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  • 1.
    Ammar, Yosr
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning. Stockholm University.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning.
    Long-term dataset for contaminants in fish, mussels, and bird eggs from the Baltic Sea2024Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread persistent contaminants are a global environmental problem. In the Baltic Sea, wildlife contamination was first noticed in the 1960s, prompting the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to establish a comprehensive Swedish National Monitoring Programme for Contaminants in Marine Biota (MCoM) in 1978 run by the Swedish Museum of Natural History. Eight species have been analysed, four fish species (Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod, European perch, viviparous eelpout), one bivalve species (blue mussel), and egg from three bird species (common guillemot, common tern, Eurasian oystercatcher). Here, we present a dataset containing MCoM data from its start until 2021. It includes 36 sets of time-series, each analysed for more than 100 contaminants. The longest time-series is for common guillemot and starts in 1968. We describe the structure of MCoM including historic changes to the number of stations, sample treatment, analytical methods, instruments, and laboratories. The MCoM data is available at the Bolin Centre repository and on GitHub through our R package mcomDb. The latter will be updated yearly with new MCoM records.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Pia
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Owen, Kylie
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Determination of a correction factor for C-POD data comparability: Accounting for irregular settings between C-POD deployments2023Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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  • 3.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Soerensen, Anne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Lab intercalibration for chlorinated, brominated,and perfluorinated substances in biota –freshwater and marine monitoring programmes2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 4. Haque, Faiz
    et al.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Awad, Raed
    Spaan, Kyra M
    Lauria, Mélanie Z
    Plassmann, Merle
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in white-tailed sea eagle eggs from Sweden: Temporal trends (1969-2021), spatial variations, fluorine mass balance, and suspect screening2023Ingår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal and spatial trends of 15 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were determined in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eggs (Haliaeetus albicilla) from two inland and two coastal regions of Sweden between 1969 and 2021. PFAS concentrations generally increased from ∼1969 to ∼1990s–2010 (depending on target and site) and thereafter plateaued or declined, with perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) declining faster than most perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The net result was a shift in the PFAS profile from PFOS-dominant in 1969–2010 to an increased prevalence of PFCAs over the last decade. Further, during the entire period higher PFAS concentrations were generally observed in coastal populations, possibly due to differences in diet and/or proximity to more densely populated areas. Fluorine mass balance determination in pooled samples from three of the regions (2019–2021) indicated that target PFAS accounted for the vast majority (i.e. 81–100%) of extractable organic fluorine (EOF). Nevertheless, high resolution mass-spectrometry-based suspect screening identified 55 suspects (31 at a confidence level [CL] of 1–3 and 24 at a CL of 4–5), of which 43 were substances not included in the targeted analysis. Semi-quantification of CL ≤ 2 suspects increased the identified EOF to >90% in coastal samples. In addition to showing the impact of PFAS regulation and phase-out initiatives, this study demonstrates that most extractable organofluorine in WTSE eggs is made up of known (legacy) PFAS, albeit with low levels of novel substances.

  • 5.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Regional tillhörighet vid rumslig insamling av spillningsprover2023Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 6.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Trend detection with non-detects in long-term monitoring, a mixed model approach2023Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 195, nr 6, artikel-id 663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In long-term monitoring of contaminants in biota, a common approach is to use yearly geometric means of measured concentrations in sampled individuals as a basis for trend analysis. When some or all measurements in a particular year are reported as non-detects, it is unclear how to proceed in calculating the yearly mean. I argue that by casting the problem in terms of a mixed model, non-detects can be accounted for using statistical techniques for censored data. The approach is illustrated using data from the Swedish national monitoring programme for contaminants in biota.

