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Hidden species diversity and mito-nuclear discordance within the Mediterranean cone snail, Lautoconus ventricosus
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology. (Ulf Jondelius)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7790-0603
Department of Integrative Marine Ecology (EMI), Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, I-80121 Napoli, Italy.
Departamento CMIM y Q. Inorgánica-INBIO, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms (BEOM), Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, I-80121 Napoli, Italy.
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2023 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 186, p. 107838-107838, article id 107838Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Mediterranean cone snail, Lautoconus ventricosus, is currently considered a single species inhabiting the whole Mediterranean basin and the adjacent Atlantic coasts. Yet, no population genetic study has assessed its taxonomic status. Here, we collected 245 individuals from 75 localities throughout the Mediterranean Sea and used cox1 barcodes, complete mitochondrial genomes, and genome skims to test whether L. ventricosus represents a complex of cryptic species. The maximum likelihood phylogeny based on complete mitochondrial genomes recovered six main clades (hereby named blue, brown, green, orange, red, and violet) with sufficient sequence divergence to be considered putative species. On the other hand, phylogenomic analyses based on 437 nuclear genes only recovered four out of the six clades: blue and orange clades were thoroughly mixed and the brown one was not recovered. This mito-nuclear discordance revealed instances of incomplete lineage sorting and introgression, and may have caused important differences in the dating of main cladogenetic events. Species delimitation tests proposed the existence of at least three species: green, violet, and red + blue + orange (i.e., cyan). Green plus cyan (with sympatric distributions) and violet, had West and East Mediterranean distributions, respectively, mostly separated by the Siculo-Tunisian biogeographical barrier. Morphometric analyses of the shell using species hypotheses as factor and shell length as covariate showed that the discrimination power of the studied parameters was only 70.2%, reinforcing the cryptic nature of the uncovered species, and the importance of integrative taxonomic approaches considering morphology, ecology, biogeography, and mitochondrial and nuclear population genetic variation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. Vol. 186, p. 107838-107838, article id 107838
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Zoology Evolutionary Biology Biological Systematics Genetics
Research subject
Diversity of life
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URN: urn:nbn:se:nrm:diva-5277DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2023.107838OAI: oai:DiVA.org:nrm-5277DiVA, id: diva2:1770128
Available from: 2023-06-19 Created: 2023-06-19 Last updated: 2023-06-20Bibliographically approved

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