of great interest to further our understanding of the evolutionary changes that occurred at the origin of Carnivora. Gustafsonia cognita provides a comparison to a contemporary crown carnivoran. We describe the endocasts of these two taxa, placing them in the context of carnivoramorphan phylogeny. Both endocasts preserve the cerebellum in great detail, resulting in a better understanding of the morphology of this part of the brain in early carnivores. Gustafsonia cognita, despite its small size, geological age and basal position, displays a sulcal pattern typical of Amphicyonidae, reaffirming its position within the family. Nimravids; and early carnivorans, such as Gustafsonia cognita, Proailurus lemanensis and Hesperocyon gregarius, have more expanded neocortices than Quercygale angustidens. Current evidence suggests that the increase in gyrification in basal Carnivoramorpha occurred mainly through elongation of existing sulci and entered a new phase at the origin of crown Carnivora. Additional sulci appeared in early members of the order, resulting in distinctive sulcal patterns in the different carnivoran families. Nevertheless, more endocasts of basal carnivorans and carnivoramorphans are needed to better understand the processes driving the evolution of the brain in this group.

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  • 12.
    Rowan, John
    et al.
    Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, Albany, New York, United States.
    Lazagabaster, Ignacio A.
    Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany.
    Campisano, Christopher J.
    Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States.
    Bibi, Faysal
    Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany.
    Bobe, René
    Primate Models for Behavioural Evolution, Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom;Gorongosa National Park, Sofala, Mozambique;Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and Evolution of Human Behavior (ICArEHB), Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud
    Laboratoire Paléontologie Évolution Paléoécosystèmes Paléoprimatologie, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France;Centre Français des Etudes Ethiopiennes (CNRS and Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, Ambassade de France, Ethiopia), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Frost, Stephen R.
    Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States.
    Getachew, Tomas
    Laboratoire Paléontologie Évolution Paléoécosystèmes Paléoprimatologie, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France;Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Gilbert, Christopher C.
    Department of Anthropology, City University of New York, Hunter College, New York, United States;New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP), New York, United States.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    Biology Program, School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Stockton University, Galloway, New Jersey, United States.
    Melaku, Sahleselasie
    Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Paleoanthropology and Paleoenvironment Program, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Scott, Eric
    Cogstone Resource Management Inc, Orange, California, United States;Department of Biology, California State University, San Bernardino, San Bernardino, California, United States.
    Souron, Antoine
    PACEA, Université Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Kimbel, William H.
    Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States.
    Reed, Kaye E.
    Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States.
    Early Pleistocene large mammals from Maka’amitalu, Hadar, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia2022Ingår i: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 10, s. e13210-e13210, artikel-id e13210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Pleistocene was a critical time period in the evolution of eastern African

    mammal faunas, but fossil assemblages sampling this interval are poorly known from

    Ethiopia’s Afar Depression. Field work by the Hadar Research Project in the

    Busidima Formation exposures (~2.7–0.8 Ma) of Hadar in the lower Awash Valley,

    resulted in the recovery of an early Homo maxilla (A.L. 666-1) with associated stone

    tools and fauna from the Maka’amitalu basin in the 1990s. These assemblages are

    dated to ~2.35 Ma by the Bouroukie Tuff 3 (BKT-3). Continued work by the Hadar

    Research Project over the last two decades has greatly expanded the faunal collection.

    Here, we provide a comprehensive account of the Maka’amitalu large mammals

    (Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Primates, and Proboscidea) and discuss

    their paleoecological and biochronological significance. The size of the Maka’amitalu 

    assemblage is small compared to those from the Hadar Formation (3.45–2.95 Ma)

    and Ledi-Geraru (2.8–2.6 Ma) but includes at least 20 taxa. Bovids, suids, and

    Theropithecus are common in terms of both species richness and abundance, whereas

    carnivorans, equids, and megaherbivores are rare. While the taxonomic composition

    of the Maka’amitalu fauna indicates significant species turnover from the Hadar

    Formation and Ledi-Geraru deposits, turnover seems to have occurred at a constant

    rate through time as taxonomic dissimilarity between adjacent fossil assemblages is

    strongly predicted by their age difference. A similar pattern characterizes functional

    ecological turnover, with only subtle changes in dietary proportions, body size

    proportions, and bovid abundances across the composite lower Awash sequence.

    Biochronological comparisons with other sites in eastern Africa suggest that the taxa

    recovered from the Maka’amitalu are broadly consistent with the reported age of the

    BKT-3 tuff. Considering the age of BKT-3 and biochronology, a range of 2.4–1.9 Ma

    is most likely for the faunal assemblage.

