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  • 1.
    Belkin, Igor
    et al.
    Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, China.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Research Division. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Langhof, Jörgen
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Geology.
    On the discovery of ferromanganese nodules in the world ocean2021In: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a century, the discovery of ferromanganese (Fe–Mn) nodules in the World Ocean was universally and indisputably credited to the Challenger circum-global oceanographic expedition of 1872–1876, during which the first manganese nodules and crusts were dredged up from the sea floor in February–March 1873. A century later, a counterclaim appeared in the literature, crediting Nordenskiöld’s expedition on Sofia in 1868, five years before the Challenger findings, for the discovery of Fe–Mn nodules in the ocean. This counterclaim, widely accepted without scrutiny, was based on the Gustaf Lindström (1884) chemical analysis of a single bottom sediment sample among 14 samples from two Arctic expeditions led by Nordenskiöld:Sofia 1868 and Vega 1878–1880. The Lindström (1884) report published as an eight-page brochure in Swedish remained almost unknown to the research community until now. A close examination of this report and other historical evidence revealed that the counterclaim of discovery by the Sofia 1868 expedition to the Kara Sea is invalid based on three notable facts: (1) Sofia never sailed in the Kara Sea; (2) the single bottom sediment sample with an extremely high content of Mn (24%), was collected in the Kara Sea during the Vega Expedition across the Northeast Passage; (3) the Vega sampling was in 1878, not in 1868. Meanwhile, five and a half years prior to the Vega sampling, the first Fe–Mn nodules and crusts were dredged up from the sea floor on 18 February and March 7, 1873 during the Challenger expedition. These findings have been promptly reported and published in May 1873. Thus, the credit for the discovery of ferromanganese nodules in the World Ocean firmly belongs to the Challenger expedition.

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  • 2.
    Lin, Yi-Tao
    et al.
    Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China.
    Kiel, S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology. Department of Palaeobiology Swedish Museum of Natural History Stockholm Sweden;Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Xu, Ting
    Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, China.
    Qiu, Jian-Wen
    Department of Ocean Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.
    Phylogenetic placement, morphology and gill-associated bacteria of a new genus and species of deep-sea mussel (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolinae) from the South China Sea2022In: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, ISSN 0967-0637, E-ISSN 1879-0119, Vol. 190, p. 103894-103894, article id 103894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mussels in the subfamily Bathymodiolinae are common inhabitants of deep-sea chemosynthetic habitats, but in many places their diversity remains unknown. Here we describe Nypamodiolus samadiae n. gen. et n. sp. (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolinae) based on samples collected from the Haima cold seep in the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analyses based on fragments of three mitochondrial (cox1, 16S rRNA and nad4) and three nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) genes show that this new species belongs to a new genus, Nypamodiolus, which includes three named species (Myrina longissima Thiele and Jaeckel, 1931, Myrina simpsoni Marshall, 1900, Idasola japonica Habe, 1976) and a few undescribed species. Nypamodiolus n. gen. is characterized by small-sized, modioliform to fan-shaped shells with the umbones in a non-terminal position, and by robust anterior and posterior byssal retractor muscles arranged in roughly one plane. Most closely related to Nypamodiolus samadiae n. sp. is an undescribed species from the northern Papua New Guinea, to which it has a Kimura-2-parameter genetic distance of 11.8% for cox1. Sequencing the V3–V4 region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene reveals two dominant gill-associated bacteria in the new species, including one sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria (relative abundance: 43.8–58.8%) and one unclassified Spirochaetes (relative abundance: 23.9–28.1%). Morphologically, N. samadiae n. sp. is similar to N. simpsoni, while can be distinguished by a larger maximum shell size (45.0 mm vs. 40.0 mm), larger length/height ratio (2.6–2.9 vs. 2.1–2.4), broader posterior end, slightly curved dorsal margin, and more anterior umbones.

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