  • 7.
    Sköld, Martin
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Åsbrink, Jessica
    Björnpopulationens storlek och utbredning i Sverige 20222023Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 8.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning.
    Ammar, Yosr
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöanalys och -forskning.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs within the Swedish National Monitoring Program for Contaminants in Marine Biota2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Environment and Health Administration, City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Fish tissue conversion factors for mercury, cadmium, lead and nine per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances for use within contaminant monitoring2023Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, s. 159740-159740, artikel-id 159740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish tissue levels have to comply with environmental quality standards (EQSs) within the European Water Framework Directive. However, within monitoring, contaminants are sometimes measured in a different tissue than the tissue for which the environmental (whole fish) or human (fillet (equivalent to muscle tissue)) quality standard is set. Tissue conversion factors (k), describing the relationship between concentrations in different tissues, can be used to obtain a quality standard for the appropriate tissue. Several different approaches have been suggested for the calculation of k. For monitoring purposes, we propose the use of a simple, easy reproducible approach that assumes proportionality between two tissue, or tissue and whole fish, concentrations. This allows for an easy comparison of studies and adoption of ks into independent monitoring programs. Here, we determined ks for three metals (mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd)) and nine per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) across six marine and freshwater fish species from Northern European lakes and the Baltic Sea. We found significant species differences for Hg for kmuscle/whole fish, for Cd and Pb for kliver/whole fish and for Cd for kliver/muscle. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA), we found a chain length dependence with lowest kliver/muscle at low and high chain lengths (C8, C13) and highest for median chain lengths (C9-C12). Further, there were differences between fish species with kliver/muscle for PFOS almost doubling from eelpout (10.3) to herring (19.2) and increasing up to a factor 4 between eelpout and herring for other PFASs. FOSA had two distinctive groups, herring with a kliver/muscle of 48.7 and a second group with ks of 2.3 to 5.9 for all other fish species. Our results suggest that differences in the tissue somatic index, and contaminant uptake, tissue transfer and metabolism result in the need for species-specific ks within monitoring

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 10.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Faxneld, Suzanne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Sköld, Martin
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Converting environmental quality standards for evaluation of fish contaminant monitoring data - tissue conversion factors for mercury, cadmium, lead and selected PFASs2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the report is to produce improved estimates of tissue conversion factors (k) to use within environmental monitoring. The contaminant distribution across a range of marine and freshwater fish species from Northern Europe freshwater and the Baltic Sea was investigated. New tissue conversion factors were established and converted threshold limits (C-EQS or C-QS) for tissues of relevance for monitoring (liver and muscle) presented. We further explored inter-species variability in contaminant distribution, which can result in the need to create species-specific conversion factors. 

                          In this study, we use conversion factors that assumes a proportional relation between two tissue concentrations. We recommend that this method is always used when the aim is to convert between tissue concentrations for monitoring purposes. This will allow for better transparency and allow for easy comparison between studies, something that is made difficult at the moment due to the use of different alternative methods for conversion.

                          Based on the analysis we recommend four new threshold value estimates that can be used within environmental monitoring of fish. For mercury (Hg) we only looked at the kmuscle/whole fish and did not consider liver measurements. We recommend the use of a C-EQSmuscle of 24 ng g-1 ww across all fish species. For cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) we calculated C-QSliver estimates based on conversion from both the QSmuscle-human health and QSwhole fish-sec pois. For Cd, we found significant differences between the two species investigated (herring and perch) as well as ten times higher C-QSliver based on the QSmuscle-human health than the QSwhole fish-sec pois. From a precautionary principle we recommend to use the herring specific k and the QS for secondary poising set for whole fish concentration to set the C-QSliver, which lead to a C-QSliver for Cd of 2.6 μg g-1 ww. For lead (Pb), the liver:muscle dataset was considered less robust than the liver:whole fish dataset. Also, for Pb significant differences were found between k’s in herring and perch. We recommend using a C-QSliver of 0.3 μg g-1 ww for Pb based on perch data. For PFOS we only looked at the kliver/muscle and did not consider whole fish measurements. We recommend the use of a C-EQSliver of 153 ng g-1 ww across all fish species despite some differences in k between the six species included in the estimate. For all contaminants, more data on additional fish species and data on the same species but better distributed between marine and freshwater environments (for species living in both like perch) is needed to elucidate the need for species specific and environment specific thresholds. In addition, more observations with concentrations close to the thresholds are needed for Cd and Pb to bring down the uncertainty on the QSliver estimates, which are currently, based on extrapolation of values more than a factor ten below the thresholds.

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