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  • 13. Reed, Kaye E.
    et al.
    Kuykendall, Kevin L.
    Herries, Andy I.R.
    Hopley, Philip J.
    Sponheimer, Matt
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Geology, Fauna, and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions of the Makapansgat Limeworks Australopithecus africanus-Bearing Paleo-Cave2022Ingår i: African Palaeoecology and Human Evolution / [ed] Reynolds, S.C. & Bobe, R., Cham: Springer Nature, 2022, s. 66-81Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Makapansgat Valley is located in Limpopo Province, South Africa (Figure 7.1), and is the northernmost of the South African australopithecine fossil sites. Hominin fossils were first recovered there in 1947, but the history and significance of the valley dates to the nineteenth century. The name of the site and valley derives from the Historic, or Gwasa, Cave at the head of the valley, which was the location of a siege in 1854 (Naidoo, 1987; Esterhuysen et al., 2008) on local Ndebele tribespeople by a Boer Commando in retaliation for two massacres – themselves retaliation for raids for ivory and slave labor by the Boer on Ndebele villages. The chief was Mokopane, and the cave became known as “Makapan’s Cave” or -gat in Afrikaans.

  • 14.
    Hopley, Philip J.
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London.
    Cerling, Thure E.
    Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah.
    Crété, Lucile
    Institute for Studies in Landscape and Human Evolution, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Mwebi, Ogeto
    Department of Earth Sciences, National Museums of Kenya.
    Manthi, Fredrick K.
    Department of Zoology, National Museums of Kenya.
    Leakey, Louise N.
    Turkana Basin Institute, P.O. Box 24467, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook.
    Stable isotope analysis of carnivores from the Turkana Basin, Kenya: Evidence for temporally-mixed fossil assemblages2022Ingår i: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 650, s. 12-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable isotope palaeoecology of fossil mammals is a key research tool for understanding the environmental context of hominin evolution in the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa. Well studied mammal groups include bovids, suids, equids, proboscideans and primates, but to date there has been no in-depth study of modern and fossil carnivores. Here we produce an Africa-wide oxygen and carbon enamel isotope dataset for modern carnivores and compare it with fossil carnivore data sampled from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group of the Turkana Basin, Kenya. Comparison of modern carnivore carbon isotopes with satellite images of land cover indicates that carnivore δ13C is related to the proportion of woody cover in the local environment. Modern carnivore oxygen isotopes are strongly influenced by the δ18O of meteoric water, through drinking from standing water and through prey body fluids. Carbon isotope data from fossil carnivores shows close agreement with palaeovegetation reconstructions from δ13C of palaeosol carbonates from the same geological Members, and a similar long-term trend in δ13C values through time (4 Ma to 1 Ma), reflecting a gradual increase in the proportion of C4 grasses in the Turkana Basin. This increase in the δ13C of large carnivores is consistent with the evidence from other mammalian groups for an increase in the proportion of grazers compared to browsers and mixed feeders during this time interval. Two distinct trends within oxygen versus carbon isotope space indicates that the fossil carnivores lived during two distinct climatic regimes – one in which palaeo-lake Turkana was freshwater, and one in which the lake resembled its modern-day hyperalkaline state. These two climatic states most likely represent the end-members of precessionally-driven rainfall extremes over the Ethiopian Highlands. This indicates that each studied faunal assemblage from the Omo Group is a time- and climate-averaged palimpsest; this has significant implications for the interpretation of environmental signals and community palaeoecology derived from Turkana Basin fossil mammals, including early hominins.

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  • 15. Westbury, M.V.
    et al.
    Barnett, R.
    Sandoval-Velasco, M.
    Gower, G.
    Garrett Vieira, F.
    de Manuel, M.
    Hansen, A.J.
    Yamaguchi, N.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Marques-Bonet, T.
    Gilbert, M.T.P.
    Lorenzen, E.D.
    A genomic exploration of the early evolution of extant cats and their sabre-toothed relatives2021Ingår i: Open Research Europe, Vol. 1, nr 25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 16.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    African Barbourofelinae (Mammalia, Nimravidae): A critical review2021Ingår i: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fossil record of Afrosmilini (Nimravidae, Barbourofelinae) in Africa is reviewed. New material from the middle Miocene of Maboko leads to reassessment of the taxonomic allocations of some specimens and reconsideration of the afrosmilin status of others. Afrosmilini includes Jinomrefu lakwanza, Ginsburgsmilus napakensis, Afrosmilus africanus, A. turkanae, and A. hispanicus (Kenya, Uganda, Namibia, and Spain). Other Nimravidae in Africa, Syrtosmilus syrtensis (Libya), Vampyrictis vipera (Tunisia), and unnamed species from Fort Ternan and the Samburu Hills (Kenya) are here not considered Afrosmilini. There is a complete turnover of African Nimravidae between 14.7 Ma (Maboko) and 13.7 Ma (Fort Ternan) and evidence suggests that the new taxa were immigrants from Eurasia. This turnover coincides with the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition although the causal relationship is not yet clarified. 

