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  • 1.
    Berger, Michelle L.
    et al.
    Shaw Institute.
    Shaw, Susan D.
    Shaw Institute.
    Rolsky, Charles B.
    Shaw Institute.
    Chen, Da
    Sun, Jiachen
    Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu
    Grønlands Naturinstitut.
    Granquist, Sandra Magdalena
    Simon, Malene
    Grønlands Klimaforskningscenter.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Roos, Anna Maria
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Alternative and legacy flame retardants in marine mammals from three northern ocean regions2023In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 335, p. 122255-122255, article id 122255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flame retardants are globally distributed contaminants that have been linked to negative health effects in humans and wildlife. As top predators, marine mammals bioaccumulate flame retardants and other contaminants in their tissues which is one of many human-imposed factors threatening population health. While some flame retardants, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), have been banned because of known toxicity and environmental persistence, limited data exist on the presence and distribution of current-use alternative flame retardants in marine mammals from many industrialized and remote regions of the world. Therefore, this study measured 44 legacy and alternative flame retardants in nine marine mammal species from three ocean regions: the Northwest Atlantic, the Arctic, and the Baltic allowing for regional, species, age, body condition, temporal, and tissue comparisons to help understand global patterns. PBDE concentrations were 100–1000 times higher than the alternative brominated flame retardants (altBFRs) and Dechloranes. 2,2′,4,5,5′-pentabromobiphenyl (BB-101) and hexabromobenzene (HBBZ) were the predominant altBFRs, while Dechlorane-602 was the predominant Dechlorane. This manuscript also reports only the second detection of hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) in marine mammals. The NW Atlantic had the highest PBDE concentrations followed by the Baltic and Arctic which reflects greater historical use of PBDEs in North America compared to Europe and greater industrialization of North America and Baltic countries compared to the Arctic. Regional patterns for other compounds were more complicated, and there were significant interactions among species, regions, body condition and age class. Lipid-normalized PBDE concentrations in harbor seal liver and blubber were similar, but HBBZ and many Dechloranes had higher concentrations in liver, indicating factors other than lipid dynamics affect the distribution of these compounds. The health implications of contamination by this mixture of compounds are of concern and require further research.

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  • 2. Coward, Andrew
    et al.
    Mays, Chris
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology.
    Patti, Antonio
    Stilwell, Jeffrey
    O’Dell, Luke
    Viegas, Pedro
    Taphonomy and chemotaxonomy of Eocene amber from southeastern Australia2018In: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 118, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amber is a complex, organic polymer that offers unparalleled utility as a preservation medium, providing insights into past organisms and environments. However, under specific circumstances, this information can be compromised through alteration of the amber structure. Understanding the degradation of amber in the geosphere could improve prospecting techniques and maximise the quality and validity of chemical information from altered samples. This study analysed 114 amber samples retrieved from two new Eocene Australian deposits at Strahan, Tasmania and Anglesea, Victoria using a combination of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and solid-state 13C cross-polarised magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results identified both Class Ib polylabdanoid and Class II cadinene-based amber. The presence of Class II amber in Australia suggests one of two possibilities: (1) a local Dipterocarpaceae source, the primary producer of Class II resins, despite the absence of this family from the Australian Eocene fossil record; or (2) a local, unidentified botanical source of cadinene-based amber. A third alternative, that Class II amber was transported to Australia from Southeast Asia via ocean currents, is rejected. Taphonomic analysis revealed four mechanisms of alteration prevalent in amber across the two study regions, with evidence of oxidation and metal carboxylate formation. Both the nature and extent of these alterations were found to vary significantly between classes I and II, suggesting that amber class may play a defining role in determining the chemical pathways by which amber degrades. Of note was the high proportion of amber that exhibited no significant chemical changes despite extensive visible alteration features, suggesting the integrity of palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information in these samples may be preserved.

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  • 3. Gebbink, Wouter A
    et al.
    Bignert, Anders
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Berger, Urs
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish.

  • 4.
    Li, Zhong-Min
    et al.
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12237, United States.
    Roos, Anna Maria
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental Monitoring and Research. Department of Environmental Monitoring and Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm SE-10405, Sweden.
    Serfass, Thomas L.
    Department of Biology and Natural Resources, Frostburg State University, Frostburg, Maryland 21532, United States.
    Lee, Conner
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12237, United States.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12237, United States.
    Concentrations of 45 Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in North American River Otters (Lontra canadensis) from West Virginia, USA2024In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 2089-2101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) aretop predators in riverine ecosystems and are vulnerable to per- andpolyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure. Little is known aboutthe magnitude of exposure and tissue distribution of PFAS in riverotters. We measured 45 PFAS in various tissues of 42 river otterscollected from several watersheds in the state of West Virginia,USA. The median concentrations of ΣAll (sum concentration of45 PFAS) varied among tissues in the following decreasing order:liver (931 ng/g wet weight) > bile > pancreas > lung > kidney >blood > brain > muscle. Perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs) were thepredominant compounds accounting for 58−75% of the totalconcentrations, followed by perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs;21−35%). 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (8:2 FTS), 10:2 FTS, and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate were frequentlyfound in the liver (50−90%) and bile (96−100%), whereas hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) was rarely found.The hepatic concentrations of ΣAll in river otters collected downstream of a fluoropolymer production facility located along theOhio River were 2-fold higher than those in other watersheds. The median whole body burden of ΣAll was calculated to be 1580μg. PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in whole blood of some river otters exceeded the human toxicityreference values, which warrant further studies.

  • 5.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    PFAS i utter från Norrbotten2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Roos, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    ACES Stockholms Universitet.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå Universitet.
    Miljögifter i utter från Sverige2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 7.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Environmental research and monitoring. Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roos, Anna M.
    Greenland Climate Research Center, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland;Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, 104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simon, Malene
    Greenland Climate Research Center, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland.
    Strid, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins Have Reached the Arctic2021In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 753-759Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 7 of 7
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