  • 17. Faurby, S.
    et al.
    Morlo, M.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    CarniFOSS: A database of the body mass of fossil carnivores2021Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 30, s. 1958-1964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation

    Body mass is one of the most important determinants of animal ecology. Unlike other important traits it is also readily inferable from fossils and it is therefore one of the only traits that can be directly analysed and compared between fossil and contemporary communities. Despite this, no comprehensive database of the body mass of larger clades of extinct species exists. Analysis of fossils has therefore been restricted to small clades or to smaller, potentially biased, subsets of species. We here describe CarniFoss, an open-access database of body masses of all 1,322 extinct species of non-pinniped Carnivoramorpha and two related extinct groups of carnivorous mammals, Hyaenodonta and Oxyaenidae.

    Main types of variables contained

    We gathered lengths of teeth of fossil and extant species and body mass for extant species and a few of the best-known fossil species. Following this we estimated body mass for all species through phylogenetic imputation.

    Spatial location and grain

    Global, terrestrial.

    Time period and grain

    We collected data on all known species within the focal groups. The known species all lived in the Palaeogene, Neogene or Quaternary (i.e., the last 66 Myr).

    Major taxa and level of measurement

    We searched for data on reported tooth size of all described species of Carnivoramorpha (excluding pinnipeds) and selected extinct related groups (Hyaenodonta and Oxyaenidae). We combined this with measured body mass for all extant species and inferred body mass based on long-bones for selected extinct species, as well as a species-level phylogeny including all extant and extinct species in the group, and inferred the body mass for all species using phylogenetic imputation.

    Software format

    Data are provided as a series of .csv files, with all metadata in a separate PDF file.

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  • 18.
    Westbury, Michael V
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany;Section for Evolutionary Genomics, The GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Le Duc, Diana
    Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany;Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
    Duchêne, David A
    Section for Evolutionary Genomics, The GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark;Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Krishnan, Arunkumar
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA;Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Berhampur, Odisha, India.
    Prost, Stefan
    LOEWE-Center for Translational Biodiversity Genomics, Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany;South African National Biodiversity Institute, National Zoological Garden, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Rutschmann, Sereina
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Grau, Jose H
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany;Amedes Genetics, amedes Medizinische Dienstleistungen, Berlin, Germany.
    Dalén, Love
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik. Centre for Palaeogenetics, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weyrich, Alexandra
    Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW), Berlin, Germany.
    Norén, Karin
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Dalerum, Fredrik
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;Research Unit of Biodiversity (UO-CSIC-PA), Mieres Campus, University of Oviedo, Mieres, Asturias, Spain;Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Schöneberg, Torsten
    Rudolf Schönheimer Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Leipzig, Germany.
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Ecological Specialization and Evolutionary Reticulation in Extant Hyaenidae2021Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 3884-3897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Miocene, Hyaenidae was a highly diverse family of Carnivora that has since been severely reduced to four species: the bone-cracking spotted, striped, and brown hyenas, and the specialized insectivorous aardwolf. Previous studies investigated the evolutionary histories of the spotted and brown hyenas, but little is known about the remaining two species. Moreover, the genomic underpinnings of scavenging and insectivory, defining traits of the extant species, remain elusive. Here, we generated an aardwolf genome and analyzed it together with the remaining three species to reveal their evolutionary relationships, genomic underpinnings of their scavenging and insectivorous lifestyles, and their respective genetic diversities and demographic histories. High levels of phylogenetic discordance suggest gene flow between the aardwolf lineage and the ancestral brown/striped hyena lineage. Genes related to immunity and digestion in the bone-cracking hyenas and craniofacial development in the aardwolf showed the strongest signals of selection, suggesting putative key adaptations to carrion and termite feeding, respectively. A family-wide expansion in olfactory receptor genes suggests that an acute sense of smell was a key early adaptation. Finally, we report very low levels of genetic diversity within the brown and striped hyenas despite no signs of inbreeding, putatively linked to their similarly slow decline in effective population size over the last ∼2 million years. High levels of genetic diversity and more stable population sizes through time are seen in the spotted hyena and aardwolf. Taken together, our findings highlight how ecological specialization can impact the evolutionary history, demographics, and adaptive genetic changes of an evolutionary lineage.

  • 19. Madurell-Malapeira, Joan
    et al.
    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio
    Aouraghe, Hassan
    Haddoumi, Hamid
    Lucenti, Saverio Bartolini
    Oujaa, Aïcha
    Saladié, Palmira
    Bengamra, Said
    Marín, Juan
    Souhir, Mohamed
    Farkouch, Mourad
    Mhamdi, Hicham
    Aissa, Al Mahdi
    Werdelin, Lars
    Chacón, M. Gema
    Sala-Ramos, Robert
    First small-sized Dinofelis: Evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene of North Africa2021Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 265, s. 107028-107028, artikel-id 107028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20. Madurell-Malapeira, Joan
    et al.
    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio
    Aouraghe, Hassan
    Haddoumi, Hamid
    Lucenti, Saverio Bartolini
    Oujaa, Aïcha
    Saladié, Palmira
    Bengamra, Said
    Marín, Juan
    Souhir, Mohamed
    Farkouch, Mourad
    Mhamdi, Hicham
    Aissa, Al Mahdi
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Chacón, M. Gema
    Sala-Ramos, Robert
    First small-sized Dinofelis: Evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene of North Africa2021Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 265, artikel-id 107028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe small-sized specimens of the metailurine felid Dinofelis from a new Plio-Pleistocene site in North Africa. Dinofelis is a genus of saber-toothed cats mainly recorded from East and South Africa with numerous leopard to jaguar-sized species. The described specimens, clearly smaller than all the other African Dinofelis, resemble isolated remains from the Late Pliocene of France and the Early Pleistocene of Africa. Present evidence suggests that our form represents a new species and/or new lineage of Dinofelis, smaller and probably occupying a different ecological niche compared to the previously known members of the genus, and thus it adds complexity to the high intraspecific competition among large carnivorans in the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa.

  • 21. Perez-Claros, J.
    et al.
    Coca-Ortega, C.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    How many hyenas in North America? A quantitative perspective2021Ingår i: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, artikel-id e1979988Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 22.
    Steinthorsdottir, Margret
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University.
    Coxall, H. K.
    Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden;Department of Geological Sciences Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    de Boer, A. M.
    Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden;Department of Geological Sciences Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Huber, M.
    Department of Earth Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Purdue University West Lafayette IN USA.
    Barbolini, N.
    Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden;Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Bradshaw, C. D.
    The Global Systems Institute University of Exeter Exeter UK;Met Office Hadley Centre Exeter UK.
    Burls, N. J.
    Department of Atmospheric Oceanic and Earth Sciences and the Center for Ocean‐Land‐Atmosphere Studies George Mason University Fairfax, VA USA.
    Feakins, S. J.
    Department of Earth Sciences University of Southern California Los Angeles CA USA.
    Gasson, E.
    School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK.
    Henderiks, J.
    Department of Earth Sciences Uppsala University Uppsala Sweden.
    Holbourn, A. E.
    Institute of Geosciences Christian‐Albrechts‐University Kiel Germany.
    Kiel, S.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden;Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Kohn, M. J.
    Department of Geosciences Boise State University Boise ID USA.
    Knorr, G.
    Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven Germany.
    Kürschner, W. M.
    Department of Geoscience University of Oslo Oslo Norway.
    Lear, C. H.
    School of Earth and Ocean Sciences Cardiff University Cardiff UK.
    Liebrand, D.
    MARUM – Center for Marine and Environmental Sciences University of Bremen Bremen Germany.
    Lunt, D. J.
    School of Geographical Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK.
    Mörs, Thomas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Pearson, P. N.
    School of Earth and Ocean Sciences Cardiff University Cardiff UK.
    Pound, M. J.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne UK.
    Stoll, H.
    Earth Science Department ETH Zürich Zürich Switzerland.
    Strömberg, C. A. E.
    Department of Biology and Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture University of Washington Seattle WA USA.
    The Miocene: The Future of the Past2021Ingår i: Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, ISSN 2572-4517, E-ISSN 2572-4525, Vol. 36, nr 4, artikel-id e2020PA004037Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Miocene epoch (23.03–5.33 Ma) was a time interval of global warmth, relative to today. Continental configurations and mountain topography transitioned toward modern conditions, and many flora and fauna evolved into the same taxa that exist today. Miocene climate was dynamic: long periods of early and late glaciation bracketed a ∼2 Myr greenhouse interval—the Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO). Floras, faunas, ice sheets, precipitation, pCO2, and ocean and atmospheric circulation mostly (but not ubiquitously) covaried with these large changes in climate. With higher temperatures and moderately higher pCO2 (∼400–600 ppm), the MCO has been suggested as a particularly appropriate analog for future climate scenarios, and for assessing the predictive accuracy of numerical climate models—the same models that are used to simulate future climate. Yet, Miocene conditions have proved difficult to reconcile with models. This implies either missing positive feedbacks in the models, a lack of knowledge of past climate forcings, or the need for re-interpretation of proxies, which might mitigate the model-data discrepancy. Our understanding of Miocene climatic, biogeochemical, and oceanic changes on broad spatial and temporal scales is still developing. New records documenting the physical, chemical, and biotic aspects of the Earth system are emerging, and together provide a more comprehensive understanding of this important time interval. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in Miocene climate, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, ice sheet dynamics, and biotic adaptation research as inferred through proxy observations and modeling studies.

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  • 23.
    Flink, Therese
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden;Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden, ,.
    Cote, Susanne
    Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada,.
    Rossie, James B.
    Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, U.S.A.,.
    Kibii, Job M.
    Department of Earth Sciences, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. BOX 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya,.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The neurocranium of Ekweeconfractus amorui gen. et sp. nov. (Hyaenodonta, Mammalia) and the evolution of the brain in some hyaenodontan carnivores2021Ingår i: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 41, nr 2, artikel-id e1927748Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 24.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Kitchener, Andrew C.
    Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, U.K..
    Abramov, Alexei
    Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Veron, Géraldine
    Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, CP 51, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
    Do Linh San, Emmanuel
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.
    The Scientific Name of the Aardwolf is Proteles cristatus2021Ingår i: African Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 2410-7220, Vol. 51, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi. Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kitchener, Andrew C.
    Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, U.K..
    Abramov, Alexei
    Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Veron, Géraldine
    Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, CP 51, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
    Do Linh San, Emmanuel
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.
    The Scientific Name of the Aardwolf is Proteles cristatus2021Ingår i: African Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 2410-7220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26. Faurby, Sören
    et al.
    Silvestro, Daniele
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Brain expansion in early hominins predicts carnivore extinctions in East Africa2020Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 23, s. 537-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems today is evident, it remains unclear if the detrimental

    effect of hominins on co-occurring biodiversity is a recent phenomenon or has also been

    the pattern for earlier hominin species. We test this using the East African carnivore fossil record.

    We analyse the diversity of carnivores over the last four million years and investigate whether any

    decline is related to an increase in hominin cognitive capacity, vegetation changes or climatic

    changes. We find that extinction rates in large carnivores correlate with increased hominin brain

    size and with vegetation changes, but not with precipitation or temperature changes. While temporal

    analyses cannot distinguish between the effects of vegetation changes and hominins, we

    show through spatial analyses of contemporary carnivores in Africa that only hominin causation

    is plausible. Our results suggest that substantial anthropogenic influence on biodiversity started

    millions of years earlier than currently assumed.

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  • 27. Terhune, C.E.
    et al.
    Curran, S.
    Croitor, R.
    Drăgușin, V.
    Petculescu, A.
    Robinson, C.
    Robu, M.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Early Pleistocene fauna of the Olteţ River Valley of Romania: Biochronological and biogeographic implications2020Ingår i: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 553, nr 14-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28. Westbury, V, Michael
    et al.
    Hartmann, Stefanie
    Barlow, Axel
    Prekic, Michaela
    Ridush, Bogdan
    Nagel, Doris
    Rathgeber, Thomas
    Ziegler, Reinhard
    Baryshnikov, Gennady
    Sheng, Guilian
    Ludwig, Arne
    Wiesel, Ingrid
    Dalen, Love
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik.
    Bibi, Faysal
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Heller, Rasmus
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Hyena paleogenomes reveal a complex evolutionary history of cross-continental gene flow between spotted and cave hyena2020Ingår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 6, nr 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Crocuta (African spotted and Eurasian cave hyenas) includes several closely related extinct and extant lineages. The relationships among these lineages, however, are contentious. Through the generation of population-level paleogenomes from late Pleistocene Eurasian cave hyena and genomes from modern African spotted hyena, we reveal the cross-continental evolutionary relationships between these enigmatic hyena lineages. We find a deep divergence (similar to 2.5 Ma) between African and Eurasian Crocuta populations, suggesting that ancestral Crocuta left Africa around the same time as early Homo. Moreover, we find discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies and evidence for bidirectional gene flow between African and Eurasian Crocuta after the lineages split, which may have complicated prior taxonomic classifications. Last, we find a number of introgressed loci that attained high frequencies within the recipient lineage, suggesting some level of adaptive advantage from admixture.

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  • 29. Kitchener, A.C.
    et al.
    Bellemain, E.
    Ding, X.
    Kopatz, A.
    Kutschera, V.E.
    Salomashkina, V.
    Ruiz-García, M.
    Graves, T.
    Hou, Y.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Janke, A.
    Systematics, evolution and genetics of bears2020Ingår i: Bears of the World: Ecology, Conservation, and Management / [ed] Penteriani, V. & Melletti, M., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2020, s. 3-20Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 30. Tseng, Z. Jack
    et al.
    Zazula, Grant
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    First Fossils of Hyenas (Chasmaporthetes, Hyaenidae, Carnivora) from North of the Arctic Circle2019Ingår i: Open Quaternary, Vol. 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The northern region of Beringia is ecologically and biogeographically significant as a corridor for biotic dispersals between the Old and New Worlds. Large mammalian predators from Beringia are exceedingly rare in the fossil record, even though carnivore diversity in the past was much higher than it is in this region at present. Here we report the first fossils of cursorial hyenas, Chasmaporthetes, in Beringia and north of the Arctic Circle. Two isolated teeth recovered in the Old Crow Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada, were identified amongst over 50,000 known fossil mammal specimens recovered from over a century of collecting in the Old Crow Basin. These rare records fill an important intermediary locale in the more than 10,000 km geographic distance between previously known New and Old World records of this lineage. The Pleistocene age of these fossils, together with its Arctic Circle occurrence, necessitate a rethinking of the role of large-bodied hunter-scavengers in Ice Age megafaunas in North America, and the implications of lacking an important energy flow modifier in present day North American food webs.

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  • 31.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Middle Miocene Carnivora and Hyaenodonta from Fort Ternan, western Kenya2019Ingår i: Geodiversitas, ISSN 1280-9659, E-ISSN 1638-9395, Vol. 41, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fort Ternan is a middle Miocene (c. 13.7-13.8 Ma) site famous for its fossils of Kenyapithecus wickeri Leakey, 1962, considered the earliest African hominoid. Herein, the Carnivora and Hyaenodonta from this site are described and placed in their temporal context, showing the middle Miocene to be a time of transition from archaic carnivores of the early Miocene and carnivores of more modern aspect from the late Miocene. Fort Ternan includes: Amphicyonidae represented by ?Myacyon peignei n. sp., a new form distinguished by its hypercarnivorous m1, P4 with large protocone shelf, and M1 with reduced lingual shelf; Barbourofelidae, represented by a derived form; Percrocutidae, represented by abundant material of Percrocuta tobieni Crusafont & Aguirre, 1971; Viverridae, represented by the paradoxurines Kanuites lewisae Dehghani & Werdelin, 2008, and cf. Orangictis Morales & Pickford, 2005, and a putative viverrine; and Hyaenodonta represented by the teratodontine Dissopsalis pyroclasticus Savage, 1965 and a very large hyainailourine. This assemblage is a melange of forms harkening back to the early Miocene (the Hyaenodonta and Amphicyonidae), an evolving, still extant lineage (Viverridae), and more typical late Miocene forms (derived Barbourofelidae and Percrocutidae).

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  • 32. Lyras, George
    et al.
    Giannakopoulou, Aggeliki
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The brain anatomy of an early Miocene felid from Ginn Quarry (Nebraska, USA)2019Ingår i: PalZ, Vol. 93, s. 345-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 33. Adrian, Brent
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Grossman, Aryeh
    New Miocene Carnivora (Mammalia) from Moruorot and Kalodirr, Kenya2018Ingår i: Palaeontologia Electronica, ISSN 1935-3952, E-ISSN 1094-8074, Vol. 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     We describe new carnivoran fossils from Kalodirr and Moruorot, two late Early

    Miocene sites in the Lothidok Formation of West Turkana, Kenya. The fossils include a

    new species of viverrid, Kichechia savagei  sp. nov., a new genus and species of felid,

    Katifelis nightingalei  gen. et sp. nov., and an unidentified musteloid. We also report

    new records of the amphicyonid Cynelos macrodon. These new fossils increase the

    known diversity of African Early Miocene carnivorans and highlight regional differences

    in Africa.

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  • 34.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    McDonald, H. Gregory
    Shaw, Christopher A.
    Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth2018Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 35. Villavicencio, Natalia
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The Casa del Diablo cave (Puno, Peru) and the late Pleistocene demise of megafauna in the Andean Altiplano2018Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 195, s. 21-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Late Quaternary Extinction event South America lost ~83% of all its late Pleistocene megafaunal genera. As in other regions of the world, the debate about the possible drivers behind these extinctions revolves around the role of humans arriving into the continent and on the effect of the climatic changes characteristic of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The availability of precise chronological information, in order to estimate the timing of extinction of the different taxa affected, is critical for solving such debate. Here we present an updated study of the late Pleistocene mammalian deposits from Casa del Diablo Cave (CdD) in the Altiplano of Peru. The study includes an updated list of the mammalian faunas found in the cave and 11 taxon-specific XAD radiocarbon dates from extinct and extant megafauna bones.We compare this new chronology to the timing of major environmental changes and human arrival in the area, as well as with other megafaunal discoveries from the high Andes. The radiocarbon dates from CdD fall in the time window between 23 and 12.8 cal kyr BP. Compared to other records of extinct megafauna in the high Andes, the one from CdD presents in general younger occurrences. No temporal overlap between humans and extinct megafauna emerges from comparing first dates of appearance of humans in the Altiplano, and last appearance dates of extinct megafauna from CdD. However, the possibility of temporal overlap among the records becomes evident when we compare confidence intervals calculated to estimate true times of human arrival and megafaunal local extinctions.

  • 36.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Flink, Therese
    The phylogenetic context of Smilodon2018Ingår i: Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth / [ed] Werdelin, L., McDonald, H.G., Shaw, C.A., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 37. McDonald, H. Gregory
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    The sabertooth cat, Smilodon populator (Carnivora: Felidae), from Cueva de Milodón, Chile2018Ingår i: Smilodon: The Iconic Sabertooth / [ed] Werdelin, L., McDonald, H.G., Shaw, C.A., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    A contextual review of the Carnivora of Kanapoi2017Ingår i: Journal of Human Evolution, ISSN 0047-2484, E-ISSN 1095-8606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Pliocene is a crucial time period in carnivoran evolution. Holarctic carnivoran faunas suffered a turnover event at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This event is also observed in Africa but its onset is later and the process more drawn-out. Kanapoi is one of the earliest faunas in Africa to show evidence of a fauna that is more typical Pliocene than Miocene in character. The taxa recovered from Kanapoi are: Torolutra sp., Enhydriodon (2 species), Genetta sp., Helogale sp., Homotherium sp., Dinofelis petteri, Felis sp., and Parahyaena howelli. Analysis of the broader carnivoran context of which Kanapoi is an example shows that all these taxa are characteristic of Plio-Pleistocene African faunas, rather than Miocene ones. While some are still extant and some went extinct in the Early Pleistocene, P. howelli is unique in both originating and going extinct in the Early Pliocene.

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  • 39. Kitchener, A.C.
    et al.
    Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.
    Eizirik, E.
    Gentry, A.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Wilting, A.
    Yamaguchi, N.
    A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group2017Ingår i: Cat News, ISSN 1027-2992Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

     1. The current classification of the Felidae was reviewed by a panel of 22 experts divided into core, expert and review groups, which make up the Cat Classification Task Force CCTF of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group.

    2. The principal aim of the CCTF was to produce a consensus on a revised classification of the Felidae for use by the IUCN.

    3. Based on current published research, the CCTF has fully revised the classification of the Felidae at the level of genus, species and subspecies.

    4. A novel traffic-light system was developed to indicate certainty of each taxon based on morphological, molecular, biogeographical and other evidence. A concordance of good evidence in the three principal categories was required to strongly support the acceptance of a taxon.

    5. Where disagreements exist among members of the CCTF, these have been highlighted in the accounts for each species. Only further research will be able to answer the potential conflicts in existing data.

    6. A total of 14 genera, 41 species and 80 subspecies are recognised by most members of the CCTF, which is a considerable change from the classification proposed by Wozencraft (2005), the last major revision of the Felidae.

    7. Future areas of taxonomic research have been highlighted in order to answer current areas of uncertainty.

    8. This classification of the Felidae will be reviewed every five years unless a major new piece of research requires a more rapid revision for the conservation benefit of felid species at risk of extinction.

  • 40. Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo
    et al.
    Brown, Francis H.
    Plavcan, Michael J.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Gigantic lion, Panthera leo, from the Pleistocene of Natodomeri, eastern Africa2017Ingår i: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial skull of a lion from Natodomeri, northwest Kenya is described. The Natodomeri sites are correlated with Member I of the Kibish Formation, dated to between 195 ka and ca. 205 ka. The skull is remarkable for its very great size, equivalent to the largest cave lions (Panthera spelaea  [Goldfuss, 1810]) of Pleistocene Eurasia and much larger than any previously known lion from Africa, living or fossil. We hypothesize that this individual represents a previously unknown population or subspecies of lion present in the late Middle and Late Pleistocene of eastern Africa rather than being an indication of climate-driven size increase in lions of that time. This raises questions regarding the extent of our understanding of the pattern and causes of lion evolution in the Late Pleistocene.

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  • 41. Bibi, Faysal
    et al.
    Pante, Michael
    Souron, Antoine
    Stewart, Kathlyn
    Varela, Sara
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud
    Fortelius, Mikael
    Hlusko, Leslea
    Njau, Jackson
    de la Torre, Ignacio
    Paleoecology of the Serengeti during the Oldowan-Acheulean transition at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: The mammal and fish evidence2017Ingår i: Journal of Human Evolution, ISSN 0047-2484, E-ISSN 1095-8606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight years of excavation work by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has produced a rich vertebrate fauna from several sites within Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Study of these as well as recently re-organized collections from Mary Leakey's 1972 HWK EE excavations here provides a synthetic view of the faunal community of Olduvai during Middle Bed II at ~1.7e1.4 Ma, an interval that captures the local transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We expand the faunal list for this interval, name a new bovid species, clarify the evolution of several mammalian lineages, and record new local first and last appearances. Compositions of the fish and large mammal assemblages support previous indications for the dominance of open and seasonal grassland habitats at the margins of an alkaline lake. Fish diversity is low and dominated by cichlids, which indicates strongly saline conditions. The taphonomy of the fish assemblages supports reconstructions of fluctuating lake levels with mass die-offs in evaporating pools. The mammals are dominated by grazing bovids and equids. Habitats remained consistently dry and open throughout the entire Bed II sequence, with no major turnover or paleoecological changes taking place. Rather, wooded and wet habitats had already given way to drier and more open habitats by the top of Bed I, at 1.85e1.80 Ma. This ecological change is close to the age of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition in Kenya and Ethiopia, but precedes the local transition in Middle Bed II. The Middle Bed II largemammal community is much richer in species and includes a much larger number of large-bodied species (>300 kg) than the modern Serengeti. This reflects the severity of Pleistocene extinctions on African large mammals, with the loss of large species fitting a pattern typical of defaunation or ‘downsizing’ by human disturbance. However, trophic network (food web) analyses show that the Middle Bed II communitywas robust, and comparisons with the Serengeti community indicate that the fundamental structure of foodwebs remained intact despite Pleistocene extinctions. The presence of a generalized meateating hominin in the Middle Bed II community would have increased competition among carnivores and vulnerability among herbivores, but the high generality and interconnectedness of the Middle Bed II food web suggests this community was buffered against extinctions caused by trophic interactions.

  • 42. Viranta, Suvi
    et al.
    Atickem, Anagaw
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Stenseth, Nils Christian
    Rediscovering a forgotten canid species2017Ingår i: BMC Zoology, ISSN 2056-3132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The African wolf, for which we herein recognise Canis lupaster Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832 (Symbolae Physicae quae ex Itinere Africam Borealem er Asoam Occidentalem Decas Secunda. Berlin, 1833) as the valid species name (we consider the older name Canis anthus Cuvier, 1820 [Le Chacal de Sénégal, Femelle. In: Geoffroy St.-Hilaire E, Cuvier F, editors. Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères Paris, A. Belin, 1820] a nomen dubium), is a medium-sized canid with wolf-like characters. Because of phenotypic similarity, specimens of African wolf have long been assigned to golden jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758 [Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, 1758]).

    Results

    Here we provide, through rigorous morphological analysis, a species description for this taxonomically overlooked species. Through molecular sequencing we assess its distribution in Africa, which remains uncertain due to confusion regarding possible co-occurrence with the Eurasian golden jackal. Canis lupasterdiffers from all other Canis spp. including the golden jackal in its cranial morphology, while phylogenetically it shows close affinity to the Holarctic grey wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 [Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, 1758]). All sequences generated during this study clustered with African wolf specimens, consistent with previous data for the species.

    Conclusions

    We suggest that the estimated current geographic range of golden jackal in Africa represents the African wolf range. Further research is needed in eastern Egypt, where a hybrid zone between Eurasian golden jackal and African wolf may exist. Our results highlight the need for improved studies of geographic range and population surveys for the taxon, which is classified as ‘least concern’ by the IUCN due to its erroneous identification as golden jackal. As a species exclusively distributed in Africa, investigations of the biology and threats to African wolf are needed.

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  • 43. Vinuesa, Victor
    et al.
    Madurell-Malapeira, Joan
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Robles, Josep M.
    Obradó, Paul
    Alba, David M.
    A New Skull of Hyaenictis Gaudry, 1861 (Carnivora, Hyaenidae) Shows Incipient Adaptations to Durophagy2016Ingår i: Journal of mammalian evolution, ISSN 1064-7554, E-ISSN 1573-7055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 44. Fortelius, Mikael
    et al.
    Žliobaitė, Indre
    Kaya, Ferhat
    Bibi, Faysal
    Bobe, René
    Leakey, Louise
    Leakey, Meave
    Patterson, David
    Rannikko, Janina
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    An ecometric analysis of the fossil mammal record of the Turkana Basin2016Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 371, artikel-id 20150232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ecometric methods have been used to analyse fossil mammal faunas and environments of Eurasia and North America, such methods have not yet been applied to the rich fossil mammal record of eastern Africa. Here we report results from analysis of a combined dataset spanning east and west Turkana from Kenya between 7 and 1 million years ago (Ma). We provide temporally and spatially resolved estimates of temperature and precipitation and discuss their relationship to patterns of faunal change, and propose a new hypothesis to explain the lack of a temperature trend. We suggest that the regionally arid Turkana Basin may between 4 and 2 Ma have acted as a ‘species factory’, generating ecological adaptations in advance of the global trend. We show a persistent difference between the eastern and western sides of the Turkana Basin and suggest that the wetlands of the shallow eastern side could have provided additional humidity to the terrestrial ecosystems. Pending further research, a transient episode of faunal change centred at the time of the KBS Member (1.87–1.53 Ma), may be equally plausibly attributed to climate change or to a top-down ecological cascade initiated by the entry of technologically sophisticated humans.

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  • 45. Kuhn, Brian F.
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Steininger, Christine
    Fossil Hyaenidae from Cooper’s Cave South Africa, and the palaeoenvironmental implications2016Ingår i: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, E-ISSN 1867-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Människans evolution2016Ingår i: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 111, s. 2-10Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Review of The White River Badlands: Geology and Paleontology by Rachel C. Benton, Dennis O. Terry, Jr., Emmett Evanoff, and H. Gregory McDonald2016Ingår i: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, artikel-id e1158720Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48. Kuhn, Brian F.
    et al.
    Hartstone-Rose, Adam
    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.
    Herries, Andrew I. R.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Bamford, Marion K.
    Berger, Lee R.,
    The carnivore guild circa 1.98 million years: biodiversity and implications for the palaeoenvironment at Malapa, South Africa2016Ingår i: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, ISSN 1867-1594, E-ISSN 1867-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49. Faurby, Søren
    et al.
    Werdelin, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    The difference between trivial and scientific names: There were never any true cheetahs in North America2016Ingår i: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 50.
    Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för paleobiologi.
    Lewis, Margaret E.
    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes
    A critical review of African species of Eucyon (Mammalia; Carnivora; Canidae), with a new species from the Pliocene of the Woranso-Mille Area, Afar Region, Ethiopia2015Ingår i: Papers in Palaeontology, ISSN 2056-2799, E-ISSN 2056-2802Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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